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IJy Karl Emicii Count xv LEiNiNGKN-Wh-STERiiURG, 

Prussian Captain ofHorse (reliretl); Hon. Member of 

the "HistorisclierVcreinder ?falz'' of the "Verein 

'HcroUl'" (Berlin), of the " Hernliiischer 

Verein cier Schweiz," and of ihe German 

" Kxlibris- Verein " ; Hon. Vice-1'rc- 

sidentofthcKnjilish "Exiibris 

/ >. 



.1 ^ 



'rman Book-plates 

An Illustrated Handbook of 
German & Austrian Exlibris 

By Karl Emich Count zu 

!j.^j^_ ^Translated by 
G. Ravenscrotl Dennis 








ondon : George Bell & Sons, York Street 
tovent Garden, & New York. mdcccui 

TV , c v Hi^ 

( :AY 24 I'Jul 

I I 

InUrfalia fniclus} 

H E present volume is intended as a com- 
panion to the handbooks already pub- 
lished in this seriea on English. French, 
American, and Ladies' Book-plates, It 
was originally undertaken by Dr. H. Pallmann, of 
Munich; but, in the summer of i8gg, he found 
himself unable to carry out his project, owing to 
the pressure of other historical works, and the 
publishers then entrusted the volume to me. As 
my collection of exlibris is the largest on the 
Continent, numbering over 20,000 examples, of 
which nearly 10,000 are German, old and new, 
and as I have already written a good deal on the 
subject in various artistic periodicals in Germany, 
I hope I may have succeeded, in the following 
' ' ' _ a comprehensive survey of the 
.btory of German book-plates. 
The illustrations are mostly reproduced from 
examples in my own collection, only a few having 
been taken from other sources. It was, indeed, 
unnecessary to draw on other collections to any 
tent, since those of Warnecke in Berlin. Von 

^Kextent, si 


' A motto often found on exlibris. 

vi Preface 

Berlepsch at Wolfenbiittel, and the Booksellers' 
Association at Leipzig have been thoroughly illus- 
trated in volumes already published, and the other 
collections in the country do not contain many ex- 
libris of importance which are not also in my 
possession, some few unique plates only excepted. 

As far as possible I have avoided illustrating 
plates which have been frequently reproduced else- 
where, though an exception has been made in the 
case of some unique and more than usually inter- 
esting exlibris ; it must also be remembered that 
this book is intended primarily for English readers, 
to whom German exlibris literature is not so access- 
ible as to Germans. 

It is necessary to state here, at the outset, that 
no attempt is made to provide complete lists of all 
German exlibris, but only of the most important, 
which, however, are given as fully as space will 

At the request of the publishers, Swiss book- 
plates have been omitted, as they have already 
been dealt with exhaustively in Gerster's monu- 
mental volume on ** Die Schweizerischen Biblio- 
thekzeichen " ; the present handbook, therefore, 
includes only German and the nearly allied Austrian 
exlibris. Alsatian book-plates are mentioned when 
they date either from the old or the modern period 
of German possession, and plates of the French 
time are included when they bear German names 
or are the work of German engravers. 

As I have referred constantly to the German 
*' Exlibris-Zeitschrift," which will be found a rich 
mine of information and illustration for those who 

Preface vii 

wish for fuller details on many points, I have made 
use of the abbreviation " E. L. Z." 

Besides the volumes mentioned in the Biblio- 
graphy (p. 497) and at the beginning of the 
chapter on Heraldry (p. 16), the following books 
of reference may be mentioned : 

Dr. G. K. Nagler, " Neues Allgemeines Kiinst- 
lerlexicon" (Munich, 1835-52). 

H. W. Singer, " Allgemeines Kiinstlerlexicon " 
(Frankfurt-on-Main, 1895-1900). 

R. von Retberg, " Durers Kupferstiche und 
Holzschnitte" (Munich, 1871). 

H. S. Schmid. " Kunststilunterscheidung " 
(Munich, 1897). 

Dr. M. Heimbucher, " Die Orden und Kongre- 
gationen der Katholischen Kirche " (Paderborn, 
1 896). 

I am indebted for much kind information and 
help to the Royal Library (Munich), the Royal 
Print Room (Munich), and also to Dr. H.Pallmann 
(Munich), Herr Guido von Volckamer (Munich), 
Herr K. Burger(Leipzig), Herr K. Koch (Vienna), 
and Mr. F. J. Thairlwall (London). I must also 
tender my best thanks to all those who have 
kindly placed cliches at my disposal ; and to Mr. 
G. Ravenscroft Dennis for the pains he has taken 
to produce a faithful translation of the work, 

I shall always be ready to give any information 
in my power with regard to German or other ex- 

K. E. Count zu Leiningen-Westerburc. 

Villa Ma^da, 
Neupasing, Munich. 


My best thanks are due to my friend Mr. 
Carnegy Johnson, Chairman of Council of the 
Exlibris Society, for his kindness in reading the 
proofs. It is hardly necessary to add that the 
book has been translated and produced under 
the close supervision of the author. 

G. R. D. 


I Introduction 

Nomenclature, 2 ; superexlibris,4; autograph 
inscriptinns,6; useofan exlibris, 6; signed and 
dated plates, 7-8. 


pHAi'TEk I, Methods or Reproduction . . . 
Hand-painted exlibris, the woodcut, i ; en- 
graving on copper and etching, I 1 : steel en- 
graving, 13; lithography, 13 ; modern proces^ies, 

UAPTER II. German and English Heraldrv 
Points of difference (the crest, 17 ; forms of 
shields, 18; position and number of helmets, 
18-20 : supporters, 21; badges, 21; crowns and 
coronets, 22-28J ; the chief styles in armorial 
design, 2S-32 ; the shield, 32 ; the helmet, 33 
crest, 33 ; wreath, crest -coronet, and lambrequin, 
34; supporters, 36; coronets of degree. 3O 
banners, 37 ; origin of heraldry, iy ; house- 
marks, 37 ; tinctures, 37-36 ; diapering, 
canting arms, 38 ; monograms, 38 ; arms of the 
German Artists' Guild. 39. 

A. Name of owner, 40 ; B. Phrases of book- 

X Contents 


possession, 41 ; C, Directions for the return of 
the volume, 44; D, Warnings and Cautions, 
45 ; £. Threats, 46 ; F, Maxims, epigrams, and 
verses, 49 ; G, Mottoes and devices, 50 ; H. 
Initial letters, 51; /. Date, 58 ; K. Signature of 
engraver or designer, 59 ; Z. Abbreviations of 
titles, 62 ; M, Abbreviated words, 62 ; N. 
Linked letters, 62. 

Chapter IV. Sizes of Exlibris 65 

Largest book-plates known : A. Old hand- 
coloured plates, 6i5 ; B. Old printed plates, 66; 

C. Modern plates, 6j ; the smallest exlibris, 

Chapter V. Varieties 69 

A, Varieties of size, 69 ; B, Varieties of 
design, 72 ; C. Varieties of engraving, 78 ; 

D. Varieties of names, coats of arms, etc., 80 ; 

E. Varieties of colour and paper, 91. 

Chapter VI. Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Centuries 92 

A, Earliest German exlibris, 94 ; B. Earliest 
dated exlibris, 103 ; C. Exlibris by Albrecht 
Diirer, 103; Z?. Exlibris from Diirer's studio 
or school, 109 ; E, Exlibris of Nuremberg 
little masters of Diirer's school, 115; F. Other 
exlibris of the sixteenth century by known 
artists, 122 ; G, Sixteenth-century exlibris by 
unknown artists, 138. 

Chapter VII. The Seventeenth Century . 154 

A, Known exlibris artists, 155 ; B, Less 
known and less important engravers, 172 ; C, 
Unsigned exlibris by unknown artists, 182. 

Contents xi 


CHy\PTER VIll. The Eighteenth Century 193 

A. Heraldic exiibris (other than rococo and 
allegorica! plates), 193; n. engravers, 195; b, 
unsigned plates, 202. 

B. Rococo, 214; a. engravers, 215; h. un- 
signed plates, 230. 

C. All^orical and miscellaneous exiibris, 
236 ; a. engravers, 240; b. unsigned plates, 261. 

D. Library interiors, 267; <i. engravers, 269: 
d. unsigned plates, 278. 

Chapter IX. Ecclesiastical Exlirris from 

the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth 

Century 280 

A. Engravers of ecclesiastical exiibris, 281 ; 
B. Exiibris of monasteries, 287 ; C. Exiibris of 
ecclesiastics, 324 ; D. Typographical exiibris 
of monasteries and ecclesiastics, 340. 

Chapter X. The Nineteenth Century : 

1800-1871 . 343 

A. Designers and engravers, 347 ; B. Un- 
signed plates, 350. 

Chapter XI. Modern Exlibris; 1871-1901 . 356 

A. Heraldic exiibris (with arms only), 361 ; 
a. designers, 363 ; b. unsigned plates, 383. 

B. Non-heraldic exiibris, 384;'rt. designers 
389 ; b. unsigned exiibris, 438. 

C. Typographical labels, 439. 


fi) Double exiibris 441 

(2) Memorial and gift exiibris 44^ 

xii Contents 


(3) Complimentary exiibris 444 

(4) Historical exiibris 444 

(5) Exiibris of the " Reichsritterschaft " ... 448 

(6) Exiibris of sovereigns and princes. . . . 449 

(7) Exiibris of famous or well-known people . 456 

(8) Exiibris of public libraries 461 

(9) Military exiibris 465 

(10) Portrait exiibris 467 

(11) Monogram exiibris 475 

(12) Universal exiibris 474 

(13) Exiibris of actors, actresses, and musicians 476 

(14) Children's exiibris 477 

(is) Ladies' exiibris 479 

(16) Musical and landscape exiibris 481 

(17) Miscellaneous 483 

(18) Notaries' signets and visiting cards . . . 485 


(i) German exlibris-co! lections 488 

(2) The arrangement of a collection .... 493 

(3) The German Kxlibris Society and Journal 495 

(4) Miscellaneous 496 

(5) Bibliography 497 

Conclusion : The choice of a book-plate ... 503 

SuiijKCT Index 505 

Index of ENOkAViius and Di£S[(;Nr:Rs ... 523 

3 Brandenbu 

:. {circa 1470). 
BooK-Pi.ATE or jAKOii Hainr[chmann, Prebendary of 

Augsburg {cirna 1 jio). Facsimile in colours .... 10 
Book-plate ok thk Monasterv of Chiemske {circa 
^^ 1637). By L. Kilian. Primed from the original copper- 
^^ plate 168 

Hr i>S93). Facsimile in colours, by permission of J. A. Stnr- 

^V^ tt^rdt, Berlin 40a 

HBook-platk of Paul VoriiT. Byhimself (1898). Printed 
^K from Ihe original copperplate 407 



lUpcrexlibris of Peter Vok 

V011 Rosenberg (160S] . ; 
Heraldic plnie. Drawn by 

AJ. M. Hildebrandt . 2; 
Dr. Georg Seefried, by tt^. 
■" Kilian (two varieties), (c 

*■ 1650) 29-30 

rhriMophonis H lerony- ' 

i nitis Kress von Kressen- j 

L Mein (<-. 1650) ... 35 I 

Monaster)- of St. Maurice, 
* Nicderaltaich (163]] . 39 
■sity of Tubingen {t. ' 

11560) 5' I 

htus Kapsser (double ex- ' 

pibris), (1560) . . . 52, 53 

Christian A. Cugel von 
Brand, by y. Amiiuin 

k- 1583) 

Johann Hebenstreil (1613) 
Seyfried Plinzingvon Hen- 

fenfeld, by M. Ziimll 


Johann Wilhelm Kress von 

Krcssenstein (c. r6;o> . 
Georg Ruprecht (c. mo} . 
Adam Birkner(tf. 1740) 
Reusch (r, 1757) .... 
Christof Kress von Kress- 

enstein {afttr 1 530) . . 
Johann Baptist Zeyll, by 

P. Off I {Ii92) ■ ■ ■ ■ 


List of Illustrations 


Johann Dernschwam de 
Hradiczin {c. 1568), 
(three varieties) . 73, 74, 75 

Albert Kirchmayer, by J. 
P. P. Rauschmayr {c, 
1790) 81 

Gottlieb Ettling, by J, A, 
Fn'drich {17 . ,) ... 84 

D. Chr. August Stolzer {c, 
1800) 85 

Oscar von Hase, by Z. 
Nicper{iZ7^) .... 89 

K. E. Count zu Leiningen- 
Westerburg, by E. Krahl 
(1893) 90 

Heinrich Toebing(6-. 1498) 93 

Anonymous exlibris {c. 

1495-1500) 99 

Anonymous exlibris (c. 

1495-1500) 100 

Heyberger (^. 1500) . . loi 
Willibald Pirckheimer, by 

Diirer {before 1503) . . 104 
Michael Behaim von 

Schvvarzbach, by Diirer 

{c. 1509) 105 

Lazarus Spengler, hy Diirer 

(1515) 107 

Hector Pomer (School of 

Diirer)^ (1525) .... no 
Hector Pomer (School of 

Diirer\{c. 1521) . . . 112 
Sebastian von Rotenhan 

(School of Diirer)^ 

(1518) 113 

Hieronymus Baumgartner, 

by Bar the I Beham (e. 

1 530) 116 

Hans Sebald Beham, by 

himself (1544) . . . . 117 
Wolfgang Count Palatine 

of Veldenz and Duke of 

Bavaria, by Virgil Soils 

kc 1559) 119 

Veit August Holzschuher, 
by J. A mman ( 1 580) . 1 20 


Johann Jakob Miirtz, byy. 

Amman {c. 1590). . . 121 
Dr. Johann Eck, by H. 

Sprinjaiftklee (?), (f . 1 5 1 8) 1 24 
C. G. Tengler, by H. 

S prill ginkleei^\ (r. 1 5 1 6) 125 
Georg Tannstetter, by H. 

Springinklee (?), {pefore 

1 5 16) 126 

Municipal Library of Om- 

gau (Oehringen), by L. 

Cranach {c. i^'^6'42t) ' • 128 
University Library of Wit- 
tenberg, by Z,. Cranach 

{c. 1536) 129 

Hans (or Fritz) Stromer, 
by CAr. Slimmer {c. 

1575) 131 

Willibald Pirckheimer, by 

7.^.(1529) 133 

Count Trapp, by T. H, V. B, 

(1569) 135 

Heinrich Vogtherr, by him- 
self (r. 1537) .... 136 
Wolf Christof von Enzes- 

torf, by M. Rota (1575). 137 

(1521) . 139 

Johann Gremper (^. 1525) 140 
Reinhard Count zu Leinin- 

gen-Westerburg(^. 1 530) 141 
Dr. Mcitthias Biechner (r. 

1542) 142 

Wolfgang Seidl (1543). . 143 

Isaac Jeger (1553) . . . 145 
Helmhardt Jorger Freiherr 

zu Toller (1571) • • • 146 
Wolfgang Andreas Rem 

von Ketz (1588) ... 147 
Sebastian Millner von 

Zwairaden (1579) . . 148 

Dr. Karl Agricola (1588) . 149 
Johann Hektorzumjungen 

{c. 1590) 150 

Seitz (15 . .) 151 

Georg Hehvich (15 . .) . . 152 

List of Illustrations 

\on Ulrich, 

{c. 1600, 1614) .... 
GeorgRehm,by:tf. Ulrich, 

(f. "600) 

Johann WiEhdm Kressvon 


scktl i^\b\ti) 

Veil August Holzschuher, 

hy H.Sibmai:her(c. 1600) 
Electoral Library,Miinich, 

by R. Sadeler (c. 1623) . 
Arnold \on Reyger, by £. 

Sai/eUr {1604) .... 
Johann von Liskirchen, by 

Cr. van den Passe {c. 


Johann Georg Von Wer- 

denstei n, by D. Cuslos {c. 


Wilhelm and Clara Kress 

von Kressenstein, by A'. 

Cus/os (1645) .... 
Ptiniing-GKindlach, by A. 

Kkol(c. 1650) .... 
Sigmund von Birken, byy. 

von Sandrart (c. 1 670) . 
Georg ChristofVolckamer, 

by D. Kriiger ( 1674) 
Freiherr von Landsee, by 

H. Fickwirn(\b . .). . 
Pomer, by /. G. F. D. 


Electoral Library, .Munich 

(l^vo varieties), (1618) 175. 
Johann Christof von En- 

gelshofen (1623) . . . 
Erhard von Muckenthal 


Christof Fiirer von Hal- 

mendorf {[641). . . . 
johann Christof Wolfskeel 


Pomer {1648) 

Hans Martin LoHelholz (1:. 


Scheurl (16. .) . . . . 

Georg Schr6der(r6 . .) 
Kittershaus (16...) . . . 
Georg Christof Holt- 
schuher (1660) .... 
Balthasar von Ldwenfeld 


Ur, Johann Georg Siarck- 

mann(r6..) .... 
Johann Christof Wagen- 

Mil (16 . . ) 

Konrad Franz Keibdt (f. 

1600) ....... 

Eucharius Gottlieb Kink 

if. 1692) 

Electoral Library, Munich, 

by/. M. Siieiler (ijjsi) ■ 
Heinrich Christof von Och- 

senstein, by J/. Riisslci- 


Frau von Jeelie, by.i. T. 

Gericke {IT . .) . . . . 
Count Cobenil, by /. A. 

Schmuzer (\-] . .) . . . 
John William Uuke of 

Saxe-Eisenach {c. 1723) 
Ambrosius Count of Vir- 

iiiontandNersen(i\ 17 to) 
Aloys Count von Harrach 

('■- 1710) 

Philip Prince of Lobko- 

witz, Duke of Sagan {c. 


Franz Ludivig Anton Frei- 
herr von Lerchenfeld- 

Prennberg {17 . .) 
F. \V. Jtalbach von Gastel 


Johann Leonhard von 

Behr(f. 1718) .... 
Christof Franz Josef von 


Von Kraflt (17 ..)... 
Achilles Augustus Lersner 


Count Palatine Lauhn (1^. 



List of Illustrations 

IJartholomeus Jakob 
Neuss, by /.• E, Nilson 


Johann Reiss, by J. E. 

Nilson (1756) . . . . 
Erhard Riedlin, by /. A, 

Fridrich {c. 1750). . . 
Countess Fugger, by/. E. 

Belling {c. 1750) . . . 
Josef Ferdinand Maria 

Count von Salem {c. 


City of Kaufbeuern, by 

C, F. Honnann von 

Gutenberg {c. 1740) . . 
Bergbibliothek, Gliicks- 

brunn, by /. H, Meil 


Hieronymus Scholtz, by 

y. B. Strachou'sky ( 1 780) 
Hieronymus Max von 

Giindcrode, hyj. Stricd- 

beck (17 . .) 

Jakob Friedemann, Count 

von Werthern {c. 1765) . 
Karl Otto Freiherr von 

Gyinnich (c. 1770) . . 
Anonymous exlibris (? 

Schiitz von Pfeilstadt), 

{c. 1770) 

Johann Daniel Schopflin 

(r. 1765) ...... 

Karl Werner Curtius (r. 


G. H. A. Koch (r. 1770) . 
Thomas Heinrich Gade- 

busch (r. 1770). . . . 
Oriental Academy, Vienna 

{c. \77S) 

Alois Welfinger (1775). . 
Georg Wilhclm PViedrich 

Loftelholz von Kolberg 

(^•. 1775) 

Andreas Christof Imanuel 

Seidel (r. 1770). . . . 

Augbbui"g. • Evangelical 











3 '52 




College, by Z. M, Stein- 

berger{c. 1760) . . . 
Franz Josef Fidel Bren- 

tano, by/. G, Thelot {c. 


Alfons Kennedy, by Count 

von La Rosie (c. 1769) . 
Johann David Kohler, by 

Martin Tyroff{c, 1730) 
Lothar Friedrich Adam 

Freiherr von Liitzerode, 

by/. F. Volckart {i7<) .) 
Johann Josef Reuss, by 

y. G. von Mailer (1779) 
Franz Kern, called Hum- 

ser, by J. F. Beer (c. 


Friedrich Karl von Moser, 

by H. Contgen (c. 1765) 
Kathchen Schonkopf, by 

y. IV, von Goethe ( 1 767 ) 
Weller, byy M. Bernige- 

roth {c. 1760) . . ." . 
Karl Benjamin Lengnich, 

by K. L. Crusius (17 . .) 
Luise Gottsched, byy. J/. 

Stock (r. 1750) . . . . 
Daniel Chodowiecki, by 

himself (1777) . . . . 
Alexander Meyer, byy. IV. 

Meil {c. 1795) . . . . 
Johann Heinrich Samuel 

Formey,byy E. Gericke 

{c. 1760) 

Jamerai du Val, by J. C. 

Wiftckler {c. 1750) . . 
Royal Prussian Customs 

and Admiralty Court, 

Konigsberg, by W, P, 

Kilian {c. 1726) . . . 
Josef Paul Edler von 

Cobres (r. 1782) . . . 
Johann Peter Cerroni (c, 


J. L. Schmucker {c. 1785) 

Ferdinand Reichsedler 














List of Illustrations 

von Hosson, by B. I. 

We^ss {c. 1780) ... 271 
Heinrich Braun, by J. M. 

Sockleric 770) ... 272 
Dr. JoLinn Christof 

Harrer. by/ ff. /^wrfwA 

(c. [767) .... 373 

Johann Michael von Loen, 

hy P.FehrUl^^] . . 275 
Monaster)' of Chiemsee, by 

ir. A7////« 11654.). . - 282 
Monaster? of Tegernsee, 

by C. J. Slenglin 

<"7a>) 283 

iMonasiery of Seeon, by 

J. C. Schmischeck {1634) 285 
Monastery of Te(;emsee(c. 

'5S6) 288 

Monastery of Wesso- 

brunn, by / E. Belling 

('7 - ■) 290 

Monastery of Benedikt- 

beuern (15 . .) . . . . 293 
Monastery of Mallersdorf, 

hy Afayr (17 . .) ... 394 
Monastery of St. Blaise 

<'7--) 295 

\i. M..SchnockvonKiede- 

rich, Abbot of Eberbach 

("7-) 297 

Monastery of Monchsroth, 

hy J. H.Sloi-ilm {17 ..) 298 
Monastery of Ursperg 

('7..) 29y 

Monastery of Weisenau, 

('■ "568) 300 

Monastery of Oberzell-on- 

Main(i75.) .... 301 
Monastery of Sayn, by 

£". G. (c. 1775)- ... 302 
Monastery of Schlogl 

(1698) 303 

Monastery of Diessen, by 

A, SckoH (1755) . . , 304 
Monastery of Hiigelworth, 

('72S) 305 


Monastery of Polling, by 

F. X.Jungwirtk (1744) 306 
Monastery of Wengen 

(1785) 307 

Jlonasteryof Regensburg, 

\>y J.A.Friiirich (17 . .) 309 
Monastery of the Jesuits 
at Main;; gift-plate of 
Daniel Brcndel von 
MohenburgOS 8t- ■ ■ 3'5 
Teuiimic Order, Com- 
mandery of Linz ; gift- 
plate of Count von Har- 

rach (t6 . .) 316 

Collegiate Church of St. 

Teier. Fril/I;ir ( ' ' 
Monastery for 

Buchau (r7 . .). . . . 

Kryfifrsllichcs Stift (ind 

Regulhaus, Innsbruck 


I Benediki Gangenrieder, 
1 Abbot of Thierhaupten 
I (1587) ...... 

J. E. von Knoringen, 
I Bishop of Augsburg (r. 


! Dr. Otto Gercon von Gut- 
I mann, SufTragan Hjshop 
I of Cologne 624) . . 
I Sebastian Denich, Bishop 
I of Almira (1673) .... 

Sigismund von KoUonit*. 
I Cardinal -Archbishop of 
1 Vienna (f. 1730) ■ - ■ 
Gottfried Langwcrt von 
I Simmern (r72R) ... 
Josef Klcmens Duke of 
' Bavaria, Elector-Arch- 
bishop of Cologne {1". 

1710) . 
Klemens Wenicl Duke of 

Sa\onv. Klector-Arch- 

bishop of Trier (f. 1785I 
Jesuits' College, Wiirz- 

burg (1-. 1634) .... 



List of Illustrations 



Hans Hiibner, byy. Hiib- 

«^r(i868) 349 

Bemhard (Freiherr von) 

Kohne (18 . .) . • . . 353 
Exlibris-Verein, Berlin, by 
Ad. M, Hildebrandt 


Count Karl Emich and 

CountessMagdazu Lein- 


Doepler^ junr. ( 1 899) . 

OttoHaak,byG.C?//<;(i898) 367 

Oskar Roick, by himself 


Arthur von Osterroth, by 

O. Hitpp {iZgs) . . . 
Freiherr von Lipperheide, 

hy K. Rtckeit {\^9^) . . 
Simon Moritz Freiherr von 

Beth man n, by K. L. 

Becker ( 1 889) .... 
Heraldic Society ''Adler," 

hy E.Krahli^iZZ-]) . . 
Lydia Freifrau von Ster- 

neck, by H, G. Strohl^ 


K. E. Count zu Leiningen- 

Westerburg, hyA. Frei- 
herr von Folkersam 


Alfred Freiherr von Dach- 

enhausen, by Alexander 

Freiherr von Dachen- 

hausen (1900) .... 
Eduard Lorenz Meyer, by 

himself (1894) .... 
Frau Philippine Kuhn, by 

^M. Ester I e (1899) . . 
Dr. Georg Hirth, by /. 

Diez (1899) 392 

Frau Margarethe Strauss, 

by B. Pankok ( 1 899) 393 

Alois Balmer, by himself 

(1899) 394 

Franz Xaver Zettler, by .^. 

Pacher {i^()o) . . . . 395 









Rudolf Oldenbourg, by M. 

y, Grad/ (iSgS) ... 397 
Otto Eckmann, by himself 

(1898) 399 

Max Hinterlach, by F. 

Voigt{\Z<)%) .... 403 
Walther von Zur Westen, 

by K, Schdnberger{ 1 899 ) 405 
Willibald Franke, by G. 

Bar/ostus (iS<)g) . . . 407 
August Rasor, by //. 

Thoma (1898) .... 409 
Klara and Eduard von 

Gebhardt, by E. von 

Gebhardt {\Zq7) . . . 411 
Siegmund Hinrichsen, by 

U. Schwindrazheim 

{c. 1892) 415 

Alfred Heymel, by H. 

yo^e/er (iSqg) . . . . 419 
HugoSchmid,by-5. IVenig 

(1899) 421 

Brunegger Bibliothek, by 

W. VV. Sturtzkopt ( 1 897) 423 
Dr. K. G. Bockenheimer, 

by CL Kissel {i%()o) . . 424 
Max Klinger, by himself 

(1896) 427 

Dr. VV. Erhardt, by O. 

Greiner {iSgg) . . . . 428 
Gustav Drobner, by //. 

Feldmann (1897) . . . 429 
Konrad Burger, byZ. /?//r- 

.^t'r(i898) ..... 430 
Dr. Hanns Loschnigg, by 

D. Pauluzzi ( 1 898) . . 432 
R. M. Rilke, by E. Orlik 

(1897) 433 

Magda Countess zu Lein- 

ingen-Westerburg, by 

E. L. Meyer {iZ^6) . . 437 
Dr. Friedrich Wolf, by 

himself (1862) .... 440 
Bibliotheca Palatina, by R. 

Sadeler {\ 621) . . . . 445 
William 11., German Em- 

List of Illustrations 

peror, by E. Doepler, 
y««r. (1896) .... 45' ■ 

Klemens August, Elector- 
Archbishop of Cologne, 
by R. H. tU Brockis 
C1760) 453 

Konrad Peutinger(i5t6) . 457 

Otto Prince Bismarck, by I 

Lina Burger {\%iii) . . 459 

Historical Society of the 
Palatinate, Spires, by (4i/. 
M. Hildebrandt {i^ij . 465 

Dr. Gcot^ Hobsinger 
("539) 469 

Johann Venniizer, by G. 
D. Heumann ( 1 730) - . 47 1 

UniversalBook-plate(i489) 475 

Children's Uook- plate. Wal- 
ler, Hildegard and Gotz 
Ituderus von Carlshau- 
sen, by /■. I'ciif/ (1897). 

Alice Meyer, by E. L. 
Meyer {\%^l) .... 

Caecilie Wolbrandt, by A", 
Wolbrandt {\^^%) . ■ 

Warmholtz (f. 1790) 

Notary's Signet, W. 
(16..) . . . . 






|H E interest in Exlibris which has 
sprung up within the last twenty-five 
I years has developed with extraordin- 
I ary vigour. The last ten years have 
been specially rich in results, and the movement 
includes in its historical and literary bearings, 
France. England, Germany, Austria. Sweden. 
America. Holland, Italy, and Switzerland. The 
custom of asserting ownership in books by means 
of a book-plate originated in Germany more than 
four hundred years ago, and the revival of a 
usage once so familiar would seem to justify a 
somewhat detailed inquiry into the origin and 
history of this ancient practice. The inquiry, 
it will be seen, is intimately connected with the 
history of art and literature during the last four 

Many of those who nowadays adopt an exlibris. 


2 German Book-plates 

are content to copy one belonging to a friend, 
or some design which they may have seen in a 
magazine, and are wholly unaware that they are 
following an old usage, established by their fore- 
fathers in the fifteenth century, and justified of 
continued existence by its useful as well. as artistic 
character. It cannot be expected that the rapid in- 
crease in the number of book-plate owners during 
recent years will be maintained when the fashion 
has run its course, as all fashions must. At the 
same time it is impossible to doubt that so useful 
a custom, having once again come into vogue, will 
continue as long as books and private libraries 

The correct German expressions for these plates 
are : 

(i) Bibliothekzeiche7i (library label), an expres- 
sion which explains itself. It i^ a literal transla- 
tion of the words signtun bibliotheccc which occur 
on book-plates of the eighteenth century (see 
that of Magister Christian Gottlieb Steinberg, 
Breslau, 1762). The word appears for the first 
time in literature about the year 1840, in the diary 
of a soldier who fought in the wars of German 
Independence (1813-15). It is also used exclu- 
sively by Heinrich Lempertz the elder, the first 
German writer on book-plates (1853-65). 

The word Biicherzeichen (book-label) which is 
often used, is a modern and inexact term, frequently 
confused with Buchzeichen, the book-marker placed 
in a book to keep the place. All writers on the 
subject of any note now use only the words Biblio- 
thekzeichen or 

Introduction 3 

(2) Exlibris. This expression is derived from 
the common inscription on book-plates **Ex Libris'' 
(with the owner s name in the genitive case) . . . 
" from the books of** . . . ** one of the books of/' 
This short and practical designation — transferred 
from the book itself to the label of ownership — has 
now become international, and occurs in the titles 
of the three exlibris societies, English, German, 
and French. 

(3) For the sake of completeness we may men- 
tion the old German expression, Buch-Almer, 
which appears on plates of the family of Von Hase 
in Leipzig. Aimer is derived from armariunty 
meaning a book-case — an "intellectual armory*' 
— the word most frequently used for the mediaeval 

In England the expressions in use are " exlibris " 
and ** book-plates," though possibly ** library labels*' 
would be more correct; in French, " exlibris " and 
" marques de possession ** or **de bibliotheque *'; in 
Dutch,** exlibris," **boekmerken,'* and **bibliotheek- 

Exlibris must not be confused with the alle- 
gorical or armorial ** printers* marks** or ** pub- 
lishers* marks," which are found on the title- 
page or at the end of a book, and are the trade 

* In earlier times we read of book-collectors providing them- 
selves with "Wappen" (coats of arms) or **Kupfer" (copper- 
plates). Hans Imhof, in his **Theatrum virtutis et honoris 
Oder Tugendbiichlein Willibald Pirckheimers," 1606, speaks of 
having " ein schones emblema " made and engraved, which he 
"inserted at the beginning and end of many of his books." 
This plate is signed **J.B. 1529" (see ** Exlibris-Zeitschrift," 
vol. v., p. 43). 

4 German Book-plates 

marks of the firms which issue or print the 
volume ; nor with the small printed labels some- 
times found in the upper or lower corner of the 
inside of the cover, either at the beginning or the 
end, which merely give the name of the binder or 
the bookseller. 

On the other hand, what are called "Super- 
exlibris " ^ must be reckoned among exlibris. 
Superexlibris are the heraldic or other designs of 
a personal character, stamped in gold, colour, or 
blind tooling, on the outside of a binding in order 
to designate ownership. The old superexlibris 
are not as a rule so interesting artistically as many 
of the early book-plates. In Germany the best 
period of book-binding was in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, but the French have excelled 
in these **reliures" or **fer de reliures" from the 
sixteenth century to the present time. 

A good example, here reproduced, is the super- 
exlibris of Peter Vok von Rosenberg (1608). It 
shows the owner in armour with the armorial bear- 
ings on his breastplate and the rose for a crest. 

These binding stamps are, however, not always 
marks of ownership {e,g,, in the sixteenth century). 
Often, especially in bindings of Leipzig origin, the 
leather covers were decorated with portraits and 
arms of distinguished princes (^.^., the Elector of 
Saxony) or contemporaries (Luther, etc.), the 
metal stamps being kept in stock and used for 
ornamentation as required. Such stamps, of 

^ Or " Superlibros," as they are usually called in England. 
Both designations are sufficiently barbarous, but no better 
have been suggested at present. 

Inirodtiction 5 

Icourse, are merely decorative designs, and not 
1 superexlibris proper. 

A curious method of marking ownership was 

^^\ '^ 


used in the sixteenth century at Rostock, Four 
examples are known ' in which the names are 
engraved on the metal clasps of the covers. This 


Exlibris'Zeitschrift," vol iv., pp. 6 and 8 

6 German Book-plates 

fashion does not appear to have spread beyond 

Autograph inscriptions are found as early as 
the fourteenth century ; as a rule, however, they 
have no particular interest, except when they dis- 
play the signature of some well-known historical 
character, or are tricked out with decorated initials 
or coats of arms 

The use of an exlibris is obvious. In the first 
place it is intended as a safeguard — that is to say, 
a book-plate fixed in a volume gives documentary 
evidence of its rightful owner. Borrowers of 
books are frequently forgetful, and men who for 
purposes of study or for other reasons borrow 
largely from friends may easily forget to whom 
a particular volume belongs. Moreover, stolen or 
lost books may be recovered on the evidence of 
the book-plate, so long as it is not removed, and 
returned to their owners. 

It is needless to add — though this is often 
neglected — that it is of the utmost importance 
that the 7iame of the owner should be on every 
plate, and not merely a design of a general char- 
acter, or an anonymous coat of arms. The owner's 
name on the book-plate is the best guarantee of 
the safety of the book. 

The exlibris, however, is not merely useful,' but 
serves as an ornament to the book. Every book- 
lover will prefer to have in each volume an artistic 
label of a personal character, rather than a badly- 
written signature or the blurred impression of an 
india-rubber stamp. This latter, indeed, may be 

Introduction 7 

convenient for a municipal library of ten or a 
hundred thousand volumes, but is not fitted for a 
private collection which will rarely exceed a few 
thousand. A book-plate which is specially designed 
according to the wishes of the owner, will reflect 
his tastes and his character, and associate him 
closely with his books. Moreover, the interest of 
such an association will descend to his relations 
or friends who may afterwards inherit the library. 
There is a personal quality, an intimity, about such 
a mark of possession which, even after a long 
period of time, brings the owner near to us, and 
gives us an insight into his temperament, his tastes 
and his studies. 

To insure that a book-plate shall be a thing of 
beauty and an ornament to the volumes in which 
it is fixed, it is essential that the design be 
carried out by a competent artist. If intrusted 
to an inexperienced amateur, who, with the best 
intentions, has neither the technical ability nor the 
artistic feeling necessary for the work, the result 
will be incorrect drawing, overcrowding, bad com- 
position, and general failure. 

Signed plates, i.e., such as bear the name or 
monogram of the artist or engraver, will always be 
more prized by the collector than those which 
have no signature and can only be identified by 
guess-work or by comparison with other plates of 
a similar character. Signed plates, which afford a 
certain proof of authorship, are, especially if they 
bear the signature of a well-known artist, not only 
of more commercial value, but also, it may be 
assumed, of higher artistic merit. 

8 German Book-plates 

I n the same way dated plates are more sought 
after than undated. For, although the expert, 
who has made a special study of the styles of 
different periods, may be able to assign almost 
any plate to its correct date, within ten or twenty 
years, yet the ordinary collector will find the pro- 
cess difficult; and in any case it is more satis- 
factory to have a certain and authentic proof 
of date, than to deduce it by reasoning or con- 

The position of the book-plate in a volume 
varies. It is usually placed on the inside of the 
cover, in front or occasionally at the end of the 
book. Double exlibris are sometimes found in 
both places. Other positions are the fly-leaf, or 
the back of the title-page, where the book-plate is 
sometimes printed, either from a woodblock or 
copperplate. Sometimes again it is bound into 
the volume as a separate plate. 

What remains to be said on the subject of 
German exlibris will be found in the following 
chapters, to which the reader may, therefore, be 




•■•> I?? \. 





IH K original mark of possession in books, 
representing the later Exlibris. was (be- 
sides the usual autograph) the owner's 
coat of arms, painted in the volume by 
This method, practicable only so long as 
books were few in number, was superseded, after 
the invention of printing by johann Gutenberg, 
of Mainz (cirm 1450). by the woodcut. The art 
-of wood-engraving was known among the Chinese 
Las early as the tenth century, and it was prac- 
tised in Germany in the fourteenth century. The 
earliest dated example is the "St. Christopher" 
of 1423, but the woodcut did not attain importance 
until the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and 
its highest artistic perfection was reached at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century under Albrecht 
Diirer. As a rule the artist handed over his 
design, drawn on the wood, to be carried out by a 

lo German Book-plates 

professional engraver, though frequently the block 
would be cut by the designer himself. The wood- 
cut remains to this day one of the most satisfactory 
methods of reproduction, as it presents a clean 
flowing line, with strong outlines, while at the 
same time the engraver is able to reproduce with 
the utmost fidelity the quality of the original 
drawing on the wood, and the style and character- 
istics of the artist. 

The most important names in connection with 
wood-engraving as applied to book-plates are 
those of Albrecht Diirer, Hans Holbein, Lucas 
Cranach, Hans Burgkmair, Hans Baldung Griin, 
the Englishman Bewick (the inventor of modern 
wood-engraving), and, to come to recent times, 
Ludwig Richter and Hugo Btlrkner. 

Woodcut exlibris were usually printed in black, 
less often in brown. They are also to be met 
with — especially in Germany — coloured by hand, 
sometimes roughly and carelessly, sometimes with 
care and artistic feeling. Wood-engraving was 
used for book-plates most frequently in the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, but many recent exlibris 
have been produced by this method.^ 

^ A large number of fine old woodcut exlibris, superbly re- 
produced both in colour and black and white, are to be found 
in the pages of the German " Exlibris-Zeitschrift " vols, i.-xi., e,g,y 
(vol. ii. 2) Radigunda Gossenbrot, nee Eggenberger {circa 1502) ; 
(vol. ii. 3), Christof Scheurl {circa 1500), and Wiguleus Hundt 
von Lauterpach (1556); (vol. iii. i) Johannes Ras of Koester 
(1491); Propst Georg von Heiligkreuz, Augsburg (1567); (vol. 
iii. 2) Tannstetter {circa 1485) ; (vol. iii. 4) Vitus Tuthsenhauser 
(1542); (vol. iv. 3)W. Hering (1536), and K. Peutinger (1516); 
(vol. V. I and 4) Melchior Vatli, Suffragan Bishop of Constance 


V' .- . 

" . fc^^r • •■' 

•' X- 


AUciSHURG (r/>ra 1520). ^\-* 

Methods of Reproduction 1 1 

A good example is here reproduced from the 
author's collection : Jakob Hainrichmann, Pre- 
bendary of Augsburg, circa 1520. This vigorous 
and accurately coloured woodcut displays the 
owner s coat of arms, with the letters ** S. M. C," 
representing his motto, ** Spes 7nea Christus!' 

After the woodcut, the most important methods 
of reproduction are engraving on copper and 
ETCHING, which have been dangerous rivals of 
wood-engraving since the early part of the six- 
teenth century, as they admit of much greater 
fineness and delicacy of execution. 

The art of engraving Ox\ copper was discovered 
in the south-west of Germany about 1440, and the 
earliest known dated print (not a book-plate) bears 
the date 1446. Of the ** little masters'* who ap- 
plied this art to the production of book-plates the 
most prominent are Albrecht Durer, and Barthel 
and Hans Sebald Beham ; ^ after them come Virgil 
Solis, Jost Amman, H. Ullrich, H. Troschel, M. 
Ziindt, A, Khol, Dominic and Jakob Gustos, the 
Sadelers, Hans Sibmacher, J. E. Ridinger, the 
Kilians, and later G. D, Heumann, J. E. Nilson, 

(1529); Joh. Stabius {circa 1530); K. Kentmann (1552); 
(vol. V. 2) Augsburger Stadtbibliothek (circa 1530); (vol. v. 3) 
Bishop Urban of Gurk (1572); (vol. v. 4) Bishop Hugo of 
Constance {circa 1520) ; (vol. vi. 3) Hector Pomer (circa 1520) ; 
(vol. vii. 4) J. C. Scherb (1598) ; (vol. viii. 3) M. Pfintzing the 
elder (1548); (vol. viii. 4) D. Byrgl (r/rra 1560); (vol. x. i) 
E. Vend (1567). 

' The influence of the German masters — Diirer, Beham, 
Aldegrever, Virgil Solis, and others — may be clearly seen in the 
work of Mr. C. W. Sherborn, the most distinguished engraver 
of book-plates in England. Mr. G. W. Eve has also learnt 
much from the same source. 

12 German Book-plates 

M. Bernigeroth, J. W. Meil, J. Striedbeck, D. 
Chodowiecki, the Contgens, the Fridrichs, M. 
Tyroff, J. G. von M tiller, till we come, in the present 
day, to W. Unger, C. L. Becker, M. Gube, P. 
Halm, Max Klinger, Otto Greiner,and H.Vogeler. 
The copperplate flourished along with the wood- 
cut in the sixteenth century, and during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, though it had 
passed its prime from the artistic point of view, it 
was used for book-plates almost exclusively. In 
the early part of the nineteenth century also 
copper-engraving was much used, but there was 
a distinct falling off both in the number of plates 
engraved and in the quality of the work. After 
1 87 1, when there was a general revival in all 
the arts, the copperplate and etching again came 
to the front, and, though they have met with serious 
competition from the cheap modern photographic 
processes, a considerable number of fine plates 
have been engraved in recent years. In this 
respect Germany is surpassed by England and 
America in quantity only.^ 

^ The " Exlibris-Zeitschrift " has published a large number 
of old plates printed from the original copperplates, e.^., (vol. 
vi. 4) H. Baumgartner, by Barthel Beham (circa 1530); (vol. 
iv. 4) Haller von Raitenbuch (circa 1600); (vol. iii. 4) G. S. 
Coler, the elder (r/mz 161 7), and his son (1643); (vol. iv. i) 
M. (lerum (circa 1640) ; (vol. v. 3) S. von Birken (circa 1670) ; 
(vol. V. 4) PVanz PVeiherr von Nesselrode (1695); (vol. iv. i) 
J. M. von Stallburg (circa 1719) ; (vol. vi. 3) the Monastery of 
Raigern, 1784, etc. Many of the best modern engraved and 
etched exlibris also appear in the same pages, printed from the 
original plates, <?.^., (vol. iii. 4) C. L. Becker, by himself 
(1893) ; (vol. iii. 3) Adolf and Albertine Bachofen von Echt, by 
C. L. Becker (1889 and 1893); (vol. iv. 2 and 3) eight plates 

Methods of Reproduction 1 3 

The allied art of engraving on steel seems to 
have been used very seldom for book-plates, and 
the only other fine art to be mentioned here is 
LITHOGRAPHY, the art of printing from stone. Dis- 
covered by Senefelder at Munich, at the end of 
the eighteenth century, artistic lithography has 
been brought to a high pitch of perfection in 
Germany chiefly by the efforts of Dr. C. Wolf and 
Son, printers to the Court and University at 
Munich, and C. A. Starke of Gorlitz, and is being 
employed more and more for the production of 

At the present time all the modern photographic 
methods of reproduction are being used for ex- 

the ** HALF-TONE " proccss, and commonest of all, 


Besides the above methods, some recent ex- 
periments may be mentioned. Thus the exlibris 
may be printed direct on the inside of the cover 
or end paper of the book by means of cut stencil- 
plates. A series of exlibris has been carried out 
in this manner by Ernst Berger, of Munich [see 
" Exlibris-Zeitschrift," vol. viii. 2), and more re- 
cently (1899) Anna vonWahl has employed stencils 
for book-plates of members of her family.* 

of the Government Printing Office in Berlin, by P. Voigt 
(1894) ; (vol. vii. i) W. Bode, by Max Klinger (1897); (vol. 
ix. i) W. Felsing, by F. Stassen (1898) ; and (vol. ix. 4) Helene 
Schiissler, by Ludwig Kiihn (1899). 

* A number of designs for stencilled plates by Miss Waldron 
were reproduced in "Dekorative Kunst," Munich, vol. i. 2, 
p. 87. 

1 4 German Book-plates 

The earliest stencilled book-plates known to me 
are ( i ) a plate printed in black and red, ** E. Hardy, 
J. N. L./' dated 1747; (2) one in green and red, 
of French or Swiss origin (eighteenth century), 
Dr. G. J. de Bridoul ; and (3) an ** exlibris Duche," 
also French, circa 1770. 

We may mention also some experiments made 
by the well-known painter Hans Thoma, of Frank- 
furt,^ and Otto Kohler, of Berlin, with algraphv, 
an art allied to lithography, the drawing being 
made on a plate of aluminium instead of on stone. 
Similar experiments have been made with zinc 
plates by Miss M. Fiedler, of Dresden, and even 
with glass by O. Schwindrazheim, of Hamburg. 

It is impossible to give here any further technical 
details concerning the various methods of repro- 
duction named, from the woodcut to the zinc 
block. Information on the subject may be found 
in any handbook, and it is only necessary to say 
here that, for the reproduction of book-plates, the 
copperplate is the most expensive, and the zinc 
block the cheapest. The ten volumes of the ** Ex- 
libris- Zeitschrift" give numerous examples of all 
methods of reproduction, and the illustrations in 
the present volume itself will give sufficient material 
for comparison. 

For the sake of completeness, it may further be 
noticed that in Germany in the seventeenth, and 
in England in the eighteenth century, cases have 
been found, where the owner has impressed his 
seal into a book, either with a wafer or even with 

* Now Director of the Art Gallery at Karlsruhe. 

Methods of Reproduction 1 5 

sealing wax. The reason for this must usually 
have been the want of a proper book-plate, but in 
one case at least (a German exlibris, ** J. F. J. D/* 
eighteenth century) the seal is found alongside of 
the heraldic book-plate, engraved on copper. The 
owner no doubt thought thereby to render the 
proof of property still more conclusive. Fortun- 
ately this unpractical and ugly custom has not 
become usual. 

We find also black prints from iron plates 
(seventeenth century) and black or blue prints 
from brass stamps, the precursors of our india- 
rubber stamps. Indeed the metal dies made for 
stamping in gold upon leather bindings have 
been printed in black on paper and stuck into 
books {e.g., Erhart Voit, Abbot of Kremsmlinster, 
1587). Such stamps, whether of metal or india- 
rubber, are, however, as a rule inartistic, and 
lacking in beauty and clearness. Finally the die 
stamps of our own time may be mentioned, which 
are stamped into the end paper with a punch and 
stand out like a stamped address on note paper : 
e.g., Dom Pedro August, Prince of Sachs-Coburg- 
Gotha {circa 1892), coronet with inscription. Or 
the die is stamped on small square labels which 
are then fixed in the book, e.g., F. Berg, 1900, in 
blue on white and gold on white. 


VERY large proportion of Germa/ 
book-plates from the fifteenth century 
to the present time display armoria 

bearings, and it is necessarj' therefoo 

to devote some space to German heraldry. 

Heraldry probably had its origin in Francci 
where it reached a high pitch of development. 
What now remains of it in that country is but a 
shadow of the beautiful heraldic art applied to 
seals and coats of arms in the Middle Ages. .And 
although at the present time, in spite of the re- 
publican form of government, the French take i 
remarkable pleasure in armorial bearings, yet \ 
the drawing of coats of arms, old or new, so many 
mistakes are made, and styles, periods, and cen,* 
turies so mingled together, that only in very ex- 

' Authorities consulted: Professor Aii. M. Hildebrandt^ 
" ^Vappenfibel " ; V. \Varnecke and Professor E. Docplet 
" Heraldisches Handbuch"; H- O- Strohl's "HeraldJschi 
Atlas " and the samt author's article in " Kunst und Kunstham 
werk" (Vienna, 1899, ii. 7). 

German and English Heraldry 1 7 

ceptional cases does it appear that any attention is 
paid to the fundamental laws of heraldry. One of 
the chief causes of this state of things is the lack 
of a good modern handbook of heraldry in French, 
which might make the good old examples and 
rules more generally known, and throw overboard 
the hideous monstrosities of later times. 

In Germany and England the case is different. 
The heraldry of these two countries is nearly 
allied, and the general principles are much alike. 
In the last two centuries, however, English heraldry 
has been cramped and fettered by a number of 
new rules, which are now firmly established, 
while in Germany more freedom remains and it iis 
sufficient to pay attention to the old fundamental 

Both countries have to record a decline in the 
beauty of heraldic representation at the end of the 
eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century 
— a decline which corresponds with the fashion 
and Zeitgeist of that period. And both countries, 
Germany rather earlier than England, have made 
a return during the last quarter of a century to the 
good old manner, and the earlier style, with the 
result that the beauty of heraldic designs has 
sensibly increased: of English artists, I need only 
mention the names of Father Anselm (Baker), 
C. W. Sherborn, G. W. Eve and J. Vinycomb. 

To come to details and the differences between 
German and English heraldry, it may be noticed 
that it is not a German, or Austrian, but an ex- 
clusively English custom to place the Crest 


1 8 German Book-^plates 

{Zimier, Helmzier), with wreath, directly on the 
shield, or even floating in the air above it. In 
Germany the logical rule is that a crest cannot 
exist alone, and must not be represented without 
helmet and lambrequin. It is imagined as bound 
or screwed to the helmet, as in reality it was. Of 
course it is easy to point to German designs and 
book-plates where the English custom is followed ; 
but the reason for them is generally not far to seek. 
In the first place it was the fashion in Germany in 
the early part of the nineteenth century to copy 
foreign methods simply because they were foreign 
— an error which has gradually disappeared during 
the last thirty years. Then again the reason is 
often to be found in the home and origin of the 
plates : thus, forexample, people living at Hamburg 
or at Hanover in the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and having frequent relations with London, 
would often have their ex-libris made there. 
These, however, are only the exceptions which 
prove the rule. 

The same remarks apply to the English fashion 
of allowing the crest to float in the air above the 
shield, instead of being attached to it as the 
German custom demands. 

Many Forms of Shields, also, such as the 
Georgian triangular cusped variety (or spade- 
shield, the English pelta) and the modern or 
** die-sinker" shield are never found in Germany 
except in the first half of the nineteenth century. 

The Position and Shape of the Helmet has no 
significance in Germany. In modem English 
heraldry, however, the following rules are binding 

German and English Heraldry 1 9 

— though they are not recognized in old Engh'sh 
heraldry, as many old monuments show. 

Royal Helmet : Gold, full-faced, with six bars. 

Peer's Helmet: Silver, in profile, with five 
golden bars. 

Baronet s or Knight's Helmet : Steel, dec- 
orated with silver, full-faced, with open visor. 

Esquire's Helmet: Steel, in profile, with visor 

These differences in the position and form of the 
helmet are unknown to German heraldry, which has 
two rules only: (i) If several helmets are repre- 
sented, the centre one is shown full-faced, those 
on each side looking towards it — half being thus 
turned to the dexter, half to the sinister; (2) the 
helmet and crest must be placed in corresponding 
positions, /.^., if the crest cannot be drawn in pro- 
file, the helmet must also be placed affronVee, and 
vice versa. In Germany it is heraldically and 
logically inadmissible to place the helmet full-faced 
and the crest on it sideways, for the crest is 
fastened to the helmet and must turn with it. 

Otherwise it is open to the draughtsman and 
designer to give the helmet any position which he 
thinks the beauty and style of the design require. 
Thus a spread-eagle on a helmet affrontde would 
show both wings, but if turned sideways only one 
wing would be visible, or at most the second wing 
would be only half seen. 

In Germany there is only one helmet which has 
a specific form, viz., the so-called Royal Helmet 
(gold, with open vizor) : but this French invention 
was only imported into Germany in the eighteenth 

20 German Book-plates 

century, and was rightly discarded by the Emperor 
Frederick III., when Crown Prince, in favour of 
the tilting helmet, as shown on his seal. The 
Emperor William II. has also discarded the 
Royal Helmet, and adopted the old German barred 

The Number of Bars on a helmet with an open 
vizor, varies in German heraldry between five and 
seven and is not definitely fixed as in England. 

The Number of Helmets is not, in Germany, a 
sign of rank, but a historical outcome of the new 
estates which have come into the possession of a 
family through conquest, inheritance, marriage, sale, 
etc., and their arms. In the same way a shield 
with many quarterings shows only in a secondary 
degree descent and alliances ; it is rather a record 
of the accession of estates, or territories, whose 
arms — mostly those of a family — have been added 
to the shield from the fifteenth century onward.* 
Thus whereas the coat of arms of a gentleman in 
England often bears thirty or more quarterings, in 
Germany only a few states and some of the older 
families, who own extensive properties, have coats 
with more than four or five quarterings. 

Old German families nowadays often prefer to 
use only the original arms of their house, without 

^ In the case of what is called the lower nobility many- 
quartered shields occur almost wholly in specially granted coats 
of arms, and have no reference to descent, etc. The quarterings 
of counts and barons sometimes display the arms of the mother^s 
family, or they refer to some circumstance connected with the 
ennoblement of the owner, or they form part of the territorial 
arms (a so-called Gnadenzeichen or " mark of grace ") : often 
they are entirely arbitrary. 

German and English Heraldry 2 1 

those of more recently acquired properties which 
have often passed again out of their possession. The 
old rule still holds good : the simpler the coat of 
arms, the older and at the same time the more 
beautiful it looks. 

In England the eldest son bears his fathers 
arms, with a Label as mark of cadency;^ in 
Germany, on the other hand, the label is the mark 
of the younger line of a house. 1 1 is now, however, 
hardly ever used. 

Supporters have no definite position in German 
heraldry — except in some modern instances where 
they have been specially granted with the arms — 
nor are they nearly so numerous as in England, 
whose colonial possessions have brought about the 
use of many strange animals as supporters. In 
Great Britain they are borne only by Peers, Knights 
of the Garter, Knights Grand Cross of the Bath, 
Baronets of Nova Scotia, and a few families to 
whom they have been expressly granted, or who 
have used them from early times. 

Badges, which play a considerable part in 
English heraldry, are unknown in Germany. 
These devices or cognizances do not form an 
integral part of the armorial bearings, but are 
separate marks of distinction, often borne instead 
of the more complicated coat of arms. They were 

* The second son bears a crescent, the third a mullet, the 
fourth a martlet, the fifth an annulet, the sixth a fleur-de-lys, the 
seventh a rose, the eighth a cross moline, the ninth a double 
quatrefoil. On the death of the father the eldest son lays aside 
the label, but the remaining sons and their descendants retain 
their marks of cadency. 

2 2 German Book-plates 

formerly embroidered on the breasts or backs of 
soldiers, or on the sleeves of servants and retainers, 
and were used also for decorative purposes. As 
instances of badges we may niention the plume of 
ostrich feathers passing through a scroll with the old 
German motto " Ich dien " of the Prince of Wales, 
the white and red roses of York and Lancaster, 
the Tudor rose, white and red, and the ** bloody 
hand*' of Ulster — the badge borne by baronets. 
Since the time of Queen Anne the badges of the 
United Kingdom are the Tudor Rose for England, 
the Thistle for Scotland and the Shamrock for Ire- 
land, to which may now be added the Lotus for India. 

This English system of badges is, as we have 
said, unknown in Germany, but somewhat analog- 
ous to it is the decorative use of a part of the 
crest or the separate charges on the shield. e,g,y 
in painting, wood-carving, embroidery, etc. 

The observance of the two countries in the 
matter of Crowns and Coronets is radically 

Apart from the crown of the Holy Roman 
Empire with one arch, that of the German Emperor 
since 1871 with three arches, and those of the 
German Empress, the German Crown Prince, the 
Emperor of Austria, the King of Hungary, and 
the Queen of England and the Coronet of the 
Prince of Wales, which have fixed shapes and are 
known to everyone, the forms given below are 
recognized in Germany and Austria, and, though 
not established by law, have the authority of 
long usage. 

Coronets of degree, which came into general use 

German and English Heraldry 23 

only within the last two hundred years, must not be 
confounded with the old three-leaved crest-coronets 
which were formerly placed above the helmets of 
princes and nobles. Moreover, it is an outrage 
against the rules of German heraldry to place a 
modern coronet, only two hundred years old, on 
an old helmet which may be earlier in date by two 
or three centuries. A medi2eval helmet should 
have over it only the old three-leaved coronet, 
which indicates not that the bearer belongs to the 
higher or lower nobility, but merely that, according 
to the old saying, he was **zu Schild und Helm 
geboren " — i,e,, that he was of noble rank.* 

It follows that the coronet has no place in the 
arms of an esquire, who must either use the wreath 
to join helmet and crest, or let the crest rise direct 
from the helmet and lambrequin. The wreath in 
Germany is generally depicted as a twisted roll of 
cloth, and never cigar-shaped, as is not unusual in 

So also it is not consistent with good German 
heraldry — though it has often been done of late 
years — to place a coronet of degree on the shield 
and at the same time to add one or more helmets 
above it. In reality it was only possible to wear 
one of the two, either a helmet or a coronet, but 
not both at once — the modern coronet of degree 

* In the grants of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
these coronets were wrongly called, in the official language of the 
day, " royal crowns." The original German houses did not, in 
the earliest times, bear these coronets, which were afterwards 
granted to families who received patent of nobility, and thus 
came into more general use. 

24 German Book-plates 

below and the old helmet above. So that if it is 
considered necessary to signify the rank of the 
bearer by a coronet, the helmet, mantling and crest 
must be omitted, and the coronet placed directly on 
the upper edge of the shield (not floating in the air 
above it). As these coronets are only two hundred 
years old, the shield in this case must not be early 
mediaeval, Roman or Gothic in form : the best 
shape for this purpose is the last true form of shield 
— round at the base and square at the top. 

The German Crowns and Coronets of Degree 
are the following : 

a. Royal Crown (fig. i): Eight arches, open 
inside, except in Prussia, where the inner space 
is filled with a crimson cap. The Kings 
Crown is borne also by the Royal Princes and 
the Austrian Archdukes. [Title, '* Majestat, 
Konigliche Hoheit, Kaiserliche Hoheit."] 

d. Grand Duke's Crown : Eight arches, with a 
crimson cap, filling half the space inside. As 
a matter of fact this crown exists no longer, 
as every Grand Duke bears the open Royal 
Crown [''Konigliche Hoheit"]. 

r. Duke's Crown (fig. 2): Eight arches filled 
with cap. The earlier form of Duke's Crown 
has ermine instead of the metal circlet. 

ct\ Prince's Crown {Fiirste7ihtit, fig. 3) : The 
crown of the mediatized Princes of the so- 
called higher nobility (originally " immediate " 
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire) — Ermine 
circlet, crimson cap, four arches set with pearls 

26 German Book-plates 

(fig. 4). The crown of non-mediatized Princes 
has instead of the ermine a metal circlet with 

six points. [" Durchlaucht/^ 

e. Count's Coronet {Erlaucht-Grafenkroney figs. 
5 and 6) : The Coronet of Counts of the higher 
nobility (originally ''immediate^'). Metal 
circlet, with eight leaves (five visible) alter- 
nating with pearls; within is a crimson cap, on 
which Heads of houses have the so-called 
" Reichsapfel " (imperial apple), others an 
ermine tassel. [** Erlaucht,'' " Erlauchtig 

f. Count's Coronet (fig. 7) : Counts of the 
lower nobility have a circlet with sixteen 
pearls set on high spikes, nine being visible. 
'" Hochgeboren."] 

g. Baron's Coronet (fig. 8) : A similar coro- 
net with twelve pearls (seven visible). [*'Hoch- 

h. Noble's Coronet (fig. g) : The coronet of 
the aristocracy {edelleute, ** von ") is either the 
old noble's coronet — five leaves alternating 
with four pearls (three leaves and two pearls 
visible), or the modern form, usual in Southern 
Germany — a circlet with five visible spikes. 
[** Hochwohlgeboren."] / 

There are, of course, many differences in the 
details of the various coronets, which, however, are 
not of importance for our purpose, and need not 
be noticed here. 

It must further be mentioned that, although cor- 
onets of degree came into use about two hundred 

German and English Heraldry ttj 

years ago, yet many armorial book-plates of the 
eighteenth century display coronets on which the 
number of pearls bears no relation to the owner s 
rank. Thus exlibris and arms of commoners exist 
which have coronets with three, six, eight, nine and 
twelve pearls, or, in some cases, even roses. Such 
instances, are, however, not confined to Germany, 
but are much more common in France and Alsace, 
then a French possession, where no fixed rules 
as to coronets of degree were observed ; the pearl- 
coronet was in those countries (see, e,g,, several 
book-plates by Striedbeck of Strassburg) often 
no more than an ornamental accessory, designed 
to serve the owner s vanity. 

The Mural Crown surmounting the shields of 
cities is of modern origin. That of Residencies 
shows five towers, other cities having three only 
(fig. id). 

English Coronets of Degree are the follow- 
ing : 

i. Duke's Coronet (fig. ii) : Circlet height- 
ened with eight strawberry leaves, of which 
five are visible, inclosing a crimson cap, turned 
up with ermine, and a gold tassel. [** His 

k. Marquess's Coronet : Circlet with four 
leaves, alternating with pearls,^ showing three 
leaves and two pearls (fig. 12). [** Most 

/. Earl's Coronet : Circlet with eight pearls 

^ The balls technically called ** pearls " are made of silver. 

28 German Book-plates 

on tall spikes with smaller leaves between 

them (showing five pearls and four leaves), 

(% 13)- [*' Right Honourable."] 
in, ViscouNT*s Coronet : Circlet with twelve 

Dearls without stems (seven visible), (fig. 14). 

;* Right Honourable."] 
71, Baron's Coronet : Circlet with six pearls 

without stems (four visible), (fig. 1 5). [" Right 


All the above coronets may inclose a crimson 
cap turned up with ermine. 

In German armorial design the following are 
the chief Styles and Periods, which must be 
carefully distinguished. It is an offence against 
the laws both of heraldry and of style to mix 
details of different periods in the same composition, 
and in heraldic art especially, style is strongly 

a. Romanesque and Early Gothic (twelfth 
to fifteenth centuries). Triangular shield. 
Heaume {Topfhelnty fig. 16), and Pot helmet 
Kilbelhelm (fig. 17). 

b. Late Gothic (fifteenth and sixteenth centuries). 
Targe ( Tartsche, fig. 1 8) ; round-based shield 
(fig. 19); tilting helmet (Stechhelm, fig. 18), 
and barred helmet (5^a;«^^;//^^/w, fig. 19). It 
has been customary since the sixteenth century 
to use the tilting helmet without bars for the 
arms of commoners, and the barred helmet for 
nobles. This is incorrect, as it was, of course, 
the noblewho originally used the tilting helmet 
in tournaments, to which commoners were not 

Gentian and English Heraldry 29 

admissible. In the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries value was attached to the different 
styles of helmets, as is shown by the exUbris 


By Wolfgnng Kilian (c/i 

of Dr. GeorgSeefriedof Nuremberg, by Wolf- 
gang Kilian {circa 1650). At first Scefried 
bore the commoner's tilting helmet on both 
sizes of his exlibris, and afterwards had It 
altered on the copperplate to the older and 

By Wolfgang Kilian {circa 1650). 

German and English Heraldry 31 

more highly esteemed barred helmet. The 
lower end of the eye-hole of the tilting helmet 
may still be seen on the altered plate between 
the visor and the mantling in front. No one 
with a knowledge of heraldry now uses either 
form of helmet as a sign of rank, but indiffer- 
ently according to the style of the design or 
the wishes of the owner. 

c. Renaissance (sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies). Fanciful shields with symmetrical 
indentations on each side, notched and 
scrolled, or cartouches, with barred or fanciful 
helmets {fig. 20). 

d. Baroque ( 1 6 1 o) ; Rococo { 1 740) ; Debased 
rococo (Zopf) (seventeenth to nineteenth cen- 
turies). Shields of the most arbitrary shapes, 
generally with frames out of all proportion ; 
fanciful helmets, or, more usually, coronets 
instead of helmets (figs. 21, 22). 

Empire. Period of Napoleon I. 
€. Present Day. Since 1871 the modern revival 
of taste has led designers back to the good 
styles and patterns of early times, and in spite 
of Japanese influence and the modern festoon, 
flower and scroll style, the old forms must be 
adhered to, since nowadays arms are used 
merely as the expression of clan feeling — the 
outward sign binding the family together — or 
for purely decorative purposes. New forms 
of shields cannot therefore be invented, since 
shields are no longer borne in battle or tour- 
nament. It is the same with the helmets of 
past ages ; no one with any intelligence would 

32 German Book-plates 

be tempted, now that times have changed, to 
place a modern infantry or cavalry helmet on 
a shield belonging to a bygone century. Good 
German heraldic draughtsmen such as Pro- 
fessor E. Doepler, Professor A. M. Hilde- 
brandt, H. G. Strohl, or E. Krahl, have, 
however, proved that old types of arms can 
well be brought into harmony with modern 
tendencies of style or composition. One thing 
only is necessary — good taste. 

The most important part of the armorial bearings 
is the Shield and its charges. Originally the shield 
was used alone to represent the owner's arms on 
seals, etc., and now also it often appears by itself 
In the Middle Ages, and again at the present day, 
the shield is often tilted to the right,^ instead of 
being placed upright, as if it were hung slanting on 
a nail from its strap. 

If two shields are placed opposite to one another, 
as in the arms of husband and wife, the old rule, 
now again observed, of '' heraldic courtesy " de- 
mands that the charges on the husband's shield 
be turned round so as to face the charges on the 
wife's shield, i.e., the husband's shield must not be 
so wanting in politeness as to turn its back, so to 
speak, on the wife's shield, but the charges must 
face each other. 

The available space and the scope of the present 

^ It is hardly necessary to say that the heraldic right or 
dexter side is the spectator's left and vice versa, the shield 
being considered from the point of view of the bearer, who 
held it on his chest or shoulder. 

Gennan and English Heraldry 33 

volume forbid a detailed account of the various 
heraldic charges, and the language of blazonry. 
It is enough to say, that in Germany the Eagle and 
the Lion are the charges most frequently met with. 

Next in importance to the shield come the Hel- 
mut, Crest and Lambukquin, which must of course 
harmonise in style with the shield ; it would be a 
breach of the German rule to combine a Gothic 
shield with a renaissance helmet, Of the position 
of helmet and crest we have already spoken. 

The Hki.met must be placed on the shield, not 
floating in the air above it. or balanced on it in one 
corner. If the shield is tilted, the helmet is placed 
on the highest corner of it. but if more than one 
helmet is shown, the shield must be placed upright, 
with all the helmets on the upper edge. Helmets 
may be placed on the heads of supporters, whether 
men or animals. 

The oldest Ckest.s were eagle's wings, horns of 
oxen, lime twigs, etc., and were either real wings, 
liorns, and twigs, or made of leather, wood, cloth, 
tin or other material. Later came figures, hats, 
caps, '■ Schirmbretter," etc. Originally crests were 
changeable, />., the same person, and the dif- 
ferent members of one family, would not always 
use the same crest ; not until the second half of the 
fourteenth century did crests become hereditary, 
and appertaining to one house and one branch of 
the family. 

Very common crests in German heraldry are 
the double /lorns. which are often wrongly described 

1^.^.. in the "Ex-Libris Journal," Dec. 1893). 
They are neither elephant's tusks or trunks, nor 


34 German Book-plates 

chalumeaux (as Warren says in his " Guide "), nor 
wind instruments, but the horns of the ordinary 
domestic ox, which were borne on the helmet by 
the old Germans in the earliest times, together with 
the scalp, to give a martial appearance, and also to 
afford protection to the head against blows. 

It was not until heraldry deteriorated that the 
points of the horns were made into orifices, in 
which feathers, banners, etc., were stuck. The 
original significance of the horns was forgotten, 
ana they were ornamented in the same way as 
huntsmen's horns. Anyone, however, who has in- 
herited horns as his family crest, should remember 
that they are the horns of oxen, and depict them 
with pointed ends. 

The Wreath and Crest-Coronet serve to con- 
nect the helmet and crest. 

The Lambrequin was originally a short piece of 
material, which was worn as a protection for the 
neck against heat and rain, and was depicted 
either hanging down, or flying out behind. As 
the mantling was in reality constantly cut and 
torn ("gezaddelt "), it came to be represented 
with ragged edges, and by the middle of the fif- 
teenth century,the cuts had developed into leaf-like 
serrations, or flowing scrolls, ending in Gothic 
trefoils. At the end of the fifteenth and in the two 
following centuries, the flowing ends were drawn 
in the shape of the acanthus leaf, and the mantling, 
the original meaning of which was forgotten, became 
more and more luxuriant and extravagant. 

As a rule the mantling shows the colours of the 
shield, but the beautiful and effective British 


VON KRKSSENSTEEN {circtt I650). 

36 German Book-plates 

custom of powdering the folds with heraldic forms 
(leaves, stars, hearts, etc.) is unknown in Germany. 

If a shield with a helmet is represented, the 
latter must always be provided with crest and 

Supporters are not an essential part .of German 
armorial bearings, but used to be borne at will and 
were not necessarily hereditary. They were used 
in early times, but do not appear before 1456 in 
the arms of commoners. 

In Germany, if supporters are chosen at all, one 
or two may be borne according to personal wish, 
or the style of design and room available — except, 
of course, when they are specially granted. The 
most usual supporters are lions, but stags, griffins, 
bears, dogs, unicorns, and angels, saints, wild men 
and women, lancers, knights, maids, etc., are also 

In modern times, when special supporters have 
been definitely mentioned — contrary to the old 
custom — in grants of arms, these alone are borne 
as a rule by the families in question. 

The ex-libris, here reproduced (p. 35), of Christo- 
phorus Hieronymus Kress von Kressenstetn, of 
Nuremberg (copperplate, circa 1650) shows how, 
e.g., saints were used as supporters, St. Christopher 
and St. Jerome, his patron saints, being placed on 
either side of the shield. 

This is all that need be said of the ancient rules 
of heraldry. Among comparatively recent acces- 
sions are theCoRONETs of degree already mentioned 
and the different HATSof ecclesiastical dignitaries. 
In Germany and Austria, the Cardinal's hat has five 

German and English Heraldry 37 

tassels hanging down on either side, the arch- 
bishop's hat four, and the bishop's hat three. 
There are besides various ORDiiRS, DiiCORATiONS, 
Armorial Mantles and Pavilions, Devices and 
Mottoes, all of wliich are more or less heraldic in 

Banners and Standards, which often bore her- 
aldic charges (without a shield) or devices, were a 
development of the old lance-pennons, which had 
originally no connection with the armorial bearings 
or the colours of the shield. Charges on the stan- 
dard always look towards the staff. The modem 
German cavalry-pennons bear for the first time 
the territorial colours. 

The Origin of Heraldry dates from about the 
year 1150. to which year belong also the earliest 

k known German seals. The earliest known crest 
IS that of King Richard I. of England. 
House-marks {Hansmarken), which have been 
used in Germany, by commoners only, since the 
fourteenth century, were at first personal, after- 
wards hereditary. They consisted of wands, 
crosses and geometrical figures of all kinds, with 
no frame round thtni, and did not form armorial 
bearings, of which, however, they may take the 

I lace if set on a shield, and duly coloured. 
The old Heraldic Tinctures are : 

Metals: «. Or, gold {Ger. gold or geld); b. 
Argent, silver (Ger, slider or weiss). 

Colours, c, Gules, red {rolli) ; d, Azure, blue 
{6lau) ; e, Vert, green {griin) ; /, Sable, 
black {schwars) ; and of more recent origin. 

38 German Book-plates 

but now seldom used, g, Purpure, purple 
{purpur) ; h, Brown {braun) ; i. Iron (Eisen). 
The two last are unknown in England. 

As in English heraldry, metal must not be placed 
upon metal, nor colour upon colour. If a coat of 
arms is not represented with real colours, tincture 
signs are used, as sho%vn in the plate on p. 25 (fig. 
23, a-g). These signs are of late origin, dating 
from 1638, and as they are inartistic and ineffective, 
they are now very often omitted altogether, especi- 
ally in crowded shields or very small drawings, and 
in sculpture or wood-carving. They should not, 
of course, be used on shields drawn in the mediaeval 
style, as they were not invented at that period. 

Diapering was often used in early times to 
relieve the blank spaces on shields, and a beautiful 
effect may be produced by this means. The 
background is covered with small ornamental 
devices, which form no part of the armorial bear- 
ings, and care must be taken that they are sub- 
ordinated to the charges on the field. (See book- 
plate of the monastery of Niederaltaich reproduced 

Many arms contain an allusion, more or less 
veiled, to the name of the bearer. These are 
called Canting Arms : e.g., the Red Castle {Rotke 
Burg), of Rothenburg; the Fish of Fischer; the 
breeches {Hose) of Hos, etc. 

The custom of placing Monograms which are, 
generally speaking, quite modern conceptions, on 
a shield is essentially unheraldic. 

In conclusion we may mention a shield which 

German and English Heyaldry 39 

often appears on German book-plates — that of the 
German KDNsTLERWArpEN (Arms of the Guild of 
Artists), which, in contrast to those of Holland and 
France, bears gules (not azure) three escutcheons 
argent (fig. 24). The crest is a maiden vested 
argent, between two buck's horns proper; the 
mantling shows the colours of the field. 


^^r fejB iF^jiHE most necessary letterlnjf on an ex- 

^H BS^I I'bris is the name of the owner. With- 

^H wSti rIq ^^^ '^^'^' ^^^ plate does not fultil its chief 

^H ffifeWji object, which is to indicate to whom the 

^H volume belongs, and to whom the borrower is to 

^H return it. Initial letters, monograms or nameless , 

^H coats of arms are not sufficient and it is of the ■ 

^1 utmost practical importance that the full name of 1 

^H the possessor should be displayed on the book- 

^1 plate, whatever the rest of the design may be. 
^H This rule of practical expediency was followed I 

^H by the oldest owners of book-plates, and from the | 

^m fifteenth to the eighteenthcentiiry, nameless exHbris I 

^^ are comparatively scarce. In the eighteenth cen- 

^K tury, however, plates bearing only a coat of arms, J 

^H or a symbolical design without a name, are fre-f 

^H quently met with. To find the correct family names J 

^V for these anonymous armorials, etc., is often a most I 

^M difficult task ; indeed, an elaborate search through I 



Inscriptions on Book-plates 41 

the numerous heraldic books of reference and 
dictionaries of armorial bearings which exist in 
Germany, will result in the identification of two- 
thirds at the outside. It is generally quite impos- 
sible to determine the actual owner of a volume, or 
even his Christian name, yet one would often be 
glad to know to which particular member of a 
family a book-plate and book belonged, or still 
belongs. In exlibris, as in everyday life, 
anonymity is strictly to be avoided. 

(^.) Besides the owner's name we meet with 
PHRASES of BOOK-POSSESSION of a most varied 
nature.' They are found in German, and also in 
Latin, especially in earlytlmeswhen it was still the 
language of the learned world, and less frequently 
in Greek and Hebrew ; French also was often used 
on German bookplates of the eighteenth century. 

We give here a selection of these phrases of 
ownership, without attempting a complete list of 
all the forms employed. 

German : 

Fiir meinc Freunde und mich {Schwarzkopf, 1791). 
Gropius und seinen Freunden (18 . . ). 
Fiir mich und mein Haus (v. Retberg, 186 . ). 
BibHothelt des {von Neufvitle, 1891). 
Zur Bibliothek (Kreu^schule, 18 . . ). 

Zur Lei he bibliothek (Waisenhausbuchhandlung, Bruns- 
wick, 17 . . ). 
Der (Heidelofif'schen) Bibhothek gehorig (18 . . ). 
Aus der Bibhoihek der (Grafin Habn, i8go). 
Die Bibliothek von mir gestift, 

" Exhbris Zeitscbrift," vol. ii., No. 2, pp. 3-7 ; No. 4, 
. ; vol. v., pp. 59-60. 

42 German Book-^plates 

Im Lorentzer Pfarrhof aufgericht (Vennitzer, 1618). 

Bibliothekzeichen des (P. Hilden, 1894). 

Biicherei (Jansfelde, 18 . . ). 

Aus der Biicherei (Stetten, 18 . . ). 

's Biicher (Milhauser, 17 . . ). 

Zu den Buchern (Hegner, 17 . . ). 

Aus den Buchern (Bredelin, 17 . . ). 

Gehorig zu denen Buchern (Georgii Bogner, 17..). 

Biichersammlung (Reinecke, 17 . . ). 

Aus der | 

Zu meiner \ Biichersammlung (17 . . ). 

N^ der ) 

Aus dem (Orthischen) Biichervorrath (17 . . ). 

Eigenthum von (Thurn und Taxis, 18 . . ). 

Der Hochschule zu (Strassburg, 187 . , Heidelberg, 188 . ). 

Aus dem Vermachntiss (Jasche, 1787). 

Das puch und der schilt ist . . . (universal exlibris, 1489). 

Drei Kleeblattlein, solches ist der Seyler Wappenzier, 
Drum schiitzt es auch dies Biichel hier (Seyler, 1891). 

Keine Leihbibliothek (v. Gaudy, 18 . . ). 

Mir und Dir ! (v. Hase, 1876). 

Gehort nach Wettbergen (v. Retberg, 186 . ). 

Dass mein Andenken bleib in dieser Biicherei 
Steir ich auch dieses Buch den Herrschaftsbiichem bei, 
Die " Hohe Lohe "gonn' ihm ein Gnadenstrahl, 
So stets zu ihrem Dienst, mir zum Gedachtnissmahl (Graflich 
Hohenlohe'scher Rath Wolff, 1 708). 

Was du hier siehst, ist mein und dein. 

Die Kunst wird dich wie mich erfreun, 

Nahmst Du was mit, hatt' ich's gar gern, 

Wenn's geistig; handlich bleib's dir fern (H. Lempertz, 18 . . ). 

Um jedem anzuzeigen, 

Dass dieses Buch mein eigen, 

Fiigt' ich dies Zeichen ein (Liitcke, 189 . ). 

Dies Buch gehort in meine Hand, 

Elise Hausen bin ich genannt, 

Francke bin ich geboren. 

Wer's find't, ich habs verloren (Freifrau v. Hausen, 1893). 

Inscriptions on Book-pihfes 43 

Elisabeth, Heilige, Rosengeheiligte, 

SchiiUe das Wenige, was mir gehdrt (Elisabeth v. Hausen, 

Ex bibliotheca and Ad bibliothecam (very frequent). 

Signum bibliothecae (Steinberg, 1762). 

Signetum „ (Magdeburg, 1597). 

Symbolum „ (Nack, 1759). 

Insigne, Insignia bibliothecae, or librorum. 

Ex catalogo bibliothecae. 

Ex bibliophylacio (Altmann, 17..). 

Sum bibliothecae fratrum (Hammelbui^, 1762). 

Liber (Ebner, 1516)- 

Ex libris, Ad libros. Ex libri!> bibliothecae (very frequent). 

Ex libris . . . ab . . . coUectis ( Deutschordenskommende, 

Vienna and Linz, 16 . . ). 
Ex collectione librorum (Harscher, 17 . . ). 
Unus ex collectione librorum (Eimbecken, 1720). 
Inscr. Catal. librorum (Graf Enzenberg, 17..). 
Patronus libri (Bishop Melchior of Constance, 1529). 
Iste liber est (PliJml, 1492. Polling, 1560). 
Librorum signum (L. Clerici, iS . . ). 
Possessor hujus libri (Filser, 1725), 
Proprium (Frlsingense, Freising, 1727). 
Ex libria. Ex Hbraria, Ex suppellectile libraria (Zahn, 17.,). 
Suppellex librorum (Schmidner, circa 1670). 
Pro ejusdem bibliotheca (Cathedral Chapter, Eichstatt, 

16 . . )■ 

Ex museo (Schopflin, 17..)- 

Ex frucCibus (Barkhaus, 17 . . ). 

In usum. Ad usum (Teubern, Eder, 17 . . ). 

Me possedit. . , , 

Veras possessor (Hogger, 170 . ). 

Sum Joannis Cunei. Sors olim licet nonnunquam recedat 

redit (Keil, 155 . ). 
Wessofontani proba sum possessio claustri (Wessobninn, 

Meque Hirostephani bibliotheca tenet (Weihenstephan, 

17 . - ). 
Hie liber spectat ad monasterium Benedictbeuern (15 . . ). 

44 German Book-plates 

Patriae et amicis (Pfinzing, 1569). 
Sibi et amicis (Pirckheimer, 1503). 
Sibi et suis (Schurer, 15 . . ). 
Amico amicus (Prew, 16 . . ). 
Gleimii et amicorum (17 . . ). 
Musis et amicis (Baur, 17 . . ). 
Amicis et mihi (D'Oench, 18 . . ). 

Bibliothecae amicorum. 

Nostrum et amicorum. 

Non mihi, sed aliis (Savigny, 17..). 

Amicorum, baud omnium. 
Nunquam amicorum. 
Ex hereditate, Ex dono. 

(C.) Many book-plates give Directions about 
the return of the volume, e,g, : 

German : 
Man bittet um baldige Ruckgabe dieses Buches( Kissel, 1886). 
Man bittet um giitige Schonung der entliehenen Biicher 

sowie um deren baldige Zuriickgabe (Adamy, 1891). 
Wer binnen . . . das Buch nicht zuriickbringt, bezahlt fiir 

jeden ferneren Tag . . . Pfennige (Bibliothek des Vereins 

vom heiligen Karl Boromaeus, 18 . . ). 
Biicher schonen, baldigst zuriickgeben ! (von Garczynski, 

Ersuche um baldige Zuriickgabe (Geissler, area i860). 

Um bestmoglichste Conservirung der Biicher wirdfreundlichst 

gebeten (L. Vaterloss, area 1840). 

Gieb stets zuriick zur nachsten Frist 

Mein Buch, das nicht das Deine ist (A. Zschuppe, 1895). 

Halt ! Mein Buch ! (R. Benkard, 1895). 

Lies und gieb zuriick (Hannchen Rohm, 1900). 

Entleiher von Biichern aus dieser Sammlung werden ersucht, 

jene Biicher sorgsam in Acht zu nehmen und sie binnen 

14 Tagen wieder zuriickzuliefern. 

(A. Hertwig, cirea i860). 

Niemand darf mich einverleiben, 

Ich muss beim Zum Felde bleiben (Zum Felde, 1897). 

Inscriptions on Book-plates 45 

Liebes Biichlein lass dir sagen, 
Wenn Dich Jemand weg will tragen, 
Sag, lass mich in meiner Ruh, 
Ich gehore Ros'chen Sperling zu. 

(1802 ; this rhyme is frequent in the Marches). 

lAitin : 

Heus ! Domino me redde meo ; sic jura reposcunt (Wesso- 
bninn, 1706). 

Lege et redde. 

Lex bibliothecae : Inter 14 dies commodatum ni reddideris, 
neque belle custodieris, alio tempore dominus : Non 
habes, dicam (also dicet), (C. F. Hommel, 1762). 

Iste liber pertinet ad S. Nazarium in Laurissa, redde sibi ! 

Utere concesso, sed nullus abutere libro ; 

Lilia non maculat sed modo tangit apis (M. and Th. C. 

Lilienthal, 1700 and 1750). 
See also the two Gerhard inscriptions given below under E. 

(Z?.) Warnings and Cautions, appealing in- 
directly to the sense of honour, are also often found 
on exlibris. 

German : 
Johannes Gremperii bin ich, 
Wiltu was lesen ? brich nit mich, 
Auch thue mich heimlich nit verhalten, 
Dass Gott der Ewig dein muess waken (J. Gremper, 1500) 

Anton Mirtschink bin ich genannt, 

Groditz ist mein Vaterland, 

Wer diess Buch stiehlt, der ist schlecht, 

Er sei Herr oder Knecht {Gesangbuch, i795)- 

Dieses Biichlein ist mir lieb, 

Wer mir's nimmt, der ist ein Dieb, 

Wer mir's aber wiedergiebt, 

Den hab* ich lieb (In Schoolbooks, i8th Cent.). 

Leih ich dich hinaus 
Bleib nicht zu lange aus ; 
Komm zuriick nach Haus ; 
Nicht mit Flecken oder Ohren, 

46 German Book-plates 

Wie sie machen nur die Thoren, 

Und geh ja mir nicht verloren (A. Stober 187 . and Sir T. 
N. Dick-I^uder, Bart. 1900). 

Der Gottlose borgt und giebt nicht wieder 

(Psalm 37, 21; Pfeilstiicker, 1889). 

Me sibi jure suum, Dominus propriumque paravit ; 
Usum concessit sponte cuique bono. 
Sed tu, si bonus es, Domino me reddito, gratus. 
Si retines, malus es, nee bonus usus erit (A. Hedio, Konigs- 
berg, circa 1650). 

Caesaris sum, noli me tangere (J. C. Keisser, 1706). 

{E. ) Warnings grew into threats against book- 
stealers, which often denounce the failure to 
return books in the strongest language and invoke 
curses on the head of the defaulting borrower. 

German : 
Aus diesem Ort, wer etwas raubt, 
Dem bleib der Fluch, den Gott getraut (Wollwarth, 16 . . )• 

Dieses Buch ist mir lieb, 

Wer es stiehlt, der ist ein Dieb ; 

Er sei Herr oder Knecht, 

Der Galgen ist sein Recht. 

Kommt er in ein Haus, 

So jagt man ihn hinaus ; 

Kommt er an einen Graben, 

So fressen ihn die Raben : 

Kommt er an einen Stein, 

So bricht er Hals und Bein (Family Bible, i8th Cent.). 

Wer das puch stehl, desselben chel 

Muzze sich ertoben 

Hoch an eim Galgen oben (14 . . ). 

Dyt bock hort Metken vam Holte ; 
De dat vind, de do dat wedder, 
Edder de Diivel vorbrennt em dat ledder ; 
Hoet dy ! (17 . . or 18. . ). 

Inscriptions on Book-plates 47 

Die Pest auf ihn, der mir das Buch nicht wiedergiebt (Marie 

von Geyso, 1899). 
Wer stiehlt das Buch, den trifft mein Fluch (17 . . ). 

German and Latin : 
Hie liber est mein, 
Ideo nomen meum scripsi drein ; 
Si vis hunc librum stehlen, 
Pendebis an der Kehlen ; 
Tunc veniunt die Raben 
Et volunt tibi oculos ausgraben, 
Tunc clamabis : Ach, ach, ach ! 
Ubique tibi recte geschach. (Germanic Museum MS.) 

French : 

Honny soit qui ne me rend pas (Wegener, 1899). 

French and Latin : 
Aspice Pierrot pendu, 
Quod librum n'a pas rendu, 
Pierrot pendu non fuisset 
Si librum reddidisset (A. Stober, 18 . . ). 

Latin : 

Est liber ille meus, caveas deponere loco, 

Si mihi sustuleris, fur tibi nomen erit (Hartmann, 1581). 

Inspector quare libris his abstine palmas 

Ni pravi furis nomen habere velis (Tulpen, circa 1675). 

Scito : ultra Septimanae spatium e dicta bibliotheca ne me 
tecum retineto. Quisquis me furto abstuleris, ne Deum 
iratum sentias, Caveto ! (Gerhard, 17 . .). 

D. O. S. Bibliothecae Gerhardinae pars sum, Cave, ne 
macules, ne laceres, ultra mensem ne e dicta bibliotheca 
apud te retineas, furari noli (Gerhard, 17..). 

Privatae commoditati ; publicae utilitati ; non furtum 
facies; ite potius ad vendentes( Matthew, xxv. ; Oberzell, 175.)- 

Qui te furetur, cum Juda dampnificetur (Mediaeval). 

Sor 1 super ) scrip t ^^ Ji 1 poti \ 

Mor J superb j rap J li J mori j 


48 Ger^nan Book-plates 

Qui te furetur, hie demonis ense secetur, 

Iste sit in banno qui te furetur in anno (Lorsch, 13 . . ). 

Si rapis hunc librum, prodit te fulminis ales 
(J. E. Kayser, 17 . . ; appropriate to the design — an eagle with 

To come to modern times, the following threat 
from a written exlibris may be quoted, as it is in 
every respect an eloquent production : 

Dieses Buch das ist mein eigen, 

Wer es anfasst, kriegt Ohrfeigen. 

Wer es wegnimmt, der kriegt Keile, 

Das sage ich jetzt alleweile. 

Bei meinem Herrn hab' ich's gut gehabt, 

Das danke ich ihm tausendmal, 

Bei dem da bin gem gewesen, 

Das thut man in dem Buche lesen. 

(Alwin Starke, Private in the 4th Company of the 104th 

Regiment, servant to Lieutenant Erich Freiherr von 

Hausen, Chemnitz, 1881). 

The so-called Book-curse [Biicker/lu^h) was not 
concerned only with the lending of books, but was 
invoked also on all who, while using a volume, 
should alter the title, curtail or tamper with texts, 
or introduce errors, e,g,y into the Scriptures. Book- 
curses are of great antiquity ; one occurs in Rufinus, 
about 410, another in the ** Sachsenspieger* about 
1240 ; and in German and Hebrew writings of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, curses are 
invoked against pirates and translators. 

The Papal excommunication is directed in the 
volumes of the Vatican against book-thieves : 

** Si quis secus fecerit, libros partemve aliquam 
abstulerit, extraxerit, clcpserit, rapseritque, carp- 
serit, corruperit dolo malo, ille a fidelium com- 

Inscriptions on Book-plates 49 

munione ejectus, maledictus anathematis vinculo 
colligatus esto. A quoquam praeterquam Romano 
Pontifice ne absolvitor ! '' 

The written exlibris of the monks of the famous 
Mount Athos threatened book-thieves with the 
curse of the twelve Apostles and all monks.^ 

The book-plate of the Benedictine monastery of 
St. Peter, at Salzburg (about 1706)* contains a 
threat of excommunication against book-thieves by 
means of a special bull from Pope Clement VI. ; 
another threat of excommunication is found on the 
exlibris of Brothers Johann G. D. Gottfried and 
Aegidius Gelen, priests at Cologne (16 . .).^ 

{F.) Inscriptions of a more general nature, 
MAXIMS, EPIGRAMS and VERSES, dealing with the 
contents and value of books, are of course common. 
Quotations from German and foreign poets and 
from the classics, etc., are employed for the purpose. 
From the wealth of such inscriptions a few only 
can be given here: 

German : 
Gleichwie die Bien' aus Blumen saugt, 
Was zu dem siissen Honig taugt, 
Also bedient Herr Kissling sich 
Der guten Biicher nutzbarlich. (J. Kissling. 1664.) 

Geliehene Biicher wiedergeben 

Wird oft versaumt von Jung und Alten ; 

Denn leichter ist*s, die Biicher seibst, 

Als was darin steht, zu behalten. (Johanna Kessler, 1895.) 

' See Zeitschrift fiir BikJurfreunde^ 1897, ii. loi, and E. L. Z. 
vii. 127. 

^ The full wording is given in the E. L. Z. vi. 46. 

* Given in Lempertz, Bilderhefte, Exlibris, plate iv. 3. 

50 Gerinan Book-plates 

Wer seine Biicher lieb hat, verborgt sie nicht. 

(Caroline Arnous, 1S96.) 

So nahrhaft fiir den Geist, wie fiir die Sinnen siisse. 

(Trattner, 1766.) 
In jedem Buch liegt ein eigen Wesen, 
Es sind gar schlimme Leut, die nur ein Buch gelesen. 

(Jacobsen, 1883.) 
Frcfich : 

A mes livres : 

Plaisants, je vous aime, 

Serieux aussi, 

Frivoles, de meme, 

Pedants — merci. (J. Flach, Strassburg 18 . .) 

A mes livres : 

Cheres delices de mon ame, 

Gardez vous bien, de me quitter, 

Quoiqu'on vienne vous emprunter. 

Chacun de vous m'est une femme, 

Qui peut se laisser voir sans blame 

Kt ne se doit jamais preter. (C. Mehl, Strassburg, 18 . .) 

Latin : 

Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce me (Miller, 16 . . ) 
Haurit aquam cribris, qui discerc vult sine libris. 

(Seyringer, 1692.) 

Dcus nobis ha^c otia fecit, (v. Loen, 1725.) 

Scienti^e ipsce, ignorantiai nostras testes, (v. Loen, 1725.) 

Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare. (Oh lensch lager, 17..) 

(G^.) Another class of Inscriptions — Mottoes 
and Devices— can only be briefly mentioned as they 
are far too numerous for quotation. Book-lovers 
of the past, in common with those of to-day, de- 
lighted in placing family mottoes, tags of worldly 
wisdom, learned reflections, or religious sentiments 
on the scrolls or panels of their exlibris, partly from 
inner conviction, partly no doubt with a view to 
giving a good impression. 




w ><^^ ^ 

1 & 1 



^^^^L ^^^^^H 

Sometimes, however, the initials refer to a 
motto. Thus in the book-plate, reproduced on 
p. 54, of Chr. A. Gugt'lvon ^r-flM(j^{Nuremberg). a 
copperplate by Jost Amman, circa 1583, the 
letters C.F.I, (wrongly engraved C.E.I.) stand 
for "Consilium Fortunam Inhibeat"; G.Ci.G. on 
the exlibrisof J. Hebenslrcit, copperplate, 1613 (see 
P- 56). signify " Gott Gebe Gnade " ; N.O.O.P. 
on the exlibris of johann Georg von IVcrcicnstein 
(Eichstatt). woodcut, about 1560, stand for " Non 
Omnibus Omnia PJacenc" ; and A.B.C.D.E.F.. a 
play on the first letters of the alphabet, on the 
plate of Johann Georg J/flyr. Canon of Augsburg 
{circa 1610). stand for " Allein Bei Christus Die 
Ewige Freude " (" With Christ alone is everlasting 

Sometimes, again, initial letters refer both to 
the owner's name and also to the motto which 
has obviously been chosen with this intention : 
e.g., on the book-plate of Seyfried Pfinzing von 
Henfenfcld (Nuremberg), copperplate by Matthias 
Ziindt, 1569 (see p. 57), the letters S.P.V.H. stand 
for his name and also for " Saluti Patriae Vixisse 

kHonestat."; on the plate of Johann Wilhelm Kress 
von Kressenstein (Nuremberg), copperplate, circa 
I 1650, the letters J.W.C.A.C. refer to both name 
and motto (see reproduction, p. 60) ; and on that of 
Christof Friedrich Kress von Kressenstein (Nu- 
remberg), copperplate, circa 1690, the initials 
~ F.C..\.C.S. stand not only for Christoforus 
'ridericus Cress A Cressenstein Scabinus (=z 
ihiiffe, sheriff), but also for his motto. "Christiana 
ides Crescit Ad Caeloruni Salutem." 

58 German Book-^plates 

A similar play on letters occurs not infrequently 
on seventeenth- and eighteenth-century plates: 
e.g,, that of Magister G. Rupreckt, a clergyman 
of Augsburg, copperplate, circa 1770, on which is 
the word ** MiGRAnDVM," the capital letters 
forming the initials of the inscription, " Magistri 
Georgii Ruprechti Augustani Divini Verbi Minis- 
tri." (See p. 61.) 

An original double use of letters, quite in ac- 
cordance with the taste of the eighteenth centurj-, 
is seen on the plate of Chr. Heinrich Andreas 
Geret, a divine and official at Thorn, about 1 760 : 
the middle letters of the word ** Heinrici " are 
engraved large, so that the inscription on the Cross, 
I.N.R.I., stands out prominently, which the owner, 
as a priest, no doubt thought peculiarly becoming. 

Another monogram of a mysterious nature occurs 
on two much earlier plates, those of Luthers 
opponent. Dr. Johann Maier, called Eck^ of Ingol- 
stadt. These coloured woodcuts are probably by 
Hans Springinklee, and are dated 15 18 and 1522. 
On a copy in the Royal Library at Munich, Eck 
himself has written the explanation of the mono- 
gram J.M.E.T. — Johannes Maioris (for Maier) 
Eckius Theologus (see illustration, chap, vi., A). 

(/.) Very often, both on old and modern exlibris, 
the Date is printed — a great help to the student, 
who is then no longer dependent on his knowledge 
of style, or comparison with other plates. But 
book-plates also followed the custom of the period 
and made use of hidden dates. This form of 
conundrum is called a Chronogram (or if in verse, 
a Chronostichon), and may be seen in the inscrip- 

Inscriptions on Book-plates 59 

tions over church portals and on monuments of the 
eighteenth century, and on medals even of the 
nineteenth. The mode of procedure is to write, 
print, or carve those letters of the inscription 
which are also available as figures, in large 
characters, so that when added together they 
give the date when the plate was engraved, or 
when the church was restored, or the medal 
struck. A good example is given by the exlibris 
of the Benedictine Monastery of Raigern in 
Moravia (copperplates of 1784 and 1789). On 
the sides of the press are the following couplets, 
printed with large and small letters thus : 

In front : 

OflflCIna Llbrarla stVDIIs 
sVaVIorlbusqVe MVsIs saCra 

at the back : 

Cura et stVDIo OthMarl praeposltl 
NoVIs CopIosIsqVe LIbrls eXornata. 

If the figure-letters be added up, each couplet will 
be found to give the date 1784. The smaller 
variety of 1 789 has five added in each couplet by 
printing another u as V in the words suavioribus- 
que and cura. 

A similar chronogram occurs on the book-plate 
of Lorenz Kellner, of Wittislingen, 1772, where 
the typographical inscription runs : ** eX testa- 
Mento D: LaVrentll KeLLner PLebanI In 
WIttlsLIngen" = 1772. 

(A^.) A further form of inscription is the Sig- 
nature of the Engraver or Designer, given either 
in full or in form of a monogram or initial letters. 


permanentefTi , led tuturxft ingainmuj- 

M. Geor^iiRuprechii, Ai^. 
Ditnrii Verbt Miniiiri . 


62 German Book-plates 

The signature is usually found in small characters 
in the right- or left-hand corner at the foot of the 
plate, or hidden in the design. It is to be regretted 
that so many plates of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and 
seventeenth centuries are unsigned, so that in the 
case of many rare and fine exlibris, which^are 
certainly the work of a distinguished artist, his 
identity can only be guessed at. It maybe hoped 
that artists of the present day will take this to 
heart, and sign their book-plates as carefully as 
they do their larger works. 

(Z.) Many single letters found on book-plates 
are Abkrkviations of titles, etc. : thus, e,g.^ J.U.L. 
ii: ** Juris utriusque Licentiatus " ; D.V.M. = 
*' Divini Verbi Ministri"; S.R.I. = "Sacri Roman! 
Imperii," etc. 

(J/.) Abhrkviated Words also frequently accom- 
pany the artist's signature : eg., sc. r= sculpsit (en- 
graved) ; f. =: fecit (made) ; del. = delineavit 
(drew) ; gez. =: gezeichnet (drew) ; exc. -=. excudit 
(cut in wood) ; pinx. iz: pinxit (painted) ; inv, ^in- 
venit (invented) ; calcogr. =: calcogravit (engraved 
on copper) ; imp. =: impressit (printed). The art- 
ist's j)lace of residence is also often abbreviated : 
eg,, A.V. = Augustae V'indelicorum (Augsburg). 

(A\) Another peculiar form of book-plate in- 
scription remains to be mentioned, namely, the 
LiNKKi) Lktters, which enjoyed a temporary 
popularity at the end of the eighteenth and be- 
ginning of the nineteenth centuries. Large letters, 
sometimes as part of other decoration, sometimes 
alone, are incoherently linked together, each one 
intertwined in a promiscuous manner with the rest, 


Cennau Book-plates 

so that the result is a mass of apparently unrelaJ 
lines. As the word — the surname — which I ' 
indicate can only be deciphered with great troud 
this curious custom cannot be said to have anjn 
practical value, and belongs rather to the categorj-of 
jokes or conundrums, 'i'he letters of the heraldic 
exlibris reproduced on p. 63 form the name of 
Birkncr: the plate, which was designed by Johann 

i!0(lk-PLATE OP REUSCH (.1/1:11 I757). 

Jakob Schubler and engraved by Martin Tyroff, i 
that of Adam Birkner, jurist, of Nuremberg (abouj 
1740). A similar plate is that oi Retisch (Nureni 
berg), an anonymous copperplate (about 17 
the engraving of which has also been ascribed t 
Martin Tyroff. In this case " Reusch " is 
legible. Other plates of the same kind are thod 
of Kelner (copperplate, ch-ca 17S0) and Frohlia 
(lithograph, circa 1840). 



jOOK-PLATES vary considerably in 
'I size, according to that of the volumes 
i D&bN for which they are Intended. In the 
_^^SmSi pt^riod immediately following the in- 
vention of printing, when many stately folios were 
published, large book-plates were also made to 
correspond. The names of the different sizes 
of books, which are determined by the number of 
times a sheet of paper is folded, are as follows : folio, 
quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sextodecimo (i6mo), 
etc. ; /.(■-, a folio has two leaves (=i four pages) to 
the sheet, a quarto four leaves, an octavo eight 
leaves, and so on. These names may also be 
applied to the sizes of book-plates. 

In all probability the largest plates known, with 
the exception of that ol Count Breiner, mentioned 
below, which is distinctly marked with the words, 
" Ex Libris,"were not specially designed as book- 
plates, but as ornamental coats of arms : they 
were, however, used occasionally as exlibris in 
large folios. 

66 German Book-plates 

The Largest Book-plates known are the follow- 
ing : 

{A.) Old Plates, drawn and coloured bv 


Benedikt Klinkervogelj armorial with inscription, 1581; 
91^ in. wide x 15 in. high. 

Heinrich II Toebing (Liineburg), armorial, circa 1498 (see 
below, chap, vi.) ; 11 in. x 13!^ in. 

Georg Gwandschneider (Nuremberg), armorial with inscrip- 
tion, 1585; 7f in. X i3iin. 

[B,) Old printed Plates: 

Ferdinand Barth von Harmating (Munich), copperplate, 
armorial bearings between inscriptions, circa 1690; 
1 2 1- in. X 1 6^^ in. (Some doubt has been thrown on this 
as an exlibris.) 

Sebald Millner von Zweyraden^ copperplate, signed P. W. : 
coat of arms surrounded by wreaths, circa 1560; lOj 
in. X 14I- in. 

PJinzi ng-G riind/ach {^uxcmhGxg\ copperplate by A. Khol; 
coat of arms with architectural surroundings, circa 1650; 
9 J in. X 14 in. 

Max Ludwig, Count Breiner (Breuner), Privy Councillor, 
Field-Marshal and Commissary General (Vienna and 
Milan), copperplate by Josef Petrarca (Milan) ; armorial 
with trophies, etc., circa 1 700 ; 9 J in. x 13I in. (It has been 
proved that this plate was adapted for use in volumes for 
which it was too large by the simple expedient of cutting 
off the outer framework. ') 

C'hristof Kress von Kresscnstein (Nuremberg), not by Diirer, 
but of his school; woodcut, armorial bearings without 
name, after 1530 ; loi- in. x 13 in. (See p. 68.) 

^ See E. L. Z. v. 38. An uncut example of this fine 
plate is in the possession of Mr. Gilbert I. Ellis, London, and 
was reproduced (full size) in the " Ex-Libris Journal," July, 

Sizes of Exlibris 67 

Count von Hanau-Lichtenber^^ hand-coloured woodcut, 
armorial, circa 1570 ; loj- in. x 12 in. 

(C) Modern Plates : 

Theodor Hennig (Berlin), by himself; plant decoration, 

lithograph, 1895 \ ^k ^^' ^12^ ^"' 
Franz Freiherr von Lipperheide (Berlin), by Karl Rickelt ; 
zinc-block, armorial with knight as supporter, between 
two inscriptions, 1894 ; yj- in. x i if in. 

The Smallest Exlibris are not of German 
origin : 

CoMuX Jacquet (Bar-le-Duc, France), typographic, printed in 
gold on white enamelled paper, circa i860 ; 4; i"- x i ^o- 

£, C, G, (French), 1900 ; initial letters ; f in. x VV i^- 

Dr. A. Warmont (Paris), 188 . , f in. diameter. 

CKerrins ffydCy Irish emigrant (France), circa, 1880; ar- 
morial, in./yXf in. 

Hirzel (Zurich), circa i860; armorial, printed in gold on 
silver paper, ^ in. x |- in. 

University Library, Ghent (Belgium), heraldic lion with in- 
scription, lithograph, circa i860; \ in. in diameter. 

Jac. Manzoni (Italy), crest and crown, copperplate, circa 
1 860 ; \^ in. X \ in. 

The Smallest (Jerman Exlibris is that of Johann Baptist 
Gadner, armorial, copperplate, circa 1 700 ; ^ in. x ^ in. 

Between the extremes given above there is 
room for infinite variety of size, and no rule need 
be followed in the matter. Everyone who orders 
a book-plate may consult his own wishes, but the 
most generally useful sizes will be found to be 
octavo and duodecimo. Plates are also frequently 
made in various sizes to suit larger or smaller 
volumes, and these will be spoken of in the next 

tirst tiio; 

(A.) Vakietles Of Size 
NYONE who preferred not to use the 
same exlibris in books of all sizes would 
I have different plates made to suit large 
I and small volumes. We will consider 
i which have the same design on each. 
1 n old times, indeed before the invention of pho- 
tography, it is certainly surprising to find a plate 
made in three or four different sizes with exactly 
the same design ; for it must have involved very 
nearly as much labour to engrave four similar plates, 
whether on wood or copper, as four different de- 
signs. The retention of one design was due partly, 
no doubt, to the conservative disposition of our 
forefathers ; partly to the fact that the owner of the 
plate was so pleased with the one design that he 
' frished for no other, or that he could not afford to 
ommission several draughtsmen to work for him. 
In modern times the conditions have changed. 
The invention of photography has made it possible 

yo Gerinan Book-plates 

to reproduce one drawing in three or four different 
sizes at a very slight cost — especially if zinc-blocks 
are used. The saving in expense is consequently 
considerable, especially as artists of any standing 
nowadays charge high prices for drawings.* 

As an example of a design reproduced in several 
sizes, the exlibris of Johann Baptist Zeyll may be 
mentioned (designed by P. Opel, and cut on the 
wood by C L., 1593). It exists in three sizes 
(6 in. X 8-J in. ; 4 in. x 6 J in. ; 2f in. x 3^ in.) 
which differ only to a trifling extent owing to the 
greater difficulty of engraving the smaller sizes on 
the wood. The second size is reproduced here. 
Again, the exlibris of the orphanage (Waisenhaus- 
Bibliothek) dXHal/e, copperplates, ^r^/z 1750, exists 
in three sizes (5 in. x 4I in. ; 3I in. x 3 in^ ; 2\ in. x 
2J in.). These three library interiors are almost 
exactly the same, though the rococo frames show 
slight variations, owing to the sizes of the plates. 
The same remarks apply to the book-plates of 
Johann Max Z/^;;////;/^^«(Frankfurt-on-Main), four 
sizes, copperplates, ciira 1599; Prebendary Johann 
G^ovgvon /f^Vr^r/z^AvV/, two copperplates, 1569; the 
Benedictine Monastery of Lambach, two copper- 
plates, r/rr^ 1720; the Moravian bibliophile and 
lawyer Wilhelm Alexander Balaus (Brlinn), two 
copperplates by Martin Tyroff, circa 1750; the 
Moravian Benedictine Monastery of Raigem^ two 
copperplates, 1784 and 1789 ; and Zacharias Kon- 
rad von Uffcnbaclis Senator, (Frankfurt-on-Main), 
four copperplates by J. U. Kraus, circa 1770, etc. 

' In (iermany prices range from loj. tO;^io for the drawing 
alone (exclusive of the cost of engraving). 













Designed by P. Op 

'^ 1 

72 German Book-plates 

In modern times the ruleis to have one size only, 
but two or three sizes of the same design are often 
met with ; e.g., two sizes : The Emperor William 
II., The Empress Auguste Victoria^ The Empress 
Frederick, Victoria Melita, Grand Duchess of Hesse^ 
Historischer Verein der Pfalz (Spiers), Verein 
Herold (Berlin), Kunstgewerbe-Museum (Berlin), 
H. M. Count Briihly E. Hetiser (Spiers), Marcella 
Sembrich, almost all plates designed by Hans 
Thoma (Karlsruhe), and many others. 

Examples of three sizes of the same plate: 
Frederick Franz III., Grand Duke of Mecklenburg^ 
Eu}:(en, Archduke of Austria, Fedor von Zobeltitz 
(Berlin), Bogislaw von A'/m/ (Gebersdorf), Albert 
Audreae (Konigstein-in-the-Taunus), etc. 

(i9.) Varikties of Design. — Anyone who pre- 
ferred not to have the same design in all his books 
would have a new one made for each different size, 
thus securing variety, though at an increased out- 

As old examples of this practice may be men- 
tioned the four sizes of the plate of the University 
Library at IViticnbcrg, with the portrait of the 
Elector of Saxony, John Frederick the Mag- 
nanimous, circa 1536, woodcuts by Lucas Cranach ; 
sizes I. and II. (5 j in. x 10 in. ; 5 in. x 7^ in.) have 
the portrait with fourteen coats of arms, size I. with 
eighteen lines of inscription and verses, size 11. 
with only six lines of verse; sizes III. and IV. 
(3 1 in. X 55 in. ; 2-^ in. x 4^ in.), portrait with only 
six coats of arms, the same six lines of verse, and 
two similar but not identical portraits (see reproduc- 
tion, p. 129). 

Gennau Book-pinfcs 



Another interesting set are the four plates of tbi 
Bohemian. Johann Dernschwam de Hradiczil 

woodcuts, before 1569. Although all four displa] 




only the coat of arms, except size IV., which has 
landscape accessories, three distinct draughtsmen 
and wood-engravers can be recognized ; only sizes 
II. and III. are from the same hand. The sizes 
are : 5^ in. x 8j in.; 5 in. x 7 J in. ; 3 J in. x 4I in. ; 


M '"• ** 3 •'^- '^^^ smallest ( I V.) is the oldest and 

"€St of the set ; Nos. II.. ill., and IV. show the 

nfluence of Uiirer, and No. IV, is certainly by 

IcMie of his pupils — perhaps Hans Springinklee or 

IPeter Flbtner (Nuremberg). Nos. II. and III. 

76 German Book^-plates 

are almost identical, the borders of the shields only 
showing variations. Nos. I., III., and IV. are here 

It is impossible to illustrate, or even to mention, 
all the plates of which varieties of design exist, 
but a few may be named : 

Five different varieties of size and design : Dr. 
Christof Hos, Procurator (Spires and Worms), 
woodcuts, 1520-8; four sizes and fifteen designs : 
Dr. Martin Eisengrein (Ingolstadt), woodcuts, 
1560-70; six sizes and seven designs: Sebald 
Millner von Zweyraden, woodcuts and copperplates, 
1560-74; four sizes and seven designs: Johann 
Aegolph von KyioringeUy Bishop of Augsbuig, 
woodcuts, 1565-73 ; three sizes and three designs : 
Zacharias Geizkofler von Gailenbach (Austrian), 
copperplates by D. Custos and S. C, 1603 and 
1605; three sizes and three designs: Joachim 
Freikcrr von Windhag (Vienna), copperplates, 
1654-61 ; Hof- und Staats-Bibliothek, Munich, 
between 16 18- 1870, copperplates and lithographs, 
twenty-three different sizes and designs, not reck- 
oning the numerous varieties of engraving ; Dr. 
Christof Jakob TrcUy anatomist and court physi- 
cian (Nuremberg), circa 1760, nine different ex- 
libris, with eijjfht varieties of size, seven varieties 
of design, and three varieties of engraving ; Franz 
Gregor, Count Giannini, Prelate of Olmtitz, Breslau 
and Znaim, protoiiotary, six copperplates of differ- 
ent design, circa 1740; Josef Anton Im/tof von 
Spielberg, Provost of Augsburg, 1700-24, three 
varieties of engraving and design. 

The monasteries often had numerous plates, in 

Varieties 77 

consequence of the change of abbots : thus Andechs, 
seven woodcuts and copperplates, 1590- 1790; 
Baumburg, eight copperplates, 1 580- 1 763 ; 
Chiemsee, thirteen copperplates, 1 637- 1 764 ; Polling, 
nine woodcuts and copperplates, circa 1 560-1 744 ; 
Wiirzburg (St. Stephen), three woodcuts, 1522, 
1548, and 1558 ; St. Paul, in the Lavantthal, four 
copperplates, circa 1600- 1750, etc. 

To come to modern times. Dr. Friedrich 
Schneider, Prelate of Mainz, has in all sixteen ex- 
libris (three etchings and thirteen zinc-blocks), with 
thirteen varieties of design, all based on the same 
motive (a cross with the word "Dux"), by Otto 
Hupp and Peter Halm, 1891-5; Karl Emich, 
Count zu Leiningen- Wester burg (Neupasing, 
Munich), has twenty-one different designs, and 
Magda, Countess zu Leiningen-Westerburg, eight 
others: their twenty-nine plates being designed 
by A. M. Hildebrandt, E. Doepler, E. Freiherr 
von Hansen, E. Krahl, W. Schulte vom Briihl, 
M. von Weittenhiller, W. Behrens, G. Otto, Ed. 
Lorenz Meyer, J. W. Simpson, G. Barlosius, 
A. Freiherr von Folkersam, A. Count du Chastel, 
Major Bengough-Ricketts, J. C. Maess, L. M. 
Rheude, and Henry-Andre (zinc-blocks, litho- 
graphs, and etchings, 1888- 1900, many of them 
complimentary plates from the artists) ; Paul 
^\q.q\zm% Ratajczak (Berlin) has eleven varieties, 
by E. Doepler, A. M. Hildebrandt, M. J. Gradl, 
W. Schulte vom Bruhl, J. C. Maess, G. Otto, W. 
Horstmeyer, P. Voigt, Th. Hennig ; Carl G. F. 
Langensc/teidt (Berlin) has eleven varieties, by A. 
M. Hildebrandt, F. C. Maess, G. Barlosius etc. 

78 German Book-plates 

(zinc-blocks, lithographs, and etchings, 1 895-1900); 
and Markus Schilssler (Nuremberg), five designs 
— including one of Frau Schiissler — and eight 
different sizes, by L. Kiihn, K. Hammer, P. Ritter, 
H. Kellner, 1895-9. 

The owners of these plates — at least the five 
last-named — were influenced, not by the necessity 
of having several exlibris, but rather by the wish 
to possess a number of designs, by exlibris- 
draughtsmen of the most varied styles, forming a 
unique decoration for the books of a library, and 
at the same time an interesting record for future 
historians of the black-and-white art of our day. 

(C) Varieties of Engraving. — These have 
resulted from various causes. Thus a copper- 
plate would become worn, and have to be re- 
engraved, which led to slight variation in the 
work, either intentional or accidental. This con- 
tingency does not arise at the present time, as 
plates are ** steel-faced," which allows of a much 
larger number of impressions being taken. 

An example of four such varieties of engraving 
is afforded by the exlibris of Dr. Johann Karl 
Seyringe7% a lawyer in Upper Austria, 1692, by 
J. de Lespier : though apparently alike, there are 
two variations in the position of the words in the 
first line of the inscription, and the shading varies 
in all four plates. The Monastery oi Diessetty 1 755, 
has three varieties of engraving ; and Frederick 
August, Duke of Brunswick-Ols, circa 1789, has 
sixteen varieties of engraving (two different sizes 
and a number of different colours). 

Again, varieties are caused by the different 

Varieties 79 

** states" of the plate, "before and after letters*'; 
e.g.y the exlibris oiKonig von Konigsthaly one state 
of which has a blank scroll left for the inscription, 
on which is written the name of Eberhard Jodocus 
Konig, 1763 ; another state has the engraved in- 
scription: ** Ex Musaeo Gustavi Georgii Koenigii 
de KoenigsthaV a proof that a number of copies 
were printed off ** before letters," for the use of 
another member of the family. 

A further cause of varieties of engraving is the 
alteration of the inscription, as the owner's titles 
increased in number. Thus C. F. J. N. A. von 
Bertrand, Count von Perusa (Munich), circa 1760, 
who possessed four armorial plates — in two of 
which the coat of arms and border are alike — had 
the inscription re-engraved four times, with some 
addition in each case. This plate was originally 
engraved for the Calendar of the Bavarian Order 
of St. George, and was first used as a book-plate 
after its publication. 

A fourth cause of varieties of engraving arose 
from four small plates of the same design being 
engraved together on one large plate of copper. 
Four prints would thus be obtained from each 
impression, and these could afterwards be cut up 
and used separately, the extra cost of engraving 
being compensated to some extent by the saving 
on the printing. In such a case it is obvious that 
slight variations in the engraving would occur. 
A proof of such procedure is found in an uncut 
sheet of four plates of Albert Kirchmaycr, Canon 
and Professor of Rhetoric, designed by Wink, and 
engraved by J. P. P. Rauschmayr, Prebendary of 

8o German Book-plates 

Augsburg, circa 1 790. The chief differences on 
the quadruple plate, here reproduced (p. 8 1 ), are 
in the little bush at the feet of the figure of Apollo, 
and in the sizes of the signatures of designer and 
engraver. The four plates, cut apart and fast- 
ened singly into books, were frequently met with 
a few years ago. 

(/?.) Varieties of Names, Coats of Arms, 
KTc. — These arose from the use of the same 
design, or even the same copperplate, by two 
different people, with alteration of name or coat 
of arms. Such plates may be distinguished as 
conscious or unconscious plagiarisms, according 
as the owner was aware of the imitation on the 
part of the artist or engraver, or not Often, no 
doubt, he would i^ive the engraver a plate which 
pleased him, as a pattern ; often the engraver 
would merely copy some stock pattern without 
the owners knowledge. In this slavish imitation 
of other people's work, there is no doubt that, as 
a rule, neither owner nor engraver perceived any 
harm. It is nevertheless a precedent which should 
be sternly avoided. 

Some of the Nuremberg "little nfasters," at the 
end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seven- 
teenth centuries, were particularly fond of ** borrow- 
ing'* each other's designs. This resulted partly 
from similar commissions being given by the same 
person to two artists, e.g., the two exlibris of \'eit 
August Hohschtihci\ by Jost Amman and Hans 
Sibmacher, 1580 and 1600; partly from the close 
intercourse existinor between the Nuremberof en- 
gravers between 1560 and 1591. As pupils and 


Designed by Wink. Engraved by J. P. P. Rauschmayr, ivWu 1790. 

82 German Book-plates 

artistic successors of Diirer, they worked in the 
same spirit, and after the same formula, frequently 
discussing their ideas among themselves. In the 
case of most of the plates of that period it is im- 
possible to say who was x}ci^ first designer, who the 
copyist : again, many of the little masters used their 
own sketches again and again ; pupils copied their 
master s work, or, in many instances, finished, in 
his manner and his spirit, what he had himself 
begun. Moreover, the rich Nuremberg families were 
closely connected and related to each other; and 
the repetition of a motive or of a whole design is 
often to be explained by the fact of a man seeing 
a coat of arms or book-plate in the house of a rela- 
tive, and straightway ordering a similar plate for 
himself, e.g,, a different coat of arms in the same 

The same reasons, no doubt, account for the 
existence of so many fine exlibris of that period, 
with no artist's monogram : such copies and imita- 
tions could not be signed as original work. 

As examples of this general habit of " borrow- 
ing" may be mentioned the exlibris of V. A. 
Holzschuher (Nuremberg), engraved by Jost 
Amman (**J. A.") 1580, and Pfaudt (Nurem- 
berg), engraved by H. Sibmacher (" H. S/') circa 
1600, on which the putti above have the same 
form and position ; this Pfaudt book-plate, more- 
over, resembles in its whole construction that 
engraved by Jost Amman for Julius Gender 
(Nuremberg). Again, the exlibris oi Haigcl ^nA 
Bellamy by Sibmacher, bear close resemblance to 
those of M'drtz, Welser^ and Haller by Jost 

Vaneties 83 

Amman.' As we shall recur to the book-plates 
of these little masters in a subsequent chapter, we 
need not illustrate them here. 

Of more recent examples we may notice two 
exlibris of the Premonstratensian monastery of 
Oberzell, near Wiirzburg, that of Abbot George 
Fasel (1738-47), and that of Abbot Oswald 
Loschert (1747-S5) by Gutwein. These two 
plates are absolutely identical, except that the 
later abbot inserted his own arms in place of those 
of his predecessor. 

One motive — a boy with book and pen, with 
rococo ornament below, and coat of arms (copper- 
plate) — is found on the book-plates of no less than 
five separate owners in the eighteenth century; 
(i) Gottlieb Eilling, jurist, engraved by J. A. 
Fridrich (Augsburg); (2} Chr. C. L. von Savigny 
(with the well-known motto, " non mihi sed aliis "), 
unsigned : (3) J. F. A. C. Neurath, lawyer in 
Darmstadt, unsigned ; (4) Heinrich Wilhelm 
Lchnemann, Doctor Juris. Sheriff of Frankfurt, 
by J. J. Schnaper (Offenbach), and (5) Johann 
Friedrich Miller (Minden and Bremen) unsigned, 
with a slight variation in the position of the boy. 
The Ettling plate, shown on p. 84, is the best of 
Ithe five. 

Another design, old men (teachers), planting 
oung trees (scholars), and watering them, en- 

■aved by Daniel Chodowiecki (Berlin), for the 

.\ndresen, in hU "Deutsche Peintregraveur " (1864, vol. 
, p. ^^3), states that the engraved work of Sibmacher and 
^Ost Amman is so alike that it is often difficult, if not 
npossible, to distinguish between them. 

84 German Book-piatcs 

exlibris of the French Seminary in Berlin. 1772, 
(see chap, viii., C), was twice copied a few years 

Hy J. A. Fridrich. 

later by his friend, Johann Rudolf Schellenberg, 
for the Munitipal Library 0/ Winterihnr} 

Almost exactly alike, with the exception of 

' Reproduced in K. L. Z. ii., No. i, p, 14; iv., p. 17; 
PP- 37. 38' 


r arms and inscription, are the "'library interior" 
plates of F. D. Hiibcrl'in of Ulm, publicist in 
Helmstadt. copperplate, about 1750, and of Pro- 
fessor Amadeus Lttlin (Geneva), engraved by 
B. Picart, 1722; also those of J. M. von Loen, 
Privy Councillor and author (Frankfurt), engraved 
by P. Fehr, 1725, and of C. S. Jordan^ Privy 
Councillor (Berlin), probably also by P. Fehr, and 

P of the same period ; in these two plates, not only 
is the whole arrangement identical, but even the 
motto, " Deus nobis haec otia fecit," is common 
to both. Johann Lorenz Blcssig. Professor and 
theologian, and his friend Friedrich Rudolf (von) 
Saizmann (both of Strassburg), seem to have used 
the same copperplate, engraved by Ferdinand 
Wachsmuth (Paris), about 1775, slight alterations 
being made for the names and coats of arms. 
The three plates (engraved about 1760) of P. J, 

86 German Book-plates 

Sc/iarnOy Christian Gottlieb Jdcher, Universit)' 
Librarian at Leipzig, and Johann Christof Gottschedy 
critic and dramatist, are, it is true, in different 
styles, but they have the same motive — ^bookcases, 
Minerva with spear, and coat of arms. 

The book-plates of D. Chr. August Stolzer and 
C. J. von HopffgarteUy copperplates, about 1800, 
have a similar design of Roman writing materials. 
(See p. 85.) 

Friedrich Karl von Moser (Darmstadt and 
Ludwigsburg), again, allowed his friend Susanna 
Katharina von Klettenberg (Goethe's " Schone 
Seele") to use his copperplate, designed by 
J. A. B. Nothnagel and engraved by H. Contgen 
(Mainz, about 1765) ; only the inscription is 
altered (see reproduction, chap, viii., C). Another 
plate used by two people is that of Luise Adel- 
gunde Viktorie Gottsched ("die Gottschedin ") 
about 1750-60, which was also used by G. E. 
Wcinland, perhaps after her death in 1762. The 
necessary alterations in the inscription, etc., were 
made by Johann Michael Stock (Leipzig), who 
probably engraved the plate originally.' 

The urn-plates of J. C. G. Reuss, J. F. Reuss 
and J. F. Haakh (end of eighteenth century), have 
the same urn, the first two with the arms of Reuss, 
the third with those of Haakh. 

That two near relatives should use the same 
design is not to be wondered at, e.g., the exlibris 
of Heinrich Wilhelm Kbhne (Berlin and St. 

^ Reproduced in E. L. Z. ii., No. 4, p. 22. For another 
example of " borrowing," see the exlibris of G. H. A. Koch and 
F. D. Hdberlitt, described below (Chap. VIII., B. b). 


Petersburg), and Karl Bernhard Wilhelm Koline 
(Berlin), lithographs, circa 1850, are identical, the 
Christian names only being altered. 

Many instances of the use of the same design 
by different owners occur also in modern times. 
Xhus the armorial plate designed by E. Doepler 
(Berlin), 1888. for Otto Freihcrr von Aufsess 
(Berlin, now Regensburg), has been copied no 
less than three times, the armorial bearings and 
crest only being altered in each case: j. C. Al- 
^rft/i/ (Basle), 1894, Adolf ^(^wi/cr zum Herolds- 
berg (Nuremberg), 1898, by A. Steinbrtichel, 
and J. Baedeker (Iserlohn), by \V. Baedeker 

The exlibris of Friedrlch IVariieckc (Berlin), 
1895, also by Doepler (bookshelves and shield, 
etc.). occurs again with the name and arms of 
Adolf Schiel, Colonel in the Transvaal (a gift 
from Warnecke to Schiel),' and also with those of 
Friedrich Albnann (Frankfurt-on-Main), 1899, 
by himself, and Johann Nepomuck ^i^cr (Buchloe), 
1S99, by Professor Ferdinand Lotz (Wlirzburg). 

The five coloured armorial exlibris von Herts- 
berg^ 1893, by C. A, Starke, are identical, the 
Christian names only being different — Siegward, 
Kurt, Erich Riidiger, Riidiger, and Gertzlaff. 

The bookplate of Hermann Freihcrrvon IValUr 
(Wurttemberg), 1880. by A. M. Hildebrandt, was 
used by M. von Wedderkopp, 1889. 

The exlibris of Nathalie, Dowager Duchess 
£iimar of Oldenburg, ?u'c Baroness Vogl von 

' Reproduced in E. L. Z. Jv, 16 (1894). 

88 German Book-plates 

Friesenhof (Castle Erlaa), by her daughter. Count- 
ess von Welsburg, with view of Castle Brogyan, 
and that of Dr. Hans Schulz (Berlin), by himself, 
with view of the Saalethal near Jena, are both 
founded on the plate designed by W. Schulte von 
Brlihl for K. E. Count zu Leiningen-Westerburg, 
with view of Castle Neuleiningen. 

The exlibris of O. Augstein (Berlin), 1897 
(**0. A." with appletree), by P. Voigt, has twice 
been copied in Sweden, by A. Landgreen and 
A. Lindstedt (Stockholm), 1899, even the motto 
of the original, " Inter folia fructus," being re- 

An interesting series of twelve varieties of one 
design, used by three generations of the same 
family, may be mentioned. The celebrated pro- 
testant theologian and historian Karl August von 
Hase, who died at Jena in 1890, used a book-plate 
designed by Albert von Zahn (redrawn after him 
by L. Nieper) : Coat of arms in front of architectural 
design, an allegorical figure on each side, and above 
two angels, and a wreath with Luther's arms — a 
rose inclosing a cross. His son Oscar von Hose, 
proprietor of the firm of Breitkopf and Hartel 
(Leipzig), retained the same design, only inserting 
in the wreath the Iron Cross, which he won in 
the war of 1870-71, and the original of which he 
sealed up in the foundation stone of the ** Deutsches 
Buchhandlerhaus," at Leipzig. See reproduc- 
tion, p. 89. Johanna, his wife, made use of the 
same design, adding a beehive at the top, as a 
symbol of industry, and their eight children all use 
the same plate, the motto and the emblematical 


ornament in the wreath being altered in each 
case, as well as the name. 

Adaptations of old designs are also not uncom- 


By L. Nieper(iS75i. 

mon : e.g., the exlibris of K. YL. Count zii Leiningen- 
rF?j-/er^«rf,i893{seep. go), by E. Krahl (Vienna), 
who had as a mode! the book-plate of Wolfgang, 

90 German Book-plates 

Count Palatine of Veldenz and Duke of Bavaria, 
by Virgil Solis, circa 1559 (see reproduction, 
p. 119). Again, Ralf von Rctberg (Munich), the 

By E. Krahl{iS93). 

well-known Durer scholar, designed all his larger 
exlibris after Diirer. Other adaptations are: 
the exlibris of Heinrich Frciherr von GudenUA 
(Waidhofen), engraved by Jauner, Vienna, 1891; 

Varieties 9 1 

adapted from that of Valentin Ferdinand Freiherr 
von Gudenus engraved by A. Reinhard, 1732; 
Max ]o^^{ von Baumgarten (Munich), designed by 
F. Steinbriichel, 1892 (lithograph), adapted from 
an old anonymous "universal " exlibris, circa 1489 
(see p. 97 and part ii. 12). The exlibris of the 
Schongauer Society at Kolmar, designed by A. 
Waltz, 1894, is adapted from a well-known armorial 
design by Martin Schongauer ; the exlibris of 
F. Goldschmidt (Vienna), 1882, by C. Lambotte, 
and Simon yioritz, Freiherr von Betkmann (Frank- 
furt-on-Main), 1889, copperplate by H. Goetz, and 
Dr. H. Kabdedo oi CdL^n (Vienna), 1883, are almost 
exact copies of plates by H. S. Beham, circa 1 540 
and 1543. Many other instances might be given. 

(EJ) Varieties of Colour and Paper. 

These are very common, and arise either from 
a love of variety or from a wish to have an 
exlibris in different colours for different sections 
of a library. Nowadays the printer generally 
sends a large number of proofs in different 
coloured inks and on different papers, and three 
or four varieties are often chosen. Although 
such varieties are, no doubt, prized by enthusiastic 
collectors, they have no intrinsic value, and we 
need give no examples here. 



9K come now to the History of Book- 

, plates, and may mention first of ali 
I tiie Earliest Exlihris known — an 
I Egyptian tablet in the British Museum 
(No. 2287S), about 3,300 years old. It is a small 
light-blue piece of pottery with dark-blue inscrip- 
tion, a ticket such as was laid in the cases holding 
books or papyri and. as the inscription shows. 
it belonged to the library of Amenophis III., circa 
1400 yi.c' 

In Europe," personal marks of possession first 
occur in the middle ages, when not only was the 
name of the owner written In a codex, but his coat 
of arms was also painted by hand on one of the 

"Zeitschrift fiir aegyptischc 
iii. (1895), p. 72. A second 
1 the Exiibris Journal, v 

' See E. L, Z. viii. 124, and ' 
Sprache und AUerthumsk 
one, B.C. 668-626, is mentioned i 
(1900), p. lao. 

■ S. R. Kohler, in the Catalogue of the Exiibris Exhibition 
in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., 1898, mentions a 
statement which lacks verification, that \n Japan, hook -platen 
were used as early as the tenth century. 

94 German Book-^plates 

Of these hand-painted exlibris several are known, 
dating from the fifteenth century : e.g.^ Ingolstadt 
Library, 1482;^ Johannes Ras of Koester (Em- 
merich), 1 49 1 ;* Bishop JohannW.y?(7/^of Breslau, 
1494 \^ anonymous armorial, crescent on a moun- 
tain of three coupeatix, circa 1485-90 ;** £'(?» 
Deizisau (Esslingen), 1499;* Monastery of 7V- 
gernsee (gift of Johann Eythlinger von Toelz), 
1493, and others.^ A detailed description of these 
exlibris would, however, be superfluous, as our 
subject is the history of mechaniccUly reproduced 
and printed book-plates. One interesting ex- 
ample of a hand-painted exlibris may be given 
here (p. 93) — that of Heinrich Toebing^ Burgo- 
master of Luneburg, circa 1498.^ 

i^A.) Earliest German Exlibris. 

The book-plate as we know it at the present 
time had its origin soon after the invention of 
printing, which we owe to Johann Gutenberg of 
Strassburg and Mainz, 1440-50. The olctest Ger- 
man book-plates known, which were mechanically 
reproduced, are the following woodcuts ; they are 
distinctly Gothic in style. 

a. Hildebrand Brandenburg of Biberach (Wiirt- 
temberg), monk of the Carthusian monastery 

^ Reproduced in the "Exlibris Sammlung des Leipziger 
Buchhandler-Borsen-Vereins," 1897. 

■^ See E. L. Z. iii. 2. Ras of Koester = Ras alias Koester. 
^ Ibid, iii. 47. * Ibid, iii. 26. 

^ Ibid, iv. 42. ® Ibid, vii. 79. 

' Ibid, vi. 40. 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 95 

of Buxheim near Memmingen, to which he pre- 
sented books : angel with shield, produced at 
Biberach or Ulm. circa 1470. This plate has 
been frequently reproduced/ but always from 
copies of the original, which are not exact. The 
illustration which forms the frontispiece of this 
volume is from the original exiibris, and in- 
cludes the written inscription. The woodcut 
is coloured, shield blue, dress red-brown, hair 
yellow, wings red lined with green, and is fas- 
tened on the end-paper of the volume. The 
charge on the shield is turned towards the con- 
tents of the book — the heraldic left — and the 
inscription reads, above : " T.(itulus) Soma 
virtutu Wilhelmi lugd. (lugdunensis) Epi 
(episcopi) " and " Contenta " ; below, ■' Liber 
Cartusien. In Buchshaim ppe (prope) Mem- 
ingen pueniens (proveniens) a cffe (confratre) 
nrb diTb (nostro domino) hilprando Brandeburg 
de Bibraco Donato sacerdote clinens (continens) 
ut s (supra) oret (oretur) p. (pro) eo et p qbs 
(pro quibus) desideravit." 
t Domicellus Wilhelm von Zell, of the extinct 
Bavarian family of Zeller von Kaltenberg, who 
also presented a volume to the same monastery 
of Buxheim {circa 1470). This displays the 
coat of arms of Wilhelm von Zell and his wife, 
with helmets and crests, side by side : it is not 

' IiiLempertz,"Bilderhertfn"(i8s3^),p!ate(.; "Zeitschriri: 

des Munchener Alterthums-V"ereins" (1887), p. 38 ; Warneckc, 

'*Die Deutschtn Biicherzeichcn " (1890), p. 8; Seyler, " Ex- 

Bgais-Taschenbuch " (1895), p. 8; Castle, "English Book- 


96 German Book-plates 

coloured, and the inscription, written evidently 
by the librarian of Buxheim, is almost identical 
with that of the Brandenburg plate.^ 
c. Hans Igler called Knabcfisberg (Bavaria), circa 
1470, a brown-coloured woodcut, showing a 
hedgehog {Igel) with a flower in its mouth, on 
grass strewn with flowers ; above is the inscrip- 
tion ** Hanns Igler das dich ain Igel kiis." The 
owner was evidently fond of his punning motto 
which he repeated, in writing, at the end of the 
preface, ** Iste libellus attinet Johannem Knab- 
ensperg, alia^ Igler, das dich ain Igel kiiss "; and 
in other parts of the volume "Johannes Knab- 
ensperg a/ias Igler cappellanus illorum schonstett 
Das dich ain Igel kiiss " and " Igler cappellanus 
illorum schonstett, Das dich ain Igel kiiss."" 

The exact date of these three oldest plates will 
probably never be fixed. Warnecke (p. 40) dates 
the Brandenburg plate ** about 1480," and the Von 
Zell plate ** about 1479/' Seyler, in his •* Exlibris- 
Taschenbuch/' assigns both to "the last quarter 
of the fifteenth century." Warnecke places the 
Igler plate "before 1450," while Seyler speaks of 
" its age having been hitherto exaggerated," an 
opinion which is certainly justified. Schreiber, 
perhaps the best authority on this question, dates 

^ Reproduced in Warnecke, p. 9. 

'^ In an undated volume entitled " Vocabularium incipiens 
teutonicu ante latinum/' Reproduced in Warnecke, see 
pp. 10, II and plate i., and English " Exlibris Journal," Nov. 
1 893. 'I'wo copies of this old plate, which has no pretensions to 
beauty, or artistic (]ualities, were sold to England in 1896, and 
two others are in the Royal Print Room at Munich. 

Fifteenth ami Sixteenth Centuries 97 

it from 1470-80.' We shall hardly be wrong if 
we give the dale of all three plates as about 1470. 
The difference in date between them cannot in 
any case be more than a few years. 

Warnecke and Seyler both mention as an exiibris 
a plate designed by B. S. (Barthel Schon ?) of Ulm 
(not by Bartholomaus Zeitblom). about 1466, dis- 
playing the armorial bearings of B, i-on Rohrback 
(died 1482) and ¥.. von Holzhausen (died 1501); 
but beautiful as it is, both in design and execution, 
this plate was certainly never intended as a book- 
plate, and no old example has ever been found in 
a book. 

Not many printed exiibris of the fifteenth cen- 
tury exist. The use of a book-plate at that time 
had not become common, but was still confined to 
a few book collectors. 

Besides the three plates already described, the 
following are the only mechanically reproduced 
exiibris known, prior to the year 1 500. They are 
all woodcuts, and may be assigned to the years 
1 480- 1 500. 

d. Design for a book-plate, or, as such a design is 
sometimes called, a Universal Exiibris : blank 

I shield and inscription " Das puch imd der schilt 
ist," place being left for the name to be added. 
On a copy at Munich, printed in the volume by 
the publisher (Nuremberg, 1489), is written the 
name of Anna Geuder (probably nie Kleiber, 
Nuremberg), while on a similar example at 

" Manuel de I'amateur de I3 gra\Tire sur bois tt iiii^tal au 
liede," Bertin, iSgo. 

98 German Book-plates 

Leipzig is the name and arms of Michel Lorber 
(see reproduction, part ii. 12). 

e. Another Unive7^sal Exlibris\ a woman holding 
a blank shield, both facing the (heraldic) left ; 
from a volume published at Ingolstadt (1497) in 
the Buchhandlerhaus at Leipzig ; ^ on a similar 
example at Munich a certain Magister Albertus 
Gloss, of Leonberg (1504), has inscribed bis 
name and arms. 

f. An anonymous armorial plate^ probably from the 
south-west of Germany, a fleur-de-lis on the 
shield, and as crest the demi-figure . of a man 
with a battle-axe, the whole surrounded wpA 
floral ornament, circa 1495- 1500.* This plate 
is here reproduced (p. 99). 

g. Thomas JVolphius (Wol^, Pontificii Juris Dqc^ 
tor ; coloured woodcut, coat of arms and in- 
scription, circa 1485-90. 

k. An aiionymous armorial plate^ a bull's hod 
caboshed, from which springs a sickle; the shield 
is painted red and supported by two yellow lions ; 
above on a scroll the initials "M.G.B.H." 0f 
this plate, which is, perhaps, according to 
Schreiber, of Alsatian origin (?), four examples, 
used as exlibris, are known. It is reproduced 
on p. 100. 

/. Rupprecht Muntzinger, South German, per- 
haps by M. Wohlgemuth, Durer's master.' 
This plate has been assigned to the years 1505- 
10, but the style of the design seems to show 

^ Reproduced in E. L. Z, x. 8. 
'* Ibid, X. 4. 
' Ibid. V. 79. 

lOO German Book-plates 

that it belongs to the end of the fifteeniltl 
century. I 

k. M. Rcicharl, coloured woodcut, armorial. with| 
inscription above.' 

/. Radigunda, m'c Hggenbert^cr of Fiissen, widow] 


of Domicellus Georg Gassenbrot of Hohenfri-w 
berg (who died in 1502). Date, circa 1500, f 
possibly earlier.^ This plate is also in a volume J 
presented to the Monastery of Buxheim, and ha; 

' Reproduced in thu "Exlibris-Sammliing des LeipugerJ 
Buchhiindler-Borsen-Vereins," 1897, Vlate I. b. 

' Reproduced in E. L. Z., vol. ii., No. 2 ; see also x. 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries loi 

a written inscription similar to those on the 
Brandenburg and Von Zell plates. 

Another characteristic exHbris which may be 

dated "about 1500" is that of the Austrian family 
of Heybcrger, a coloured woodcut, with canting 
arms (//ry ^ hecke, French, haie, old English, 
hay. a hedge, and Berg, a hill) with wild man and 
woman as supporters. Here reproduced. 

I02 German Book-plates 

Another so-called exlibris must here be noticed, 
as it has been mentioned by one authority after 
another, viz., " Johannes Plebanus ad S. M auritium 
in Augusta," i,e,, Johannes Pastor of St. Mauriu 
at Augsburg^ with the date 1407. Were this 
really an exlibris, it would be the earliest known, 
but as a matter of fact it is not a book-plate at 
all, but only a seal or stamp, which the owner 
may have impressed once or twice as a mark of 
possession on some page of a book. Such an 
impression exists in a folio MS. volume in the 
Munich Library, *' Tractatus Artis Moriendi** 
{circa 1475). That this pointed oval stamp was 
merely the pastor s seal is shown by the letter S 
(= Sigillum) before the legend and by its re- 
semblance to hundreds of other seals of clerical 
personages. It is to be classed among " Portrait 
seals," as it represents the pastor kneeling before 
St. Maurice, the patron saint of his church. It has 
not hitherto been generally known that the matrix 
of this seal has been preserved and is in the 
Munich Library. It is a finely cut and well pre- 
served wood-block. 

Although the year 1407 is on the seal itself, 
there is much difference of opinion as to its real 
date. Schreiber assigns it to 1507, and other 
authorities place it from 14 70- 1480. According 
to Schreiber the pastor was a member of the 
family of Schellenberger, and a writer in " Ex- 
libris Ana'* (1895) states that the figure of St 
Maurice represented the arms of the family. Of 
this, however, there is no proof, and every expert 
knows that the figure of St. Maurice occurs on 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 103 

many other seals of the fifteenth century as the 
patron saint of the church at Augsburg. It ap- 
pears, also (Murr, Journal, ii., p. 107), that there 
was no pastor of St. Maurice of the name of 
" Johann " in 1407. while in 1507 there was a pastor 
so named ; and further, we have the fact above 
mentioned, that the seal is found in a volume 
written about 1475. 

{B.) Earliest Dated Exlibris. 

The earliest German plates of all are undated 
{circa 1470), and the following are the earliest 
dated examples of various countries : 

Germany: 1516, Hieronymus Ebner. 

France: 1529, Jean Bertaud di; La tour- Blanche {hilherto 

the earliest plate has beon supposed to be 1574, C. Aille- 

boust d'Autun). 
England: 1574, Nicholas Bacon. 
Sweden: 1595, Thure Bielke. 
Holland: 1597, Anna van der Aa. 
Italy: 1622, Anonymous, Cibo? 
America: 1679, John Williams. 

Russia and Denmark follow in the eighteenth 

(C) Exlibris by Albrecht Dlrer. 

Returning to the history of German book-plates, 
after 1500 we come to the period of the Renais- 
jrt«c^,— the revival of ancient, chiefly Roman art- 
The Renaissance or old German style is charac- 
terized by rich arrangement of decorative orna- 
ment, bellying curves, and fine scroll work. Here 

io6 German Book^-plates 

believed, but the following can be ascribed to his 
hand with certainty : 

a. Willibald Pirckheinter (Nuremberg), CounciUor 
of the Emperor Charles V., woodcut, executedL 
according to Ralf von Retberg,* "before 1503" 
(Von Retberg, 50; Bartsch, Appendix, 52; 
Heller, 2139). This plate has the well-known 
motto, ** Sibi et amicis," and the arms of Willi- 
bald Pirckheimer, and his wife, Crescentia, nk 
Rieter, with Pirckheimer's helmet and crest 
There are two varieties, with and without the 
inscription above, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
which was printed in afterwards. This plate 
has been frequently reproduced (^.^., in Lem- 
pertz, Warnecke, Warren, etc.), but as, perhaps, 
the most interesting of all German exiibris, it 
may be again given here (see p. 104). 

b. Armorial plate, also used as an exiibris, of 
Michael Behaim von Schwarzbachy senator at 
Nuremberg, woodcut, "about 1509" (von Ret- 
berg) ; armorial bearings with empty scroll below 
(Bartsch, 159; Heller, 1937). Here repro- 
duced (p. 105). 

c\ Armorial plate and exiibris of Johann Stab (Stab- 
ius), Historiographer to the Emperor, mathe- 
matician, Poet-laureate, and friend of Durer; 
with laurel wreath but without inscription (Ret- 
berg, 243; Bartsch, 166; Heller, 1945), **about 
1 521/' There are two more plates belong- 
ing to Stab which, however, neither Thausing 
(** Dlirer/' vol. ii., p. 124) nor Doepler (** Ex- 

^ "Diircr's Kupfcrstiche und Holzschnitte," Munich, 1871. 

io8 German Book-plates 

Hbris-Zeitschrift," vol. v., p. 34) consider to be 
the work of Dtirer. 

d. Lazarus Spengler, Recorder of Nurembei^, 
savant and poet, one of DUrer*s most intimate 
friends, woodcut, 1 5 1 5 (Retberg, A. 59 ; Bartsch, 
App. 58 ; Heller, 2 149). Armorial bearings rest- 
ing on a skull, with motto below (see p. 107). 
An original pen drawing by Diirer (15 15) for 
this exlibris, with the figures of a satyr or a 
nymph added, is in the Albertina Collection, 
Vienna ; it is in violet ink, the arms being 
painted in black, red, and gold. 

e. Hieronymus Ebner von Eschenbach, judge in 
Nuremberg, and an eminent supporter of the 
Reformation movement, woodcut, dated 15 16 
(Retberg, A. 53 ; Bartsch, App. 45 ; Heller, 
1940). Arms of Ebner and Fiihrer. Retberg 
says that it is " perhaps after a sketch by Diirer. 
but scarcely by his own hand." Thausing, on 
the other hand (vol. ii., p. 125) says: "There 
is no doubt that Diirer drew the design on the 
wood with his own hand for his friend." 

f. Johann TV^^^r/^, architect and bridge-builder to 
the Emperor, Vienna, woodcut, "about 1521" 
(Retberg. 244; Bartsch, 170; Heller, 1948); 
arms with satyr and two dogs ; a punning coat, 
the Bohemian word Tschert (Czert) meaning 
** devil " or " satyr." 

Thausing gives the following Designs for Ex- 
libris by Diirer (vol. ii., p. 124) : 

g. Coloured pen drawing; winged cauldron on 
goose*s feet, and above, a raging lion, rising 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 109 

out of a crown, scroll and inscription, " Fortes 
fortuna juvat, 1513." In the Berlin Museum. 

h. Coloured pen drawing : Wheel of fortune, with 
four men ; above, the Goddess of Fortune with 
crown and sceptre ; vines in the corner ; about 
1 5 1 5. A later inscription on the back says 
that " Albrecht Diirer painted this in Melchior 
Ffinzing's book." In the Berlin Museum. 

i. Pen drawing : Wild man as shield-supporter, 
surrounded by ears of corn and vine-branches. 
In the Louvre, Paris. 
Dr. F. Lippmann mentions also (" Zeichnungen 

von Albrecht Diirer in Nachbildungen," Berlin, 

1883. p. i;, No. 82); 

k. Pen drawing : design for an exlibris of Willibald 
Pirckheimer, Genius with outspread wings, hold- 
ing in the left hand a shield which rests on the 
ground : on the shield is a tree — I'irckheimer's 
arms — and above the monogram. 

Warnecke in his "Exlibris des 15. und 16. 
Jahrhunderts," mentions also several plates, which 
are undoubtedly by Diirer, but were in all prob- 
ability never used as exlibris.' 

L {p.) Exlibris from Durer's Studio or 
I School. 

a. The large exlibris of Hector Piimer, Provost 

' There is also a drawing in the British Museum — circular, 
with allegorical female figures — signed by Diirer, which seems 
to be a preliminary sketch for the Pirckheimer plate by the 
monogramraist "J. B.," reproduced on p. 133. It is given in 
Cusl's " Diirer's Paintings and Drawings," 1897, p, 99. 

ifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 1 1 1 

the Church of Si. Lawrence at Nuremberg. 
Rroodcut, 1525 (Retberg. A. 21 ; Bartsch, 163; 
Heller, 2140): signed, " R. A. 1525." which 
stands for "Resch (or Roesch the wood cutler), 
Anno 1525."' It displays the figure of St. 
Lawrence, with his gridiron and the pahn of 
martyrdom, and in front of him the shield, 
bearing the gridiron, quartered with the arms 
of Pdmer. The helmet with its rich mantling is 
surmounted by the crest of PiJmer — a demi-nun. 
At the sides are pillars connected by an arch. 
In the four corners are shields bearing the an- 
cestral arms of Ptimer, Rummel, Schmidmaier, 
and Ferkmeister, Warnecke in his " Herald- 
ische Kunstbialter" (vol. i., p. 5. No. 39) writes: 
" the design is in all probability by Durer him- 
self." it is here reproduced (p. no), 

b. The second exlibris of Hector Pdmer, woodcut, 
circa 1521 (Retberg, A. 55 ; Bartsch, App., ^^ ; 
Heller, 2141), The armorial bearings within 
an arch, with the four family coats of arms as 
above ; below, a blank label, with two angels' 
heads at the sides : attributed by Retberg (p. 
124, A. 55) to H. S. Beham/ 

c. The small exlibris of Hector Pdmer, woodcut, 
circa 1521. The armorial bearings surrounded 
with fruit garlands, and the four coats of arms 
as before, and blank label below. Attributed 
by Grenser (" Adler," i8;2. No. 9, p. 135)10 
H. -S. Beham. Here reproduced (p. 112). 

^ Stephan Rosinus, Canon of Passau, woodcut, 

LSee "Adler," Vienii.i, 1873, No, 8, p. 122. 
See E. L. Z. vi- 78-79. 

1 1 4 German Book-plates 

circa 1530 : coat of arms between pillars, at the 
back an altar with the figure of Christ.^ 

e. Albrecht V. 6V:/^«r/ and his wife Anna» nie Zingl 
(Nuremberg), circa 1523, woodcut : wreath and 
quatrefoil surrounding the arms, and below a 
cupid holding tablet with inscription: four small 
coats of arms in the corners. The wood-block 
was evidently inherited by Christof Scheurl III. 
von Deferscbrfy and his wife Sabine, nie Geuder 
zum Heroldsberg (Nuremberg), who erased 
three of the small family coats of arms, circa 
1560 (Bartsch, 164, "after Durer"). 

f. Sebastian von Rotenhan (Wurzburg), Doctor 
Juris, Lord Steward of the Household to the 
Court of Wurzburg, copperplate, 15 18; his 
portrait, as a knight, with shield and lance, 
kneeling in a hall ; in front of him is his helmet 
Attributed by Heller (** Kunstblatt," 1847, P- 4/) 
to Dlirer, but by Nagler (** Monogram misten," 
vol. i., p. 207) to the school of Diirer. The 
Royal Print Room at Munich.describes the plate 
as the work of Hans Springinklee. It is here 
reproduced (p. 113). 

We have no space to describe other book-plates 
of Dlirer s school, but their names may be given: 

g. Johann Dernschwam de Hradiczin, sizes ii.. 
iii., and iv., already illustrated (pp. 74, 75, 76). 
The smallest size is by Hans Springinklee or 
P. Flotner, 15 . . 

//. Bchai^n von Schwarzbach (Nuremberg), 15.. 
Attributed by Retberg (A. 58) to H. S. Beham. 

* Reproduced in E. L. Z. iv. 4. 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 115 

i-n. Five exiibris of Christof Scheurl von Defers- 
^;y( Nuremberg), circa 1540. The design was 
certainly not intended originally for a book- 
plate, but was converted into one afterwards by 
the addition of the mottoes and the inscription 
** Liber Christ. Scheurli," etc. 

o. Anonymous plate of Kress von Kressenstein 
(Nuremberg). Retberg, A. 19; Bartsch, 161; 
Heller, 1941 ; Warren, p. 131, after 1530; etc. 

i^E.) ExLiBRis OF Nuremberg Little Masters 

OF Durer's School. 

The brilliant example of Diirer and his pupils, 
and the magnificent specimens they produced, 
acted as a stimulus to the designing of exiibris, 
especially in Nuremberg, where the rich and art- 
loving patrician families were lavish in commis- 
sions for such works. After Diirer^s death the 
copperplate took the place of the wood-block 
more and more, but the influence of the master's 
designs was long felt, and in consequence we find, 
in the domain of book-plates, a large number of 
works of art, which were held in high esteem even 
at that time, and are now of very great value 
from an artistic as well as from a pecuniary point 
of view. The exiibris of the little masters of 
Nuremberg during the period of the early Ger- 
man Renaissance (1520-60), and in the height of 
the Renaissance ( 1 560-1600), are so numerous, that 
it would be impossible to mention them all here ; 
we shall, therefore, describe only the most im- 

I u6 

Gcrnian Book-plates 

By Barlhel Be/iam: Hleronymus Baumgartner, 
the famous senator and jurist, friend of Luihcr 
and Meianchthon (Nuremberg), c/rffl i 530, with 
and without inscription : the scarce variety with 
inscription is here given ; Melchior Pfinzing, 

iJy Barlhel lieham {ctica 1530). 

provost of the Church of St, Alban, Main^. 
circa 1530: armorial with inscription. 
By Hans Sebald Bcham : Dr. Hector Pomer, 
circa 1521 (see above, p. iii); Behaim von 
Schwarzbach, 15 . .. wild man with two shields 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 1 1 7 

r(see above, p. 114); Sebald Beham (Nurem- 
berg and Frankfurt), 1544, his own; his coat 
of arms displays a chevron between the three 
shields of the Artists' Guild. Here repro- 
By Virgil So/is: Gundlach (Nuremberg), 1555; 
Pomona with arms of Gundlach and Fiirleger, 


By himself (1544). 

fin landscape ; a very beautiful plate ; Andreas 
Imhof (Nuremberg), 1555, arms and landscape; 
Erasmus Rauchschnabel (Nuremberg), 1562, 
coat of arms, supported by wild man and 

Ci; Straub (Nuremberg), coat of arms 
ided by wreath, area 1560; Wolfgang, 

1 1 8 German Book-plates 

Count Palatine of Veldenz, Duke of Bavaria, 
circa 1559. Here reproduced (p. 119). 

By Alatthias Zilndt\ Four armorial exlibris of 
the Pfinzing family (Nuremberg), one of which 
was reproduced above (p. 57); Hermann von 
Guttenburg, 1530, coat of arms and four figures 
in the corners; Hiibner, circa 1550, arms and 
caryatides; Melchior Peundtner (Nuremberg), 
1568; arms between pillars; Wimpheling 
(Spires). 1568, arms with four angels in the 
corners; Hans I mhof ( N uremberg), 1 571, arms 
of himself and his wife in landscape; Demler 
(Ulm), circa 1570, arms with decorative frame; 
an anonymous coat of arms in oval framei 
flowers in the corners ; * Fabritz and his wife, 
m^c Ehen, cijra 1 570. arms with landscape below 
in frame, with blank labels, attributed by Hirth 
('* F'ormenschatz,'* 1883) to Virgil Solis. 

By Jost Avnua^i : The book-plates of this artist 
display almost invariably the full armorial bear- 
ings in the centre, surrounded by a rich Re- 
naissance frame, in which are caryatides and 
alleo^orical figures : corner figures are specially 
characteristic, generally angels, as well as groups 
of musical instruments and weapons : Purer 
von Heimendorf (Nuremberg), circa 1570; 
v., Behem von Behemstein, 1570; Melchior 
Schedel (Nuremberg), circa 1570;* Johann 
Aegolf von Knoringen, Bishop of Augsburg, 

* Von HciiK-mann, " Wolfcnbiittlcr Exlibris-Sammlung," 
plate 35. 

- Reproduced in the " Zuitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde," vol. i., 

p. 474. 

Gcf/itnu Book-plates 


By Jost Amman (15S0). 

circa 1570; Kress von Kressenstein, c/n-« 1570; 
Hallervon Hallerstein (Nuremberg), ^Wa 1580; 
Veit August Hobschuher (Nuremberg), 1580, 

Fifteenth ami Sixteenth Centuries 121 

By Jost Amman {circa 1 590). 

iiere reproduced; Joh. Fischart, called Mentzer, 
Uirca 1580. whose initials J. F. G, M. stand for 
■i"Johann Fischart genannt Mentzer," and also 

122 German Book-plates 

for his motto, "Jove fovente gignitur Minerva"; 
Christ. Andreas Gugelvon Brand (Nuremberg), 
circa 1583 (reproduced p. 54); Johann Georg 
Schwingsharlein (Nuremberg), 1589;' johann 
Jakob Martz. Doctor of Theology (Ingolstadt)f 
circa 1 590, here reproduced (p. 1 2 1 ); JuliusGeuder 
zum Heroldsberg (Nuremberg), circa r 590 ; 
Hans Rieter von Kornburg (Nuremberg), 1591 ; 
Baumgartner(Nuremberg), 15 . . ; Martin Pfinz- 
ingvon Henfenfeld (Nuremberg), 15 . . ; Scheurl 
(Nuremberg). 15 . .; Von Welscr (Nuremberg), 
15 . . ; Salomon Schweigger, of Sultz. 15 • . 

By Konrad SaldSrfcr (probably a pupil of Virgil 
Soils) ; two exlibris of Sigmund Held von 
Hagelsheim (Nuremberg), circa 1570. Arms 
with supporters and arms in frame, with six 
allegorical figures. Both plates have the ladies' 
shields of Romer and Ebner. 

By Georg Hiipschmann: Schortz (Nuremberg), 
circa 1590. Arms with five allegorical figures 
and two angels. 

(F.) Othi;r Exlibris of the Sixteenth Ckn- 


^y Jorg Breu (Augsburg), under the influence of 
Hans Burgkmair ; exlibris of Hugo von Hohen- 
landenberg. Bishop of Constance, woodcut, black 
and white, and coloured, 1504; Virgin and 
Child, with S. Conrad and S. Felagius. Adam 
and Eve above.^ 

' Reproduced in E. L. Z, iii. 52, 
' Ibid. V. 96. 


Fifteenth ami Sixteenth Centuries 123 

By Hans Baldung Griin (Strassburg) ; Lempertz 
and Warnecke .ijive two coloured exlibris of Dr. 
John Maier, called Eck, Professor at Ingolstadt, 
and opponent of Luther, woodcuts, circa 15 18 
and 1522. as doubtful works of this artist ; while 
the Royal Print Room at Munich assigns that of 
1518, here reproduced (p. 1 24), with more proba- 
bility to Hans SpHnginklee, the pupil of Dtirer.^ 
For Eck's two later exlibris see chap, ix., C. 

By Hans Springinklee (Nuremberg). Besides the 

Ismail plate of Johann Dernschwam de Hradic- 
zin {see p. 75), and that of Eck, just mentioned, 
the Royal Print Room at Munich ascribes 
[ the following to this artist : C. G. Tengler, 
I circa 1516, here reproduced (p. 125): punning 
I arms, the hammers bearing an allusion to the 
I so-called "dengeln"^ — ^the forging and sharpen- 
I ing of the scythes : Magister Georg Tannstelter, 
I astronomer, and court physician (Vienna), before 
' 1516. here reproduced (p. 126). 
There is no doubt that these two plates and that 
of Eck, illustrated on p. i 24, are by the same artist, 
as may be seen by the style of the drawing and 
the similarity of arrangement. Thus each has the 
arms with name and label below, and an allusion 
to the owner's profession— the figure of God the 
Father for Eck the tlieologian, a globe for Tengler 
(perhaps a geographer), and the firmament and 
itars for Tannstetter the astronomer — and in each 
(f the three plates a similar monogram in the 
.me position. (J. M. E. T. ^ Johannes Maioris 

' See chap, iii., //., and chap. ix. C. 

^L Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 127 

^^Eckius Theologus ; C. G. T. = C. G. Tengler ; 
piH. G. T, =: Magister Georg Tannstetter.) It may 
' be noticed, further, that these plates bear a strong 
resemblance to that of Hieronymus Ebner von 
Eschenbach by (or after) Diirer (see above chap, 
vi., C €). Springinklee lived in the same house 
with Diirer. and as Thausing remarks (" Durer," 
vol. ii.. p. 132), "no one followed so faithfully in 
the master's footsteps. He uses DUrer's motives, 
both in decoration and in his figures, without 

By Lucas Cranacli the Elder (Wittenberg and 
Weimar); PradikatiirOehringen(WUrttemberg), 
woodcut. 1 509. Identified as the work of Cranach 
by his usual shield with the swords of the Elector 
of Saxony : it represents St. Paul with book and 
sword. Municipal Library of Oehringen, for- 
merly Orngau. woodcut. ("/ri"« 1536-43, identified 
as above ; it represents St. Peter with keys and 
book. The original wood-block was cut in 1509, 
without the inscription, and is printed in 
Cranach's " Wittenberger Heiligthunisbuch," 
I 509 ; it was afterwards disposed of and used 
many years later as an exlibris. It was well 
suited to Oehringen, as the arms of the town 
were St. Peter with keys and books: reproduced 
here (p. 128). Dr. Dietrich Block (Wittenberg) 
woodcut, «>fa 1520, punning arms with the two 
patron saints of the medical profession, SS. 
Cosmas and Damian (ascribed to Cranach).^ 
Christof Scheurl I. von Defersdorf and his wife 



' See E. L. t. - 

, No. 3, pp. 1 


i;OOK-ri.\tE 01' IHt. MV.N'ICU'AI. I.ll;l 


By Lucas Craonch {circa 1536-43). 

By Luc:ts Cranach {cii 







German Book-piates 


Helena, «fS?Tucher (Nuremberg) ; female figure 
holding in her right and left hand the arms of 
the pair, inscription above, woodcut, circa I5IS( - 
not signed, but certainly by Cranach ; UnivervJ 
sity Library, Wittenberg {after 1548 in Jenau 
with portrait of the Elector of Saxony, John'' 
Frederick the Magnanimous (1503-1554); four 
sizes, woodcuts, circa 1 536, the two largest with 
fourteen shields, the other with six shields, all 
four with Latin verses : the second size is here 
reproduced (p 129). There seems to be no 
doubt that these plates are the work of Cranach. ■ 
Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (i52 7-i6o3)i 
woodcut, circa 1552 ; originally appeared at the 
end of the Mecklenburg " Kirchen-Ordnungen - 
of 1552 and 1557, and was not used as a booki 
plate till 1559. the dates 1559. 1573, and 1579 
being afterwards added. The duke also used 
as a book-plate a copy of the original, i 
about 1590. without the inscription.' 
By Hans Holbein (born at Augsburg ; Basle and 
London), Two exlibris are attributed 
Holbein by Warnecke, D. G. Hauer^and D. !«■, 
Marstaller, woodcuts, circa 1540: both plate 
are alike in arrangement, a cupid holding i 
shield, with florid architectural surroundings 
there are slight varieties in the drawing an< 
different charges on the shield. 

' See C. Teske, " Das mecklenburgische Wappen v 
Cranach, etc," Berlin, 1894. 

' Reproduced in Warnecke, " Rare Book-plates of the XVtli 
and XVIih Centuries " (plate 65); and in Seyler, "Exlibris" 
(189s), p. 63. 

German Book-piates 

By Hans Scfmufelin (Nordtingen and Nuremberg). 
Christof Bruno, licentiate and teacher of the 
ArtofPoetry(Munich), woodcut, 1542; ascribed , 
to Schaufelin ; according to Hirth's " Formei 
schatz " ( 1 885), the border is by Hans Burgkmain 
arms, with verse inscription in decorativs 

By Hans Burgktnair (Augsburg). The followini 
have been attributed to this artist : Martitl 
Count von Oettingen. woodcut, 1526 ; arms anfl 
inscription with border (? if used as an exlibris)P 
Johann Saganta, woodcut, circa 1540; arms 
and inscription; Melchior (?), woodcut, 15 . ., 
arms between columns. An anonymous coal, of 
arms displaying the head of one of the Winds, 
in a niche, woodcut, 15 . . Benedictine Monas3 
tery of Benediktbeuern, woodcut, 15. .; arm^ 
of the foundation with two-line inscription abovei 
attributed to Burgkmair by Hirth ("Formen* 
schatz," 18S3. No. 87), but probably not his (st 
reproduction in chap, ix., B. a). 

By Christof Stivtmer (Schaffhausen). Hans IV3 
Stromer, judge, or Fritz Stromer, councilioi 
(Nuremberg), copperplate, circa 1575 ; arms iri 
heavy border, here reproduced (p. 131). 

By the Master of the Mmwgram, /. B. : Willlbald 
Pirckheimer (Nuremberg, see also p. 106), 
copperplate, 1529; the plate is mentioned in 
Hans Imhof's " Theatrum virtutis et honoris 
oder Tugendbiichlein Pirckheymers" (1606), as 
having been used by Pirckheimer as an em- 
blematical device to place at the beginning and 
end of his books; in the centre is an anvil with! 

134 German Book-plates 

Pirckheimer's arms, a birch-tree {Birke) upon 
it; reclining below is the figure of Tolerantia, 
while on the right Invidia holds a heart on the 
anvil, which Tribulatio on the left is striking 
with a hammer : at the back stands Spes, point- 
ing to heaven, from which are falling drops c 
refreshment. Pirckheimer used the plate fo( 
one year only, as he died in 1530. It is hen 
reproduced (p. 133).' 

By the Master of the Monogram, T. H. V. 
(Constance?): Count Trapp (Austria), 1569 
here reproduced (p. 1 35) ; Jakob Eliner, Suffragart 
of Constance, circa 1570;^ Dr. Bartholomaus 
Matzler. Canon of Constance, circa 1570:" aU 
these are copperplates, arms with architecturafi 

By the Master of the Monogram, C.B. : Voo- 
Roggenbach, copperplate, 1543; armorial. 

By Heinrick Vogtkerr (Augsburg) : his own ex- 
libris, woodcut, circa 1537; armorial, here re- 
produced (p. 136). 

By Martin Rota, of Sebenico, a Dalmatian artist, 
who lived after 1586, in Venice : Wolf Chriswl 
von Enzestorf, celebrated Austrian musiciailj 
1575; armorial with graceful border, here 1 
produced (p. 137). 

By David Kandel, painter, of Strassburg : Exiibria 

' See E, L. Z. vol. v., pp. 43, 44, and Von Heinemann^ 
IX. A sketch of the same design, by Diirer, is in the firitidi 

' E. L. Z. ix. 70. 

* Reproduced in Wamecke, "Exlibris of the XVth : 
XVIth Centuries," plate 86. 


of Georg Kandel, Nuremberg, 15 . 
with colours and arch. 
By Anion Wierix (Antwerp, etc.) : 
Nikolsburg, copperplate, circa 1585. 

By himself (fj' 

We have no space to mention other exlibris by 
the little masters of the sixteenth century, and 
may refer those who wish to study the subject 
further to the various volumes to which frequent 

By Martin Rota (i575l- 

138 German Book-plates 

allusion has been made, where many more ex- 
amples will be found reproduced/ 

{G.) Sixteenth Century Exlibris by unknown 


The great majority of the sixteenth-century 
exlibris, given in Warnecke and other volumes, 
cannot be even mentioned here, and we must 
confine ourselves to naming the more important 
plates, which are either especially characteristic 
or little known ; many of these will be found in 
the '* Exlibris-Zeitschrift," to which references are 

Hugo von Hohenlandenberg, Bishop of Constance ; coloured 
woodcut, not the same as that already described on p. 122, 
though of similar design, circa 1504 (E. L. Z. v. 98). 

Johann Cuspinian (German "Spiessheimer"), Doctor of 
Medicine, humanist, poet and historian (Vienna), wood- 
cut : portrait with verses, circa 1520 (E. L. Z. iv. 112). 

Christof Hos (Spires and Worms), three woodcuts, 1520 and 
1528, and two hand-coloured armorial plates, with canting 
arms (E. L. Z. iv. 9, and vi. 44, 104). 

Dr. Gregor Angrer, Canon of Brixen and Vienna, four wood- 
cuts, 1 52 1, with flowing mantling (one by ** H. R.," 
E. L. Z. ii.. No. 4, p. 5 : here reproduced, p. 139). 

Dr. August Marius, suffragan Bishop of Wiirzburg, two wood- 
cuts, 1521 and 1522. 

Dr. Paul von Oberstain, Provost, Archdeacon, and Chan- 
cellor of the University of Vienna, one coloured and one 
black and white woodcut, 15 16 and 1528. 

^ It may be noted that in Warnecke's "Exlibris of the 
XVth and XVIth Centuries " several plates are given by 
August Hirschvogel, Hans Sebald I^utensack and Hans 
Schaufelin, as to which there is no proof, nor even any 
probability, that they were ever used as exlibris. 


Si quftis dominum prffenris nofcc libelliV 
Gremperiinomenhoc monograma cjoca 

Hunc gcu^i uidcsraut perlcgis ulla:caueio 
Ncmaculcsifurtufitptocul aicf tibi. 

Nonaliaquommc abnulcristmil<aaberc ppia: 
Confda fublati mens tibi femper eric. 






OOofgcii iiicba 


Joaiiins ©rottpcrij bill icfj. 
Xlhlru IM6 Ideiif bttcb mtmicFi, 
atxb chuemjcb bainJicb iiic vrrboltcn. 
Ciaegotoer^ivie oeiii niucf tvalrcn. 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 141 

Monastery of St. Stephen (Wiirzburg), three woodcuts, 15J2, 
1548, 1558 (E. L. Z. X. 31-3S). 


lann Gremper (Bavaria), woodcui, circa 1525, interesting 
[ on account of the two verse inscriptions ; the letters in the 
Lfour corners read; "Sum, eram, fio cinis" (E. L. Z. li., 
[ No. 4, p. 8 ; see reproduction opposite), 

German Book-plates 

Dr. Jakob Spiegel (Schlettstadl), councillor to the Emp 
Charles V. and Ferdinand I. ; coloured woodcut, etna 

Helfrich (Nuremberg), woodcut, armorial, area 1530. 

Augsburg, Stadtbibliothelc (Municipal Ubrary), six col 
woodcuts, 1530-44 (E. L. Z. v., 41). 

Magister Johaiin Alexander Brassicanus (( lerman " Ko 


poet (Tubingen and Vienna), woodcut, c, 
vii. 8j). 

'53° ( 

Heinrich Kurz, Suffragan of Passau, woodcut, 1530. 

Rein hard. Count zu Leiningen-Wesierbui^, Canoi 
Cologne, Mainz, and Trier, and Dean of Cologne, c 
plate, fine work of the Lower Rhine, dtxa 1530, hei 
produced (p. 141). 

144 Gertnan Book-plates 

Sebastian Theuritz, called Keller von Lowenbeig, woodcut, 

Kaspar von Schoneich (Schonei), coloured woodcut, 1535 

(E. L. Z. X. 64, 65). 
W. Hering (Bavaria), coloured woodcut, 1536 (E. L. Z. it. 

78, 125). 
Dr. Georg Hobsinger (Regensbuig), two woodcuts, one with 

canting arms, and one with portrait (see part ii. 10), 1536 

and 1539 (E. L. Z. ii., No. 4, p. 7, and iiL 34). 
Sebastian Linck, Doctor of Theology and poet (Ingolstadt 

and Freising), woodcut, circa 1540 (E. L. Z. iv. 113). 
Von Gottesheim (Alsace), woodcut, drca 1540 (E. L Z. 

iv. 84). 
Johann Faber, Bishop of Vienna, two woodcuts, 1540, and 

two typographical memorial labels (one of which is re^ 

produced in Warnecke, p. 6). 
Dr. Johann Peter Merenda (Vienna), two woodcuts, one of 

them coloured, 1540 and 1548. 
Dr. Matthias Biechner, brother of the Abbot of Zwiefalten 

(Wiirttemberg), woodcut, circa 1542, here reproduced 

(p. 142). 
Jan Z. Lipeho (Bohemia), woodcut, 1541, signed "E. K." 
Dr. Vitus 'I'uchsenhauser, pastor (Straubing), coloured 

woodcut, 1542 (E. L. Z. iii. 75). 
Johann Ecker, Provost (Schaftlam), coloured woodcut, 

punning arms, harrow ( = Egge)on shield, 1545. 
Wolfgang Seidl (Sedelius), Benedictine scholar (Munich, 

Salzburg and Tegernsee), woodcut, 1543, here repro- 
duced (p. 143). The two compasses form the initial W; 

S = Scidl. 
Johann Baldinger, Canon (Freising), woodcut, 1547 

(E. L. Z. viii. 72). 
Johann Marbach, Doctor of Theology (Strassburg, formerly 

of Lindau), woodcut, probably by Anton Wonsam (rf 

Worms, circa 1550; symbolical representation of David 

and (loliath, David standing for Marbach as a successful 

champion of the faith (E. L. Z. viii. 32). 
Konrad Wolfhardt called Lycosthenes, of RufTach, Dean 

of St. Leonhardt (Alsace), armorial, woodcut, circa 1550. 
Isaac Jeger, canting arms, woodcut, 1553 (see opposite). 
Dr. Wiguleus Hundt von Lauterpach, jurist, Chancellor, 

Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 145 

and President of ihe Council (Munich), coloured woodcut, 

i5S6(E. L. Z. ii., No. 3, p. 18). 
Benedictine Abbey of Tegemsee, woodcut, circa 1556; the 

initials stand for "VValthasar Abt zu Tegemsee" (Wallhasar, 

Abbot ofTegernsee); reproduced below (chap. ix.). 
Jakob Christof von Uttenheim (Ramstein, Alsace), 1559, 

woodcut, armorial with wild man and wolf (Ii. L. Z. ii. i, 

P- ?)■ 
L)r. Si«us Kapsser, court physician (Munich), 1 560, portrait 

and arms, two woodcuts (the name has hitherto been 

wrongly given as S. Kercher), reproduced above (pp. 52, 53). 




l)r. David Byrgl, a Bavarian jurist, three coloured woodcuts, 
area 1560 (E. L. Z. ii., No. 4, p. 6, and viii., p. 105). 

T>r. ^\'. Lazius, Professor and Historiographer-in -ordinary 
(Vienna), two copperplates, 1559, and circa 1560. 

Martin von Schaumburg, Prince Bishop of Eichstatt, coloured 
armorial woodcut, circa 1560. 

Weisenau, Premonstratensian Abbej' in Allgiiu, copperplate, 
area 1568; reproduced below (chap. ix.). 

I>r. Martin Eisengrein, Vice Chancellor of Ingolstadt, four- 
teen woodcuts, 1564-70. 

Magister Anion Heckbel (Ingolstadt), coloured woodcut, 

bilis Dominus V Volfgangi 
AndrcasRem a Kctz, Cache 
dralis Ecclefiac Auguft:Sum 
cum miUe & tribus ali)s,vari- 
](c\, inftrumcncis Mathema- 
S. Crucis Auguftae, ad perpc- 
tuumCouentualium vfum. 
Anno Chrifti M. D. LXXX 
VIII. Teftamcnto Icgaulc. 

150 German Book-places 

Karl Apian (AmbtTg), wuodcut, arira 1570 (K. L. Z. 


I.uni;burg, Counciliurs' Liiiriuy, woodcut, 1570-80. 
by Albert von Soest (" Zeitschrift fiir liiicherfreundiJ 
5. 6). 

Fifteenth mid Sixteenth Centuries 151 

Helmhardt Jorger Freiherr zu Toller und Koppach, Imperial 
Councillor, etc. (Vienna), copperplale, 1571, here repro- 
duced (p. 146) ; in the corners art represented Love, Failh, 
Temperance, and Hope. 

Urban Sagstetier, Bishop of Gurk in Carinthia, coloured 
woodcut, 157a (E. L. Z. V. 68, 123), 

Johann Rumel, Dean of No rdlingen, woodcut, 1573 (K, L. Z. 
vii. 4S)- 

Sebastian Millner von Zwairaden, canting arms, 1560-79, 
seven exlibris. one of them a coloured woodcui, here re- 
producfd (p. 148). 


Michael Heumair, jurist (Munich), three copperplates, circa 

Hieronymus Hyrsen, Vicar of Oepfingen, woodcut, before 

1581 (E. I.. Z. vi. 8). 
Balthasar Domer, Pastor of Munderkingen, two woodcuts, 
1581 and 1583 (E. I,. Z. vi. 8). 
^Vona.4tery of Baumburg, four copperplates, 1580-7. 

lenedictine Abbey of Thierhaupien, two woodcuts, 15S7, 
1596; the initials B. G. A., in the shield of the earlier plate, 
stand for " Benedikt Gangenrieder Abt." 
5r. K-arl j^ricola, jurist, Hambutg, three e.xlibris, one of 
which is a coloured woodcut, signed " J . B.," and here repro- 
duced (p. 149) ; in the corners are the four seasons, 1588. 
Benedictine Abbey of Andech.s, two armorial ivoodcuts, circa 
1588 and 1590. 

- JFifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 153 

, Wolfgang Andreas Rem von Ketz, Provost of Augsburg, two 
, .'.. woodcuts, 1588; one, a gift-plate, is here reproduced 

(P- 147)- 
1 Johann Hektor zum Jungen (Frankfurt), copperplate, circa 

'. 1590; l^ere reptoduced (p. 150).*. 

Johann Schwagerl, Pastor of Alburg, two armorial woodcuts, 

1592- . 

Cenedictine Abbey of Ochsenhausen, armorial woodcut, circa 

1593 (E. L. Z. vi. no). 

Christof Freiherr von Wolckenstein-Rodnegg (Austria), three 
armorial woodcuts, 1594, 1595^ 1597- 

Johann Max zum Jungen (Frankfurt), four copperplates, 
circa 1599. 

Ma^ster Konrad Witzmann (Bavaria), two coloured wood- 
cuts, with two coats of arms, 15.. 

Seitz, a Patrician family of Augsburg, copperplate, 15..; here 
reproduced (p. 151). 

Thomas Knoll, jurist (Austria), two armorial woodcuts, 

Halbmeister, coloured armorial woodcut, 15.. 
Leonhard Hoermann (Augsburg), coloured copperplate, 

IS • 

Georg Helwich, Vicar of Mainz, woodcut, 15..; though the 

coat of arms, evidently inserted afterwards by another 
hand, is not beautiful, the border is worthy of remark ; 
here reproduced (p. 152). 

- Further examples of plates of the sixteenth 
century, as well as of later date, will be found in 
the various exlibris books to which reference has 
already been made. 

\ (J f ^ / 




|HF; exlibris of the seventeenth centurj 
far exceed those of the earlier period 
in point of number, though not in 
beauty of design nor in artistic compo- 
sition and execution. The Baroque Style, which 
is characteristic of the century, is distinguished 
by an excessive heaviness of drawing, with gro- 
tesquely curled scrolls, festoons, and garlands, 
and an elaborate medleyof curves. Thus, although 
the influence of Diirer and his school may still be 
recognized, and many magnificent exlibris wert 
executed between 1600 and 1700, yet the tola! 
number of plates which take high rank from an 
artistic point of view is considerably less than in 
the previous century. The cause for this is to be 
ascribed partly to the destructive influence of the 
Thirty Years' War, and partly to the cumbrous 
nature of what has been termed the " Periwig 

The woodcut gave way more and more to the 

The Seventeenth Century 

copperplate, which gradually reached a high pitch 
of development. Many plates were still produced 
at Nuremberg, but Augsburg also became an im- 
portant centre of artistic effort while northern 
Germany was yet of little account, 

in the seventeenth century the armorial bearings 
remain, as before, the chief ornament of the book- 
plate, sometimes alone (with or without inscrip- 
tion), sometimes accompanied by ancestral shields, 
sometimes in heavy frames. Oval cartouches 
with inscriptions are also common. 

On sixteenth-century plates we generally find 
the achievement surrounded with an architectural 
border, or flanked by caryatides, with symbolical 
figures in the corners. In the seventeenth century, 
on the other hand, the armorial bearings are very 
often surmounted by round or oval wreaths of 
laurel or other sprays, a wide-spread fashion, 
which can be traced, in part at least, to Johann 
Sibmacher's " Wappenbuchlein " of :596,' where 
such wreaths are of frequent occurrence. 

The number of engravers whose names have 
come down to us, is very large, those who lived in 
the early part of the century being still under 
the influence of Durer and the old Nuremberg 

(_A.) The known Exlihris Aktist.s of the 

Sf.ventkenth Century. 

Of these the following are the chief. Many of 

' ■■ Johan Sibmather fecit, Friedrich Diirtr excud." 

^-. 'JiMv. QvAci fuTC <0:.Sctu,r vmora. UlSoti,. 


Ity Heinrich Ulrich(«>ira 1600). 

158 German Book-plates 

them were already working at the close of the six- 
teenth century : 

a. Heinrich CZ/r^^A (Nuremberg) : Several exlibris 
of the family of Von Oelhafen ^Nurembeig), 
the largest of which is here given (p. 1 56) ; it is 
dated, in manuscript, 16 14, but may have been 
executed at the end of the sixteenth century, or 
about 1600 ; woodcut, also used by Wolf Hiero- 
nymus Oelhafen. The boldly-drawn arms are, 
in part, canting, the lion holding an oil-pot (Oel- 
hafen). Others by the same artist are : Baum- 
gartner (Nuremberg), 159. -1600; FUrer von 
Heimendorf (Nuremberg), 159.-1600; Gabriel 
Schlusselberger (Nuremberg), 1594; Klemens 
Resen, 16..; Von Imhof (Nuremberg), 16..; 
Georg Rehm (Augsburg), circa 1600, here re- 
produced (p. 157) for the sake of its finely en- 
graved wreath of flowers. 

b. /fa ns Trosc/ie/ (Nur^mh^rg) : Berenhard, 16..: 
Johann Wilhelm Kress von Kressenstein (Nu- 
remberg), 1 6 1 9, designed by H. Hauer, engraved 
by Troschel ; here reproduced (p. 1 59) : a pretty 
plate, finely engraved. 

c. Hans Hatter (Nuremberg) : Besides the exlibris 
of J. W. Kress, mentioned above, that of Georg 
Sey fried Coler the younger, 1643, is probably 
the work of Hans Hauer ; while the exlibris of 
Georg Sey fried Coler the elder, circa 161 7 (an 
imitation of the Geuder exlibris by Jost Amman) 
may be ascribed either to Hauer or Troschel.* 

* Impressions of these two exlibris, printed from the original 
copperplates, are given in E. L. Z. iii. 77-79. 


Desi^-ned by ^ans Hauer, engraved by Hans Troschel (i5ig>. 


160 German Book-plates 

d. Hans Sibmacher (Nuremberg), a close fol 
of Jost Amman, was theauthor of the "Wa 

By ITans Sibmacher {circa l6oo). 

buch" of 1 604 and 1 609 : Exiibris of Dilher 
Thumenberg(Nuremberg),f?>ffli5g2;^ ASi 

' Reproduced in E. L. Z. ii„ No, 4, p. \ 


1 62 German Book-plates 

Beham the elder (Nuremberg), 1595; Paul 
Heugel, 159.; Flechtner (Windsheim), 159.; 
Von Hiilss, 16 . . ; Baumgartner-Oertel (Nurem- 
berg), 16 . . ; Pfaudt (Nuremberg), 16. . ; Veit 
August Holzschuher (Nuremberg), circa 1600, 
here reproduced (p. 160). 

c, Johan7i Sadeler, junior 0Jl\xmc\i)\ Johann Georg 
Herwarth (Munich and Forstenried), 1630; 
Ferdinand von Hagenau (St. Peter's, Munich), 

/, Rapliael Sadcler (Munich) : Electoral Librar)- 
of the Dukes of Bavaria at Munich, circa 1623, 
three sizes, with varieties of engraving ; the 
largest is here reproduced (p. 161); Bibliotheca 
Palatina, the Library of the Elector Palatine 
(Heidelberg and Rome), 1623. (See part ii.4.) 

g, BgiWius Sac/e/er (Munich) : Arnold von Reyger. 
1604, here reproduced (p. 163); the letters 
Z.G.M.Z. stand for ** Zu Gott meine Zuflucht," 
the German translation of the Latin motto at 
the top, *' Ad deum refugium " ; three book- 
plates of Peter Vok, Prince Ursini, Count von 
Rosenberg, 1609.* 

//. Crispin van den Passe, the elder (Cologne, also 
London and Paris) : Dr. Johann Stiger, 1602"; 
Johann von Liskirchen (Cologne), circa 1602, 
here reproduced (p. 164). 

/. Anton Eisenlioit (Warburg) : Theodor von 
P^urstenberg, Bishop of Paderborn, 1603."* 

^ Sec Warrcn, pj). 199-200. Reproduced in Wamecke, *' Die 
Dcutschcn Biichcrzeichen," plate xvi. 
*" KL-[)roduccd in H. L. Z. iii. 81-82. 
Ibid.^ ii.. No. J, p. II. 

J^ Bearifeimo Sic Uli Thait^iSlitds - 

(p^Zpoanes a Z-ishrchn Cmt/^Ktim F. incite ^i > 
^itfmmtfiiehtj et OJiti^iitBtjmt, aJmrarer iayna . 


k. Johann P/ann, the younger (Nurembergl: 
Library of the Clergy-house of St. Lawrence, I 
Nuremberg, a library of 1 1. 300 volumes, founded J 
by the cutler, Johann Vennitzer : the plate Is 
the founder's portrait, with commemoratn 
verses, the arms of the Cutlers, and allegoriiJ 
figures of Fides and Caritas, 1618'; Behai 
von Schwarzbach (Nuremberg), 1635. 

/. Dominik Custos (Augsburg) : Johann Georg v( 
Werdenstein. Prebendary of A ugsburg an 
Eichstatt. three plates, one of 1592, and the 
others about 1 600 ; one of the latter is here re- 
produced (p. 1 65) ; two exlibris of the five owned 
by Zacharias Geizkofler von Gailenbach, Count 
Palatine, Imperial Councillor, 1603.* 

m. Raphael Custos (Augsburg) : Wilhelm 
Clara Kress von Kressenstein (Nuremberg). 
1645, with thirty-one ancestral coals of arms; 
reproduced opposite (unsigned, attributed to 
Raphael Custos by Warnecke) ; an anonymous 
armorial plate, lion with column, signed, 1650. 

71. Jakob Cuslos (Augsburg) : Hoser (AugsburgJ 
ci7ra 1650; Ph. H. Rether, Doctor Juris, i66i 
both signed. The following plates are unsignec 
but are probably the work of this engraver 
joachini von Donnersperg, 1606; Dr. Geof] 
Sigismund Miller, 16 . . ; Ch. Gobel, of Hofgieb 
ing, 1640; Balthasar Ranpeck, councillor (Muft 
ich), 1642-, Georg Amon, private secretar 
(Munich). 1643; Johann Schmidt, circa 1643 
Albert Lerch, chaplain (Munich), 1650; Frao 

' Reproduced in E. L, '/.. \. 
' Ibid. iii. 84. 

The Seventeenth Century 


Maralt, Doctor Juris, 1650; Fr. Meichior Saur. 
jurist, 1650, and others. 


By Ra|iliael Cuslos 1,1645). 

Lukas K'ilian (Augsburg), pupil of Dominik 
Custos, his stepfather ; Freiherrvon Burckhaus, 
1664; Arsenius, Provost of Chiemsee, 1637, 

1 68 German Book-^plates 

arms of the monastery and abbot, noteworthy 
on account of the skeleton, here printed from the 
original copperplate. 
p. WolfgaJig Kilian (Augsburg), pupil of Dominik 
Gustos : three plates of Johann Georg Seefried 
Doctor of Medicine, Nuremberg, i6.. (repro- 
duced above, pp. 29 and 30); Fugger (Augsbui|[), 
16 . . ; Sebastian Myller, Bishop of Adramytti, 
Suffragan and Canon of Augsburg, 1635'; 
Johann Adam Spizhofer, 1649 ; Rupert, Provost 
of Chiemsee, 1654, with St. Rupert, and the 
shields of the monastery and of Salzburg (re- 
produced in chap, ix.) ; the same design was 
afterwards re-engraved in 1688 and 1691 by: 

q, Johann Ulricli Franck (Augsburg), for two 
other provosts of Chiemsee, Sebastian and 

r. Alexander Mair (Augsburg) : Monastery of 
the Holy Cross at Augsburg, Provost Johann, 
1606; Johann Wildenroder (Munich), 1610; 
Georcr Rosch. Bishop of Philadelphia and 
Suffragan of Eichstatt, 161 5 ; Johann Heinrich 
Hybsmann von Bieberach, 16 . . 

>*. Andreas Khol (Nuremberg), one of the best \ 
artists of his time : Pfinzing-Griindlach (Nurem- 
berg), circa 1650; arms with Mutius Scaevola 
above and the fine motto, ** Patriae et Amicis," 
here reproduced (p. 169). 

/. Joachini von Sandrart, member of the ** Order 
of the Palm Tree " ('* Palmen-Orden ''), painter, 
engraver, and writer on art, pupil of Egidius 

^ Rcproducx'd in Warren, p. 192. 



German Book-piates 

Sadder (Nuremberg) : two t^xlibris for himstj 
circa 1680' ; Floridan, i.e.. Sitjmiiiid vun Hirlren 

liy Jiiiicliiiu \uii Saiiilrart («'rira l< 

poet (Nuremberg), about 1670, here reproduce 

' One of these is reproduced in ihe Journal of ihc Fres 
Exlibris Society, " Archives," vol. i., 1894, No. 9, p. 139, | 
other in Burger's " Leipziger Exlibris-Saminlung, 1897, No.J 

Tlie Seventeen fh Century 1 7 1 

' Floridan " was the name he adopted as a 
iiember of the " Floral Sociiity of the Pegnitz " 


ISy D. Kniger([6;4). 

at Nuremberg (" Pegnesischer Blumen-Orden "), 
id the llower opposite it — Amaranth or " Flor- 

172 German Book'-piates 

amor" — was his distinctive symbol in ihc 
society ; above is the passion flower, and below 
the pan-pipes, the emblem and device respec- 
tively of this ancient society, which celebrated 
its 250th year of existence a few years ago.* 

u. JohannStrtdbeck{hugs\y\iYg)\ M agister J obann 
B. Renz, pastor (Augsburg), portrait exlibris» 

V. Christof.J. Stenglin (Munich) : Patricius Mandl 
von Deutenhofen, Provost of Baumburg, 1658; 
Quiron IV. Milon, Abbot of Tegemsee, 1700, 
with the patron saints, St. Quirinus and St. 
Benedict (reproduced in chap. ix.). 

w. Martin Hailler (Frankfurt-on-Main) : Vadia 
(Hesse), Church Library, 1672. 

X. D. Kriiger: Colonel GeorgChristof Volckamer 
(Nuremberg), 1674, here reproduced (p. 171). 

y. Moritz Lang (Vienna) : Georg Szelepcheny. 
Archbishop of Gran, Primate of Hungary, por- 
trait exlibris, circa 1670. 

z, Johann Chr, Schmischeck (Prague) : Honoratiis, 
Abbot of Seeon, 1634: with patron saints (re- 
produced in chap. ix.). 

(^.) Less known and less important En- 

Besides the names already given, the follow- 
engravers also executed book-plates : 

^ A full account of ** Floridan " and of the " Blumen-Orden," 
as well as of the book-plate in question, with an impression 
from the original copperplate, is given in E. L. Z. v. 69-75. 

"^ Reproduced in E. L. /. ii., No. 3, p. 19. 

The Seventeenth Century 


Eberle, 1600; H. Dirr, 1625; Matlhaus von Sommer 
(Nuremberg), 1650; Geoi^e Koler (Nuremberg?); P. 
Kiiflner (Nuremberg) ; Johann VVilhelm Stor (Nuremberg) ; 
Lukas Schnilzer (Nuremberg), cirea 1650: Johann Bap- 

Homann (Nuremberg), 1695; Matthias Kiisel (Mun- 
ich), 1658 ; F. Grassanter, 1672 ; Hans Ulrich Franck 
(Augsburg), 1681 ; Andreas Ehmaiin (Augsburg) ; J. I^on- 
hard Beil, 1690 ; J. de Lespier, 1692 ; and also the follow- 
whose plates are not dated, but belong to the seven- 

Ity H. Fickw-irtt a6 . .). 

teenth century : J. I>. Albrecht; Le Clerc (either David, 
who worked at Frankfurt, Darmstadt, and Cassel, or his 
brotherlsaae, at Cassel); Johann Baptist TezI ; P. Cruslus; 
J. C. Sturn; Jakob Je/1 ; Jakob I.indnitz; H. Fickwirtt, 
iQne of whose two exlibris of Freiherr von Landsee is here 
repnxluced ; Elias Widemann (Augsburg, Vienna, Prague, 
'And Pressburg) ; J. G. Bahre : Manasser (apparently 
Johann Kaspar of Prague, perhaps Daniel of Augsburg), 
1627 : also the owner of the monogram 1. 0. F. D., whose 
exlibris of Piimer (Nuremberg), with ancestral coats of 
is here reproduced (p. r74). 


(J 623). 

.-l'l,Alli OK I'OMER (1648)- 


German Book-piafes 

(C.) Unsigned Exlibkis hv unknown Artists. 

There are. besides, a large number of unsigned 
plates belonging to the seventeenth century. Of 


these many are no doubt the work of Nuremberg 
little masters — such as Ulnch, Troschel, Pfann, 
Khol, and others; others, however, are by un- 
known and less important engravers, who can no 
longer be identified. 

Gerjnan Book-plates 

Some of the best or most interesting exlibris c 
the seventeenth century by engravers who ar 
unknown or cannot be identified may be enumecJ 
ated here. Most of them are also illustrated : 

Library of the Dukes of Bavaria, Munich, i6ia 
three sizes, of which the largest has five varietiei 

, SCHRuDEK (.6..). 

of engraving, the second four, the third onel 
noble plates, worthy of a prince (pp. 175, 17" 

Johann Chrlstof von Kngelshofen, copperplate 
1623 (p. 177). 

Johann Albrecht II., Duke of Mecklenburg, Ca 
adjutor of Ratzeburg, woodcut, ctrca 1625. 

Erhard von Muckenthal. of Hacksenacker, wood- 
cut, 1634 (p. 17S). 

Christof Fiirer von Haimendorf, Duumvir, Ca;^ 
tain of the Castle, of Nuremberg, copperplata 
1 64 1, with ancestral coats of arms (p. 179). 


Johann Christof Wolfskeel, Imperial Nota 

copperplate, 1643 (p. 180). 
Pomer (Nuremberg), copperplate, 1648 ; armol 

bearings in wreath (p. iSi). 
Hans Martin Loffelholz von Kolberg (Nurt 

berg), copperplate, circa 1650 (p. 182). 

Scheurl (Nuremberg), copperplate, 16 . . (p. r 
Georg Schroder, Magister, copperplate, 16 

canting arms, this form of beetle being cl 

" Schroder" (p. 184). 
Ritlershaus, copperplate, 16 . . ; canting arm 

knight (Ritter) and fortified house {p. 185), 
Holzschuher ( N uremberg), copperplate. 

88 German Book-piafes 

{p. 1 86); the owner is represented as St. Gcofgti 
with the arms of Holzschuher, and witli St 
Christopher on the horse's chest, and the plaB 
may be assigned witliout doubt to GeorgChrisio 
Holzschuher (1623-73), Cornet in the Imperial 
Cuirassiers ; in the backeround are a maideil 

Ceoi'S^"*^ St 


and a castle, which are almost invariably found 

on pictures of St. George, 
Balthasar von Ldwcnfeld (Tyrol), copperplate 

16 . . ; in pronounced baroque style, with cant 

ing arms (p. 187), 
Theexlibrisof Johann Georg Starckmann. Docto 

of Philosophy and of Medicine, is remarkaM 

both for its indirect canting arms — Hercules: 

The Seventeenth Century 

itrong man (starker Mann) — and for its niottu, 
:aken from Maccabees, ii. 2. 13 (p. 188). 
le ornament on the shield of Johann Christof 
A'agenseil, Professor and Librarian of the Uni- 
;ersity of Altdorf, 16 . . . is original, and per- 




laps may have had its origin in a twisted rope 
[Sett), here reproduced. 

Mthoughon exlibris of the seventeenth century 
: armorial bearings form the chief ornament, yet 
•e and there we meet with pure alle^^oricat 
iigns in which the arms take an unimportant 
iition, e.g. : 

i ^^ 

192 German Bookplates 

Konrad Franz Reibelt, Licentiate of Law, Prino% 
Councillor (Wiirzburg), woodcut, circa 1^ 
with symbolical figures in luxuriant baro^ 
frame (p. 190). ■^'" 

Eucharius Gottlieb Rink, Professor, jurist, and 
historian, collector of coins and armour ( Altdoif 
near Nuremberg), copperplate, circa 1692; 
above are two commemorative medals, and 
below the name and arms ; the eagle is con- 
nected both with the motto and the arms of 
Rink, and may be taken to signify that the 
owner, like the bird, knows his way both on 
land and sea (p. 191). 

Dr. Christian Johann Lange, physician, drca 
16S5 ; in an oval formed by a snake is the name, 
surrounded by a spray of laurel or olive held 
by a dove, and a thorn twig held by the snake. 

Johann Caspar Reichsfreiherr von Dornspeig 
(Steyermark), 16 . . ; canting arms, thorns 
[Doj-ncn) on the shield, in a rich oval cartouche 



gOCOCO and allegorical plates will be 
n dealt with separately hereafter, and the 
present section will include only those 
I heraldic exHbris which contain merely 
the armorial bearings, without any further decora- 
tive ornament. This type of book-plate was much 
in favour between 1700 and 1800. As a rule the 
name of the owner is given, and very often his 
title, while the place and date are not infrequently 
added. At the same time we find many anonym- 
ous armorials, with no inscription, which fail to 
fulfil the main object of a book-plate — to indicate 
the owner clearly. These plates, the outgrowth 
of .1 most unpractical fashion, are the horror of 
every book-plate collection ; for it is absolutely 
impossible to identify a great many of these 
anonymous coats of arms — even such as were 


■ \ 



; I 1 94 German Book-plates 

borne by one person only, and not handed 
from generation to generation/ 

This custom of introducing the coat oi 

f I only, reflects the deterioration of art and t 

' I; the seventeenth century, which resulted 

' from the effects of the Thirty Years' W 

f 1 sense of decoration was lost, and until the 

^ style developed itself, all ornament became i 

cold and insipid. Moreover, scarcely any 
of importance executed book-plates .ii 
eighteenth century — rococo and allegorical 

* 1 still excepted — and the majority of pure an 

were produced by inferior engravers whc 

ij engravers simply, without being artists 

wider sense. Book-plates became mere i 
of merchandise, chiefly because the dema 
and appreciation of works of art, among tF 
as well as the general public, was practicall 
existent. As we have already said, this dc 
apply to the rococo period, when a great im 
ment set in. 

Although the number of eminent engra^ 
armorial exlibris decreased between 170 
1800, the actual number of professions 
amateur engravers who produced book-pl 

' Many of these anonymous plates have, of cour- 
identified from time to time by dint of searching in 
tionaries of Armorial hearings by H. Freiherr von 1 
G. A. Seyler, and Count Renesse, as well as in Sibi 
** Wappenbiicher " and similar works. The greatest nu 
anonymous heraldic exlibris — especially of the ei<; 
century — which have been identified are in the coUt 
the author, who has also been able to identify many j 
other collections. 


The Eighteenth Century 


try considerable. Nuremberg no longer kept its 
^eminence, and engravers are met with in all 
> of the country, especially in Southern Ger- 
^ny and Austria. 

I Engravers of Heraldic Exiibris, 

Kthout attempting to enumerate the engravers 
r of less important exHbris, the following may be 
I named of those who produced pure armorial 
' plates between 1700 and 1800; where the place 
and dale are not given, information on the sub- 
ject has not been available. 

George Daniel Hmimann (Nuremberg), engraver 
to the Court of Brandenburg ; his book-plate 
of the Library of the clergy-house of St. Law- 
rence, Nuremberg, with a portrait of Johann 
F(V'tenilzer, the founder, circa 1750, is repro- 
duced in Part ii. 12. The library possessed an 
earlier plate by J. Pfann, 161S (see p. 166). also 
with a portrait of Vennitzer. 

Josef Erasmus Betting (Augsburg). 

Josef Sebastian, or Johann Baptist A7(IH(5«'( Augs- 

Johann Stricdbccli, senior (Augsburg). 

Johann Slriedbecti, junior (Augsburg, Frankfurt, 
and Strassburg). (See E. L. Z. vii. 85. and x. 

J. H. .SVtf>-(-M« (Augsburg). 

Josef Mart (probably Augsburg). 

Philipp Andreas Kilian (Augsburg). 


Designed by C. Wink. Engraved by J. M. SSckler (1779)- 


By Michael Rossler (I? . . )■ 


1 98 German Book-plates 

Georg Christof Kilian (Augsburg). 

Jakob Andreas Fridrich (Augsburg), engraver to 
the Court of Wurttemberg. 

Josef Anton Zimtnermann, court engraver (Augs- 
burg). Among other plates, he engraved one of 
the numerous exHbris of the Klectoral Library 
of the Dukes of Bavaria, Munich, 1746 (with 
and without signature), which, with the omission 
of the fruit garlands, and the addition of a 
second order, is exactly copied from that by 
Raphael Sadder (see pp. r6i and 162) without, 
however, approaching it in fineness of exe- 

Johann Pintz (Augsburg). 

Johann Xepomuck j^<7fff (Munich). 

Josef Hcinlcth (probably Munich). 

Johann Michael ^A/'/fr (Munich) ; his florid ex- 
libris of the Ducal Library at Munich, 1779 
(three sizes), reproduced on p. 196. is a good 
example of the formal taste of the period ; the 
lions supporting the shield are mere caricatures. 
The design is by Christian Wink. 

Franz 'Ks.ver Jtmgivirlh (Munich). 

Dc la Hayc (probably at Munich, also at Fontaine- 
bleau. ? if the same artist). 

Andreas Leoiihard Mdglich (Nuremberg). 

Johann Wilhelm ^/y'r (Nuremberg). 

Martin 7jvr()^(Nuremberg). 

Johann David 7^;'t^(Nuremberg). 

Georg Lichtenstcgci- (Nuremberg). 1 

Johann Georg Ebersbcrgcr (Nuremberg). I 

Johann Michael .i?!?// (Nuremberg). 

Michael >?t''i-i-&f (Nuremberg and Frankfurt); « 

The Eighteenth Century 

bris of Hetnrich ChrJstof von Ochsenstein, 
y . . . here reproduced (p. 197). 





/A^ ^ 








tc_/*t S^yytC^j. 


By S. T. Cericke(i7 . . )■ 

g Jakob Schneider (probably Regensbur* 
[in Georg Fridrich (Regensburg). 
bard Gottlieb Fridrkh (Regensburg). 

200 German Book-plates 

Johann Baptist Gutwein (WUrzburg). 

Peter Fe/ir (Frankfurt). 

Johann Chnstol Berndt (Frankfurt). 

Johann Heinrich W^^V^^r (Frankfurt). 

Anna RosaHa Wicker (Frankfurt). 

J. C. Back (Frankfurt). 

Andreas Reinhardt (Augsburg and Frankfurt). 

J. G. Holdenrieder (Mainz). 

Franck (Mainz). 

Johann Michael Stock (Leipzig). 

Rosmlisler. perhaps Johann Friedrich (Leipzig). 

Fclhr (Jena). 

Samuel Theodor Gericke^ court painter and Direc- 
tor of the Academy at Berlin. His exlibris of 
Frau Sophie Marie Charlotte von Jeetze («* 
von Lattorff), Berlin, 17 . . , with French in- 
scription, as was then common, is here repro- 
duced (p. 199). 

S. Halle (Berlin). 

Christian fF/;/r>('/5?r (Breslau). 

Bartholomeus Strahowsky (Breslau). 

(i. F. Pingcliuir (Hamburg). 

Franz Xaver (perhaps Josef Michael) Laparterii 

P. Kilffncr, J. G. Scopp, G. F. Weiss, F. A. Lohr^ 
jfianuy A. Schofiy G. F. Mandhoffy Bodcmhr. 
Choviii, Paul Maassen, etc. 

Austria : 

Johann Adam Schvmzcr (Vienna). Rich armorial 
plate of Count J. C. Cobenzl, 17 .., with the 
Golden Fleece, here reproduced (p. 201). 

Anton Josef 6V/^/W/^r (Olmiitz). 

202 German Book-plates 

Andreas (?) Nicolai (Vienna). 

Christof Dietell (Graz). 

Anton Birckhardt (Prague). 

Anton Mafisfell (Prague). 

Johann Berka (Prague). 

Martin Theophil Polak, bom in Poland, worked 

in the Tyrol, court painter to the Archduke 

August Meyer, A. Drosty F. L. Schnulner, J. A. 

Prcchlcr {J Prague). 

AmoniLf foreig^i engravers who executed ar- 
morial exlibris for Germany and Austria may be 
mentioned : 

I^Vanz Pilscn (Ghent), Jakob van ckr Spyk (Ley- 
den), Reinier Vinkeles (Amsterdam), Johann 
Georo- ^^///rr, junior (Schaflfhausen), Barthelcmy 
Roger ( Paris), and Bernhard Picart (Paris). 

b, Unsii'ncd Heraldic Exlibris. 

Some examples of armorial plates by unknown 
engravers may be here reproduced. 

John William Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (two vari- 
eties with and without the order), circa 1722. 
The letters above stand for " Dei Gratia 
Johannes Wilhelmus Dux Saxoniae Isenacensis 
(Eisenach), Juliacensis (Jiilich), Cliviae (Cleves). 
Montium (lierg), Angrariae (Engern), Wesi- 
faliae " (p. 203). 

Ambrosius Count of Virmont, Bretzenheim and 
Xersen, Imperial Councillor, President of the 

Ic/rcn I7I0). 

The Eighfccnth Century 

Westphalian Count's College (which died out in 
1772) ; the librarywas called afterhis Christian 
name ; circa 1710 (p, 204). 
Aloys, Count von Harrach (Vienna, 1669-1742). 
Ambassador to Spain, Lord- Lieutenant in 
Austria, Imperial Councillor to the Emperor 
Charles VI. and the Empress Maria Theresa. 
Austrian Viceroy at Naples from 1728 to 1731 : 
circa 1710. The inverted shield displays 1 and 
4, the arms of the Tyrolese Count von Thann- 

J^nc ccciikt 

Ini/e rej-iiryit- 

hausen, 2 and 3, those of the extinct family 
of Aeckerlin. the last of whom Conrad von 
Thannhausen took to wife in the 6fteenth cen- 
tury. In the eighteenth century the male line 
of the Thannhausens also became extinct, and 
the heiress. Countess Marie Cacilie, married 
Count Aloys von I-Iarrach. The extinction of 
the Thannhausen family is expressed by the 
inversion of the Thannhausen shield, over 
which two angels spread a mourning cloak. 
Side by side with it, however, the same shield. 

been merged m that of the Harrachs, an 
survives. The significance of the positi( 
the shields is further symbolized by the mol 
which refer to the setting and rising of thi 

{p. 205). 

The Eighteenth Ceiitui'y 207 

^'lip. Prince of Lobkowilz, Duke of Sagaii 
O'icnris-), circa 1735 (p. 206). 
Hiz Ludwig Anton I-"reihf-rr von l.erchcnfeld- 

■ennberg. Chamberlain of the High Court of 
ppeal (Munich). 17 . .. with two banners, one 
' which refers to the domain of Prennbei^. 

Johium I.eoiihard von Behr, Privy Councillor 
Master of the Household to the Prince Bis 
of Augsburg, circa :728. The symbolisn 
the arms is highly interesting and typical of 



3 being symbolical of his three chief 

:s, Fidelilas, Sobrietas and Asslduitas- 

S German verse above and the Latin motto, 

r haec tria," continue tlie same allusion. 

F Franz Josef von Paiili (Austria) ; though 

i 1699, this plate probably belongs to the 

! I o German Book-plates 

eighteenth century, since three similar pU» 
by the same unknown engraver — that of lohalf 

Leopold Count von Trautson, that of the ; 
owner when Prince Trautson, and that of Ma 

2 1 2 German Book-plates 

probably copied from one of the numerous old 
hatchments in the Cathedra! of I'hii, 
In the exiibris of Achilles Augustus Lersner, 
Senator of Frankfurt, i ; . . , the oval shield is 
surrounded by a baroque frame which is already 
approaching to the scroll-work of the rococo 

The anonymous armorial plate shown opposite is 
that of the Imperial Count Palatine Lauhn, ap- 
parently Bernhard Friedrich Rudolf Lauhn, 
Doctor J uris, Councillor to the Elector of Saxony 
(Bautzen and Weimar), circa 1770. The arms 
of the owner are below, and above are the 
following coats in order; Electorates of Treves, 
Cologne, and Mainz, Kingdom of Hungary, 
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation 

J the Austrian shield and the Order of the 
fcolden Fleece). Kinj^dom of Bohemia. Elec- 

(.•(lUNT I'AI.AllNI 

torates of the Palatinate, Saxony, and Branden- 


2 1 4 German Book-plates 

{B.) Rococo. 

The graceful style of decoration known as 
" Rococo" (a word connected with the FrenA 
** Rocaille **— *' shell-work") flourished in Germany 
from 1 700 to 1 780. I n its later development, from 
1 780 to 1800, it became known as " Zopf," o^"d^ 
based Rococo," and at the close of the century 
was already passing into the "Empire" styk. 
Rococo is the most frequent and most pleasing 
form of decoration found on such eighteenth-cen- 
tury book-plates as are not simple armorials, and 
thus demands special consideration. Though 
F'rench in origin, rococo ornament soon made its 
way into Germany, and many fine examples, both 
in architecture and interior decoration, are to be 
found in the Mark of Brandenburg, at Munich. 
Stuttgart and Dresden, in the monasteries of 
Southern Bavaria, in Franconia — Bayreuth, Bam- 
berg, Wiirzburg — on the Rhine, in Vienna and 
elsewhere. Its influence was felt in all the arts, 
and engraving in Germany and Austria came 
naturally under its spell. 

Rococo plates are characterized by absence of 
symmetry, fanciful shell-like scroll-work, conven- 
tional treatment of flowers and palms, and deeply 
indented framework. Everything is curved and 
undulating, the forms of men and animals are 
luxuriant, the limbs and figure often having a 
strained appearance, and draperies are much used. 
In spite of extravagance the general eftect is. as 
a rule, light, flowing and graceful — a true expres- 
sion of the light-heartedness of the period. 

The Eighteenth Century 2 1 5 

Towards the end of the century rococo degener- 
ated into the formal, old-fashioned, severely clas- 
sical ** Zopf," which again gave way to the cold 
insipidity of the ** Empire " style. 

The English ** Chippendale" style, called after 
Thomas Chippendale, the famous cabinet-maker 
of St. Martin's Lane, London, and its subdivision, 
the Scotch Chippendale, are national varieties of 
the continental rococo. ** Chippendale " exlibris 
were produced in large numbers between 1740 
and 1770, and are distinguished by the grace and 
delicacy of the drawing and engraving, as well as 
by luxuriant scallop-shell borders, and rich flower 
and plant decoration. In selecting plates for illus- 
tration it has been a matter of some difficulty to 
choose among the very large number of charm- 
ing rococo exlibris, and many fine plates have 
necessarily been omitted. The illustrations which 
follow will, however, give some idea of German 
rococo work. 

a. Engravers of Rococo Exlibris. 

The more important engravers of book-plates in 
the rococo style are the following : 


Germany : 

The greatest master of this style of decoration is 
Johann Esaias NilsoUy Court Painter to the 
Elector Palatine, Director of the Drawing 
Academy at Augsburg, who engraved, among 
very numerous ornamental and other plates, a 

2i6 German Book-piates 


Uy J. E. Nilsoii (1752)- 

number of charming exiibris.' As exampl< 
we reproduce two plates here : Barthol wna 

' See E, L. 7.. vi. 1 1 7-1 iS, vii. 29-31, and x 

The Eighteenth Century 2 1 7 

f5>\3 Neuss (Augsburg). 1752, and Johann 
^s, surgeon (Augsburg), 1 756, I n the former 

KDmrurat C^u/pLltiiJiL 


By J. E. Nilson (1756). 

,te the treatment of the Neuss a.rms — azure,on 
Send argent three roses gJtles. between two 

state into which heraldry had fallen, 
is made to form the centre line of the initial 
the roses and stars, which have developed i 
lilies, spring from stems having their root ( 

? Eighteenth Century 

I the shield ; and the star of the crest has 
Sme a realistic shinintj star (p. 216). 
lie exlibris of Johann Reis displays the 
er's initials, and instruments, books, skull, 
.indicating the doctor and botanist (p. 217). 

i.Eaji^.c.A s,^ 


' ByJ. E. BeIlinb-(.-/rcrt 1750). 

lAndreas Fridrich, engraver to the Court 
Furttemberg (Augsburg), also produced a 
s of book-plates, of which we reproduce the 
icteristic exlibris of Erhard Riedlin, circa 
Even the damascening of the shield is 
ied out in the rococo manner, and the crest 


German Book-plates 

is also in accordance with the style of th^ ^^^ 
design (p. 218). 

Leonhard Michael Stdnberger (Augsburg). 

Josef Erasmus Belling (Augsburg), whose 5^' 
libris of Countess Fugger (Augsburg), ^^ 
1750, is here reproduced (p. 219): the initial 
stand for Maria Anna Gnlfin Fugger und KirA' 
berg und Weissenhorn, geborene Grafin vott 
VVelsberg; the A. V. in the signature stands fe 
Augustae Vindelicorum =: Augsburg. 

Johann Georg Pintz (Augsburg). 

Johann Nepomuk J/a^i^ (Munich) ; his "trophy''- 
plate of Josef Ferdinand Maria Count von 
Salern, Bavarian General (Munich), circa 178a 
is here reproduced (p. 221). 

Georg Sigmund Rosch, court engraver (Munich). 

Francois de Cuvillids the younger, Captain of En- 
gineers, and architect to the Elector of Bavaria 
(Munich), son of the famous rococo architect 
Francois de Cuvilli^s ; a fine plate of Count 
Sigismund Spreti, Bavarian Privy Councillor. 
President of the Council at Nuremberg, Vice- 
president of the Academy of Sciences at Munich, 
cnra 1765 ; the Count is shown in the dress of 
his Order, with his escutcheon surrounded by 

Adam Ludwig JVirsing, Martin Tyroff} Georg 
Lichtenstegcr, Johann G^or g Eberspergcr (all of 

Georg Daniel Heumann, engraver to the Court of 
Brandenburg (Nuremberg and Gottingen). 

Christof Friedrich Hormann von Gutenderg (Kant- 

^ For his exlibris see E. L. Z. v*iii. 105, and ix. 24. 


Et^teettih Century 221 

.■u *^m, Augsburg and Ulm); his line plate of 
Libniry of the Imperial City of Kauf- 

euem, circa 1740, is here reproduced {p. 223). 
4is own exlibris is engraved after the same 
dodel, but on a smaller scale. 


By C. F. Hbnnann son Gutenberg (ana 1740). OV the "BEHdillllUOTHKK" AT GLOCKSURUNN. 

By J. H. Meil(i7..). 

Lann Georg Fridrich (Regensburg). 

lann Christof Bemdt (Frankfurt-on-Main). 

lann Heinrich ^f-K^vr {Frankfurt-on-Main). 

224 German Book-plates 

Andreas Rcinhardt (Frankfurt-on-Main). 
Johann Michael Zf// (Frankfurt-on-Main). 
johann Michael Eben (Augsburg and Frank'" 
Gustav t't)« 7>a//tfwr (Mannheim). 
Johann Michael Stock (Leipzig). 

By J. B. Strachowsky (1780). 

Karl Gottfried Nestlcr, Inspector of the 1 
Room at Dresden. 

Johann Heinrich .^/?;'/ (Berlin, brother of jol 
Wilhelm Meil), whose charming exlibris d 
'■ Bergbibliothek " at Gliicksbrunn — no d 
the Cobah mines in Saxe-Meiningen — witl 
mines worked by putt! and simple gpra 
frame, 17 . ., is here reproduced (p. 223). 

The Eighteenth Century 225 

*ll Chri3tof Sysang {Halle, Dresden. ;ind 


In liartholomeiis Slra{€)ho'i<.-sky the younger 








By Johann Slriedbcck (17 . . 

feslau) ; his characteristic and brilliantly 
ivn exlibris " H.S."=: Hieronymiis Scholtz, 
icon and preacher at the church nt St. 
labethat Breslaii, 1780, is here given (p. 224); 
rScholtz plate exists in no less than eleven 

G G 

Oacoh -■ Jh( cwmanTh Qra/u //d./^cp'-/^ 

(.area 1765). 

Charles Dupuh, Lieutenant of Artillery and 
draughtsman to the Electors Max Friedricll 
and Max Franz, of Cologne (Bonn and Cd 

Johann Siricdbeck. the jounger, born at Frank 


German Book-piatcs 

furt. worked at Augsburg and Strasslw^ 
One of his numerous plates is reproduced oi 
p. 225 : flieronymus Max von Giinderoa 


(Frankfurt-on-Main). 17 . . ; it shows Fre 

Johann Weis (Strassburg). 
J. L. Hcrr B. de la Rocque, C, K&rtur{} Mua 

Werficr. Reiisntann, Sprcngd and others. 

Petrarca (Milan, which at tliat time be- 
get! to Austrian Ltjnibardy). He engraved 
I enormous exlibris of Count Hreiner, circa 
bo (see above, p. 65). 


230 German Book-piafcs 

b. Unsigned Rococo ExHbris. 

The following may be mentioned as more^ 
less characteristic : 

Jacob Friedemann Count von W'erthern (£/^ 



near Leipzig, and Beichlingen), Privy O 
cillor to the Klector of Saxony, circa 1765: 
of his five plates is here reproduced (p. 2: 

H the draw 

' rococo. 

Karl Otto Freiherr von Gymnich (Gymnich, Co- 
logne and Harff). circa 1770; one of his thrte 
plates is here illustrated (p. 227) ; it is probably 
by a Cologne artist, and is a good example of 

The Eighteenth Century 231 
nng of the supporting lions is genuine 


\ the extravagant rococo of the Rhine school ; 
' after the same model are the exiibris " P. S." 

=: P. Schneltgen (Cologne), circa 1780, which 
I has the same frame, with a very rococo stag 
I rampant on the shield, and that of Ludwig 
t Freiherr von Bongart, of Pfaffendorf {circa 


German Book-plates 

A pretty and delicately eng;raved anonymous 
rococo plate, circa 1770, perhaps of Schijtz von 
Pfeilstadt (Bavaria), reproduced on p, 228. 

johann Daniel Schbpflin, born at Sulzburg, in 
Baden, historian and antiquarian (Strassburg), 
Historiographer to Louis X\'.. author o£ j 
■■Alsatia illustrata et diplomatica " and "His 
toria Zarinfro-Badensis." His valuable librai 

was burned during the bombardment of Straj 
burg, August 24th, 1S70, and consequently I 
two exlibris are very scarce. This somewhil] 
heavy but characteristic rococo plate was ere 
graved by Johann Weis (Strassburg), 
1765' (p. 229). 

Benoit, " Les Exliliris de Schdpffi 

The Eighteenth Century 233 

^arl Werner Curtius. Doctor of Medicine and 
savant (Lubeck). Born at Narwa in Livonia 
[(hence " Narvalivonus "), Curtius studied in 
, as well as at Halle, and his exlibris — 

234 ' German Book-piates 

G. H. A. Koch (Brunswick), circa 1770. notiw- 
able for its heavy frame inclosing the modest 
achievement of arms : above is a genius witli 
lyre (p. 231). The same genius and frame appw 
on one of the exlibris of Franz Uominik Habcr- 
lin of Ulm, teacher of law at Helmstadt. Which 
plate is the original can hardly be determimd 

The exlibris of Thomas Heinrich Gadebuid 


historian of Pomerania, and teacher in the Uni' 
versity of Greifswald, circa 1770, may be com- 
pared with the gilded picture frames of the 
period (p. 332), It is a graceful design, finely 
engraved, perhaps by Johann Martin Berni- 
geroth (Leipzig). 
The Oriental Academy of Vienna, circa 1775 
in a rococo border is the Latin inscription "Ad" 
Caesaream regiam academiam linguarum oried"' 
talium. Societas Jesu." and in Persian charactei 

tghieenih Cenmry 235 

the motto of the Academy, " For God and the 
Padishah." i.e.. the Emperor (p. 233). 
V true rococi' border is shown on the exlibris of 

VON kOLBERu {circa 1775). 

lie Jesuit Alois Welfinger (Munich). 1775 
(p- 234). 
The exlibris of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich l,6ffel- 
holz von Kolberg (Nuremberg), circa 1775. 
armorial, with rococo frame, is perhaps b)- 
dartin Tyroff 


Besides the simple armorials and the rocoC 
plates already described, the eighteenth centui 
produced a large number of allegorical exlibri 
It became the fashion, about the n: 


for the designer 


xpress his idd 

edium of symbolical or allei 

^^Tn^Etgnfemm Cenfury 237 

presentation, and. being exactly suited to the 
iSputar taste, this fashion grew in popularity for 
pe next fifty years, and was still in vogue in the 
pi'ly part of the nineteenth century. The best 
ptartiples of this class date from the end of the 
pghteenth century. 

The gods of Olympus, as well as personifica- 
ons of the Christian cardinal virtues and other 
*>sirdct ideas, were freely introduced, and genii. 
''loretti, and putti with pretty childish figures, 
f^re favourite accessories. Among deities, Mi- 
^»"va (Pallas Athene), as goddess of the arts, 
fences, etc., and Mercury (Hermes), the mes- 
^nger of the gods and protectar of commerce and 
f tradesmen, and of the art of rhetoric, etc.. were 
rpecially popular. Other favourite classical per- 
T*nages were Mars. Hercules, j4isculapius and 
•ygeia (on doctors' plates). Chronos. and the 
*uses. Of abstract ideas, Truth, Science, Hi.s- 
jDiy (Clio), Learning, justice (Justitia, especially 
m lawyers" plates), Wisdom, \lusic, Happiness, 
the Virtues, Faith, 1-Ove, and Hope are frequently 
personified, and angels and such figures as Pegasus, 
etc., are met with. We find also library Interiors, 
I'iews through libraries, book-cases, piles of books, 
documents, open books, architectural and military 
plans, writing materials, compasses and surveying 
instruments, students' lamps, old Roman lamps, 
hour-glasses, telescopes, globes (these are espe- 
cially frequent), palettes (for artists), bundles of 
twigs {the lictor's fasces), scales of justice (for 
lawyers), coins (for coin collectors and antl- 
<|uarians), bales of merchandise, ships, etc. 

Gennau Book-plates 

On the book-plates of doctors, skeletons, skulls, 
retorts, microscopes, and various surgical instru* 
ments are also introduced. 

The taste of the period also approved of ibc 
following ornamental accessories on book-plates, 
pyramids, ancient monuments, memorial tablets 
Greek. Roman, and Christian temples, whole ui 
broken columns, capitals, ruins, urns, bustSjSphinxt-i, 
landscapes, views of places, gardens, groups ol 
trees, flower-vases, flowers (either separate or in 
garlands), laurels, palms, garden tools, baskets of 
flowers, fruit, shells, shepherd's pipes and crook; 
musical instruments of all kinds, especially harps 
and lyres, trophies of weapons and flags. 

The animal world is also, of course, strongly 
represented: the owl, symbol of the untiring pui 
SLiit of wisdom and happiness ; the crane, of watch 
fulness and forethought;' the bee. of indefatigable 
industry, etc. 

Though often pompous in conception, affected 
in the choice of allegory, and, to our present 
ideas, distasteful and extravagant, the plates of 
this period form, when taken as a whole, a most 
highly interesting section in any collection of book 
plates. Most of them are by unknown engravers 
but, although the number of really first-rate artists 
who produced exlibris of this kind is very small, 
yet many of these plates are well engraved and 
worthy of attention, both from an artistic and 

' From ihf k-gend [hat in a herd of cranes one keeps watch, 
and in order not to sleep stands on one foot holding 
other a stone, which if the bird fell asleep would fall and wake 
il. (See ■' Ironoiog. Lexicon," Nuremberg. 1793.) 

The Eighteenth Century 239 

;hnica! point of view. As long as the rococo 
iiuence is apparent, we find many pretty and 
feresting book-plates ; but as the empire style 

Ex Bibliotheca 

Collegii EyVaiiQ^elici, 


L. M.Su^nic^a- Jiulitj jt. K 


Uy L. M. Steinberger (rt>-fa 1760}. 

comes predominant, stiffness and heaviness take 
; place of grace and beauty. If the exlibris 

Cthis chapter do not come up to 
el as those of the precedin;^ cen- 

240 Gerfnan Book-plates 

turies, yet we shall find really good exampte 
among them, and if our space were not limited, it 
is in this section, above all, that we should wish to 
increase the number of illustrations. 

a. Engravers of Allegorical Exlibris. 

The following engravers may be mentionei 
although, as in former cases, it is impossible to 
j^ive a complete list : 

Leonhard Michael Steinberger (Augsbuig); ex- 
libris of the Evangelical College at Augsbui^. 
circa 1760, with a representation, copied from 
an old picture, of a sermon delivered in the 
courtyard of the college, which is still in ex- 
istence, and belongs to the Protestant school 
of St. Anna (p. 239). 

Jakob Andreas Fridrich, Engraver to the Court 
of Wiirttemberg (Augsburg). 

Christof Andreas Pfautz (Ulm and Augsburg). 

Emanuel Eiche/, drawing master at the Protestant 
College at Augsburg; exlibris of Johann Konrad 
Beuther (Augsburg), circa 1770, a plate orna- 
mented with putti, plans, view of a fortress, a 
jLjlobe, compasses, arms, etc.^ 

Jakob (iottlieb Thclot {Axxgshuvg) \ his curious ex- 
libris of Franz Josef Fidel Brentano (Augsburg). 
cij'ca 1740, is here reproduced (p. 241). The 
portrait at the top represents St. Nepomuk. 

Johann C. Stcnglin, Georg Christof Kilkn, 

Reproduced in E. L. Z. x. 93. 

The Eighteenth Century 


Ichael Kauffer^ and Paul Jakob (or [ohann 

porg) Lmninit (all of Augsburg). 

\z R. F. (or R.) Brichcl (? Augsburg). 

i li-JTAC ^ foLr-os- pr-^iw i:&^rioj-czt~ 

Z Karl Heisig (Vienna and Augsburg). 

well-known animal artist Johann Elias 
(6'«^i?»'(Augsburg) engraved a plate for hini- 
f— a boy with a tablet bearing the- inscnp- 

242 German Book'-plates 

tion ** Nulla dies sine linea/' books lying on the 
ground, a copperplate, engraving instruments, 
palettes, brushes, etc., and behind, busts, shrubs, 
etc. This plate has not been proved to be 
a book-plate, and may have been only a trade 

Johann Nepomuk Maag, Johann Michael Sdckler, 
Josef Anton Zimtnermanny court engraver (all of 

Josef Peter Paul Rauschmayr^ priest and en- 
graver (Munich and Augsburg). 

Egidius Verelst, court engraver (Mannheim, up to 
1802, and Munich), and pupil of Johann Georg 
Wille, in Paris ; exlibris of the Historical and 
Literary Society of Heidelberg, with view of the 
castle and town, chxa 1762.^ 

Aloys Cou7it von La Ros^e, Chamberlain and Coun- 
cillor of State at Munich, an amateur engraver 
who, besides his own exlibris (1769) and that 
of Theodor Count von Morawitzky (library in- 
terior, 1770), executed a book-plate, here repro- 
duced (p. 243), for his friend Alfons Kennedy, a 
learned Benedictine monk of the Scotch cloister 
at Regensburg, a student of natural philosophy, 
and member of the Academy of Sciences at 
Munich, circa 1 769.'' 

Johann Michael Mettcnlcitner, afterwards Inspec- 
tor of Lithography (Munich). 

Ernst Karl Gottlieb Thclot (Munich and Dus- 

Reproduced in E. L. Z. iv. 27. 

See "Ex-libris Journal," vol. vii., p. 30. 


By Coun 

(in Tyroff (Nuremberg), whose exUbris of 
ihann David Ktihler, Professor, historian, and 
imismatist (Ahdorf and Gottingen), firca 
'30. is here reproduced (p. 344) : Truth hands 
pen to Clio, the Muse of History, while 

lly Martin Tj-roff(r<yfrt 1730). 

Chronos, over whom is a genius holding the 
arms of Kohler. stands by. 
Georg Daniel Hmviann, engraver to the Court 
nf Hnindenbiirg (Nuremberg and Gottingen). 

The Eighteenth Century 


rj. P. Funck, Andreas Leonhard Moglkli, Joliann 
Adam Delsenbaeh, Adam Ludwig IVirsing, J. 
C. /??VA Johann Ludwig Stahl (all of Nurem- 
berg) . 

Johimn Friedrich I'okkavt ( Nuremberg) ; his ex- 

Uy J. F. Volckart {circa 1790J. 

libris of Lothar Friedrich Adam Freiherr von 
Liitzerode (Bonn), whose classical studies are 
Indicated by Minerva and the Coliseum at 
Rome, is here reproduced. It dates from the 
fud of the eighteenth century, and took the 
place of .ui earlier and inferior plate en- 

246 German Book-plates 

graved for the same owriL-r by Dardenn(| 
(Bonn). |I 

N'ikolaus Gablcr, a tanner, as well as a miniei 
tiirist and engraver (Nuremberg). |l 

Johann Georg Fridruh, and Aleyr ( Regensburg).! 


HyJ. v.. von MuUer {r779:!. 

Cliristof Friedrich Honnann von Gutenberg ( Kau 
beuern. Augsburg, and Ulm). a very distil 
guished engraver; see above, p. 222. whd 
his exiibris of the city of Kauf beuern. i 




ll ^L 

I €mtm % 


■^■0n'!snr^° la 

1^U£/!irr/a>n^J>'L^ iron. 

K ByJ.F. Beer (f/rn, 1790). 


Johann Gottfried Koppcl {Ansbach), who en- 
graved the exiibris of the Karl-AIexaiwiei 
Gymnasium at Ansbach (Onoldini), cirta 178a 

Johann Gotthard von Miillcr, a famous cngravei 
of Stuttgart, member of the Academy of Arti 
in Paris ; his exiibris, of 1779, for his fnenJ 
Johann Josef Reuss, physician and CounciHot 
to the Duke of Wiirttemberg. is here reprti- 
duced (p. 246); the snake of -Ksculapius and th( 
microscope point to the doctor's profession. 

Ludwig Gabriel Necker, court engraver (Stutt' 

Johann Jakob Roller (I*rankfurt and Amsicr- 

Friedrich Ludwig Ncnbaucr, johann Heinrich 
Wicker, Anna Rosah'a Wicker, Gottlieb IVdU. 
Johann Chri.stof 5t-r«(ii'/ (all of Frankfurt). 

Josef {also "J. D.") von Montalepc {yxzx^iwx^ 
Nuremberg, and Zittau), who engraved sevenil 
distinguished plates, e.g., those of GottfrieJ 
Polycarp M tiller, Professor of Rhetoric and 
Poetry, Rector of the Gymnasium at Zittau, 
and Bishop of the Herrnhuter communities in 
Leipzig, Zittau, Marienborn and Herrenhut, 
circa 1725 ; this plate, which exists in two sizes, 
has figures of Minerva with spear and an owl, 
and Truth, and the initials " G. P. M." on a 
stone pedestal. 

Johann Friedrich Beer (F^rankfurt). whose ori- 
ginal, though not beautiful, exiibris of Fran* 
Kern, called Humser {circa 1 790), is ht-rc re- 
produced (p. 247); the symbolism is explained: 
by the motto " Not without danger." 

The Eighiecntli Century 


Isaac J. Schnappcr (Offenbach-on-Main). 
C. (? Johann Conrad) Suscmihl (Darmstadt). 

reinrich Conigen (Mainz) engraved the exlibris of 
Friedrich Karl von Moser (here reproduced), 
after a de.siL,rn by Johann Andreas Benjamin 

* Nothnagel, circa 1765. Von Moser, who was 
President of the Government of Hesse- Darm- 
stadt, and ;l most distinguished statesman, 
handed on the copperplate to his friend Susanna 
Katharina von Klettenberjr, whose name takes 
the place of the inscription " E Museo Frid. 

K K 


Germaii Book-plates 

Car. de Moser." Frauleln von Klettenberg wa 
the friend of Frau Rath Goethe, who is i' 
mortalized in the " Bekenntnisse einer schcinei 
Seele," in "WilhelmMeister's Apprenticeship." 
Here again the design is a symboHcal versic 
of the motto " Aus dem Guten das Beste " — thi 
bees being supposed to be seeking "the best^ 
out of the flowers In the garden, 
johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the famous poel 
while a student at Leipzig in 1767, etched i 


Goeihe (1767J. 

small book-plate for Kathchen Schonkopf; 
pedestal with two books on it, and leaning r™ 
them an oval tablet with the initial " S " (Schonj 
kopf), here reproduced. Goethe's etching fci 
Katchen's father, S. Ci. Schonkopf, a wine mei 
chant in Leipzig, is not an exlibris, as has bei 
supposed, but merely a trade card." 
Johann Martin Bemigevoili (Leipzig), one 

' See E. ]„ Z. vii 

. 11-15 ""^ ^^• 

, 63. 

' See E. L. Z. i 

.. OS X. 

50. It 

is reproduced 

Warn«-lte. p. 17. 

The Highteoith Ce/ifiifv 

25 1 

whase pretty and finely engraved exiibris---that 
of Weller. circa i 760 — is here produced. It 
is a good example of German rococo ; the 
motto on the open book refers to the use of 

Ily J. \1. Tkrnincroth 

bther well-engraved but overcrowded plate is 
hat of August Scholtz, Canon of Magdeburg, 
on which are to be found, among other things, 
a hill with a temple on It, Minerva with shield 

Car. five putti (among them Apollo on 

252 German Book-plates 

telescopes, compasses, shells, sheaves of com. 
mattocks, rakes, shovels, etc., as well as moM 
and inscription. 
Christian Gottlieb Au^^ust Lid>e (Leipzig sn^ 



By K. L. Crusius (17 . .)■ 

C. G. W. Behrisch, J. B. Briihl. Wilhelm AnM. 

Christian Gottlieb Geyser, Johann Stephs" 

Capietix (all of Leipzig). 
Karl Lebrecht Crusius (Leipzig) : his exlibn* 

of Karl Benjamin Lengnich, Archdeacon 0' 

Danzig, and numismatist, is here reproducei' 


The Eighteenth Centuyy 


en^mich had another book-plate by Christian 
tottlieb Geyser, with a similar motive. 

XyoTCiCciftaL Pltilippin, ju'e Sysang^ (Leip- 
ig). who engraved four exlibris. 

FBOOK-fLATK ov lluse c 
Ily J. M. Slock ((-/ 

inn Michael Stocl- {Leipzig). Goethe's master 
t the art of etching; he enj^raved the plate of 
t. E. Weinland (Leipzig), and probably that 
If the original possessor of the copperplate, 
^se Adelgunde Viktorie Gottsched. /n'c Kul- 
ps (Leipzig), wife of the fanums pn)fessor 

254 German Book-plates 

and critic, circa 1750-60^ (see illustration) ; a 
female figure, the symbol of study, is surrounded 
with putti, representing music, geography, 
history and literature, and below are the arms 
of Gottsched and Kulmus. Both exlibris arc 
copied from that of Erhard Friedrich Weinland, 
Senator of Esslingen, circa 1750. 

Gotthelf Wilhelm Weise^xA Karl Friedrich //o/fc- 
inanii (Dresden). 

Karl Gottfried Nestler, Inspector of the Print 
Cabinet at Dresden. 

Kphraim Gottlieb Kriigery Professor (Dresden). 

Johann Georg Bohm (Dresden) ; five exlibris for 
Count Choteck, 

Christian Friedrich Boetins (Dresden) engraved 
several plates for Moritz Karl Christian Woog. 
Dean of Oschatz and Dresden, displaying a 
skeleton with balance (** Waage "). 

Johann Christof Sysang the younger (Halle. 
Dresden and Leipzig), who engraved, among 
others, the fine landscape exlibris of Clauser. 

Johann Heinrich Tischbein jr. (and Miiller: 
Cassel) ; exlibris of the Evangelical- Lutheran 
Orphanage at Cassel, circa 1790. 

A. Beck (Brunswick) ; one of the five exlibris ol 
Franz Dominik Haberlin, of Ulm, Professor ol 
Law at Helmstadt. 

Johann Philipp Ganz, engraver to the King 0; 
Hanover ; exlibris of Christian Friedrid 
Schnauss (Gotha), three varieties. 

Dardcjine (lionn) ; the first exlibris of Lotha 

^ Scu E. L. Z. ii. No. 4, p. 22. 

The Rigliteentli Century 255 

Friedrich Adiim Freiherr von Liitzerode, show- 
ing the Coliseum at Rome. 
aria Elizabeth Wyon, aftervvard^; Lamblotie 
>n Aletldj (Cologne). 

[ . -^__^MB^^Mm 


■ By himself (1 777). 

narles Dupuis (Bonn and Cologne). Artillery 
Lieutenant and draughtsman to the Electors 
Max Friedrich and Max Franz of Cologne. 

'aniel Ciwdowiccki, the well-known engraver and 
Director of the Academy of Arts In Berlin ; ' 

exlibris. I-:. ),. Z, ii. No, I, |., 14. .Hid No. 4, 
'■■ >6. "8; viii. J4-45. 

256 German Book-plates 

his own exlibris, 1777, here reproduced, is 
wholly symbolical : the Genius of Art leads a 
student to the breast of Mother Nature. The 
following exlibris are also by Chodowiecki : 
French Seminary in Berlin, 1772 — philosophers 
planting and watering young trees, symbolical 
of the education of the young ; copied by the 
Swiss engraver, Johann Rudolf Schellenbeig 
' for two exlibris of the Municipal Library of 
Winterthur ; ^ David Fridlander, merchant and 
author (Berlin), 1774, representing Mercur)- 
and Apollo ; Christof Salomon Schinz, Doctor 
of Medicine (Zurich), 1793 — y£sculapius 
driving away Death from a sick man. An 
engraving of 1788 representing Minerva and 
Victoria, with Socrates, was not originally an 
exlibris* but a vignette probably engraved 
as a book-illustration. It was afterwards ap- 
propriated and used as a book-plate by Dr. 
Friedrich Philipp Usener, judge and sjmdic at 
Frankfurt, a Chodowiecki-coUector, who had 
his name engraved on the stone against which 
Socrates leans. 
Johann Wilhelm Meily Director of the Academy 
of Arts in lierlin, engraved at least sixteen 
book-plates which, though not important works 
of art, are typical of the art of the period, both 
in their design and in the delicacy of the draw- 
ing and engraving. As an example of his work 
we reproduce the exlibris of Alexander Meyer, 
circix 1795, which displays all the favourite 

^ See above, p. 84. 

258 German Book-plates 

at Liibben, and Professor at Brieg", circa 1 790, 
with figure of Minerva, an owl, a beehive, 
wreaths, and a tree, in front of Roman ruins. 

Johann Ernst Gericke (or Gercke, Berlin) en- 
j^raved several plates, of which we reprodua 
that of Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey, Pro- 
fessor, Privy Councillor. Member of the Prussia! 
Academy of Sciences, and writer on historic: 
and theological subjects (Berlin), circa 176 
(P- 259). 

Johann Konrad Krilgey (Berlin) ; two exlibris c 
the Count Palatine Cothenius (Berlin). 

Daniel Bcrgcr, Professor and Deputy- Director c 
the Academy of Arts (Berlin). 

Anton Wachsnmnn, and Wolff {^txXwi). 

Michael Siegfried Lowe (Berlin and Dresden). 

E, Kinne (?) (Kleinschonebeck). 

Erhard and F. von Halm, amateur engraver 

H. Westphalen (Hamburg). 

Johann Dietrich Fos (Hamburg), who engrave 
one of the two exlibris of johann Heinrich vol 
Hollander, Councillor at Riga, circa 1780. 

Isaak 6afl/ (Danzig). 

Other engravers are : Bendix. exlibris of F. 
Bouvier, tutor to Prince Charles of Prussi] 
(Berlin) circa 1795; Chronos pouring oil ov« 
an antique lamp, a motive used again on hi 
exlibris of J Euchel, though the design 
different ; C. Graf, F. A, Fenerbach, O. 
Noder, Matthias Pock, Karl Gusiav von UHi 
We6er, De St. Hilairc, Andreas /logger, jtybax. 
Balthasar Wening, Karl Hempcls (? Henpell 

Eighteenth Century 259 

'.holcke (? Schohze). F. dc Bukker, Steinberg, 
tch, Naihc, ]. Marianus. 

tion must also be made of Baltliaser Anton 
f, who was born at Saal near Stralsund, and 
ta German. He engraved nunierous ex- 

26o Gcrnian Book-plafes 

libris, but as he worked chiefly at Berne, they go 
not come within our scope.^ 

Austria : 

Johann Christof Winkler (Munich and Vient^V 
exlibris of Jamerai du Val, Librarian to '^ 
Emperor (Vienna), circa 1750. The o\^^^ 
is depicted in four attitudes: before his co^, 
cabinet, pruning a tree, tending cattle, ^^ \ 
ploughing; in the background is his house, ^^t 
above a shepherd's crook, garden utensils, ^^ 
scientific instruments (p. 261). 

Johann Adam Schmuzer, Kilisin PonAeimer, Joh^-^ 
Kaspar Wcinrauch (all of Vienna). 

Junker (? Karl Ludwig, Minister at Ruppe^^ 

Karl Sclmeczueis (Salzburg and Milan). 

Philipp Binder (Pest), who engraved the classip^ 
exlibris of the Royal University of Pest, av-i^'^ 
Apollo, globe, books, etc., circa 1790.* 

Johann Berka (Prague), Johann Boehm^ J. GUU^- 

Fo7'eig7i Engravers : 

Ferdinand Wachsmuth (Paris) ; exlibris of Fried- 
rich Rudolf Salzmann and Johann Loren^ 
Blessig, both of Strassburg, circa lyj^ (see 
above, p. 85). 

Sebastian Le Clerc, and Lebert (Paris). 

^ Sec L. Gerster ** Die Schweizerischen Bibliothekzeichen, 

P- 323- „ ^ ., 

^ Reproduced in the " Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde, ' Apni» 


The Eighteenth Century 

kn Georg Wille the younger (Paris) ; exlibn's 
Johann Valentin Meyer. Senator of Ham- 
jrg. 1766. Engraved by Halm. 
It Tanje and Simon Fokkc (Amsterdam). 
■ Kutner {? of Mitau). 


By Johann Chrisiof Winkler («n-,( 1750). 

i/nsigned Allegorical Exiibris. 

examples of unsigned allegorical exiibris 
ing may be given : 

262 German Book-plates 

Exlibris of the Royal Prussian Customs and Ad- 
miralty Court at Konigsberg, circa 1 726, prob- 
ably by Wolfgang Philipp Kilian, who lived 
formerly at Augsburg and Nuremberg, but 
afterwards migrated to KOnigsberg, where he 
died in 1732 ^ (p. 263). 

Five exlibris of Count Zinzendorf, circa 1770. 

Ten exlibris of Count SchafTgotsch, circa 1725- 

The pretty plate of Ernst Adam Levin vonTrotla, 
called Treyden (several varieties of size and 
engraving), which may be ascribed to J. W. 
Meil, ci7^ca 1770. 

Nine different exlibris of Professor Christof Jakob 
Treu, Anatomist and Physician in Ordinar)* 
(Nuremberg), circa 1760, with the arms of the 
Academy of the Emperor Leopold, cornucopiae 
and dogs, symbolical of fidelity ("Treue"). 

Exlibris of the Duchess Luise Dorothea of Saxe- 
Gotha, the friend of Frederick the Great, dm 
1 760 ; in honour of the king two putti are in- 
troduced holding a shield with the inscription 
'' F. R. (Fridericus Rex) Vivat." 

Exlibris of Karl Gottlieb von Guichard, Colonel 
in the Prussian army, a learned and well-read 
officer, who knew Syriac and Chaldaic, and 
was a welcome guest at the table of Frederick 
the Great, by whom he was called *'Quintus 
Icilius,'' owing to some controversy about the 
centurion Ouintus Carcilius or Icilius; his ex- 
libris {circa 1763) displays, beneath a palm. ^ 

264 German Book-plates 

rococo shield with inscription, two putti^alyrc, 
sword, spear, shield and helmet; it was made 
for the library given by the king to Colond 
von Guichard at Hubertusburg, a Saxon castk 
pillaged by that officer in revenge for the havoc 
caused by Saxon troops in the royal palaces in 
the neighbourhood of Berlin. 

The exlibris of the family of Von Stromer (Nurem- 
berg) is less beautiful, but its technique 
(** Schabkunst") is interesting. It shows 
Minerva with the arms of Von Stromer. 

Book-plate of Johann Siegfried Breu, Senator at 
Strassburg, circa 1 745 ; the naked Goddess rf 
Fortune with a sail on a winged globe. 

Exlibris of Christof Friedrich Nicolai, bookseller 
and writer (Berlin), two sizes and five varieties 
of engraving, books with genii in front of a 
tree trunk and bushes. 

Exlibris of Josef Paul Edler von Cobres, honorar}' 
member of the Academies of Berlin, Danzig and 
Halle, banker and Captain of the town militia 
of Aujjsburg. Ennobled in 1 780, probably a 
Spanish Jew ; an heraldic tree with a twig 
grafted on it in token of the ennoblement ol 
the owner, which was coupled with the uncom- 
mon condition that his successors should have 
no right to avail themselves of it, if they entered 
into trade {circa 1782). This plate is here re- 
produced (p. 265). 

Exlibris of Johann Peter Cerroni, Imperiid 
Secretary, Moravian bibliophile and historian 
(Vienna), circa 1 795-1800, here reproduced 
(p. 266); it displays, in addition to the name, a 


German Book-plates 

bust of Aspasia, here, no doubt, symbolic o{ 
Exlibris of Fridn'ch Anton Gallisch, Profess( 
and surgeon (Leipzig), 176S, by M. F, B. ; arir 
with Mercury. Hygela, bales of merchanclij 
and scales. 

f~'otinnL. ^^tti Cerr-oni 


Jakob Brentano-.Mezzegra (Rebdorf): view of* 

garden with temple, columns, etc. 
Anton voii Bretfeld, University Professor aft" 

jurist (Prague), di-ca \ 795 ; probably by Johai*^ 

Berka (Prague). 
As an example of a book-plate with decoraf 

label for the inscription, of which the 

ge number, we give that of J. L. Schmucker, 
tor in the Prussian army, circa 1785. 

The Eightecntli Century 




{D.) Library Interiors. 

l-ibrary Interiors" form a special and distinct- 

ydivision among the plates of the eighteenth 

iry. They show as a rule the interior of a 

, or part of a library, with book-cases, or a 

through several rooms lined with books. 

l-liook-cases or book-shelves are the character- 


German Book-plates 

istic feature. Sometimes the room is drawn froo 
a real library, but more often it is purely imaginary 
How far this form of book-plate was the result c 
fashion is shown by the fact that " Library In 
teriors " {modem plates excepted) are scarcely 
known outside the eighteenth century. Wher^ 
they give an accurate representation of a real 
library they have some significance, but as a rulfi 
there is a great uniformity and monotony about 
them. However, they reflect the taste and th( 
formality of the time, and, as must be acknow- 
ledged to their credit, they were executed will 
the most patient attention to detail, and with com 
siderable delicacy of technique. If they show no 
signs of art in the true sense, that again is the faul 
of the time, which produced no Jirst-rate artists ii 
this branch of design. 

No one who makes his "Library Interiors' 
into a special division of his collection will deny 
that, taken as a whole, they have a peculiar charn 
and exercise a fascination which accounts for theii 
being so eagerly sought for by collectors. 

Besides the shelves filled with books we find oi 
these plates a great variety of objects intended t 
indicate the erudition of the owner, or his specia 
branch of study. Loose books, open or shut, some 
times in orderly array, sometimes scattered abou 
promiscuously, are common ; and among othe] 
learned accessories may be noted writing materials 
globes, compasses, and other instruments, coil 
cabinets, plans, shells, plants, fruit, rulers, tele 
scopes, genealogical trees, bales of merchandisi 
musical instruments, urns, busts, statues, paintings 


The Eighteenth Century 269 

arms and armour, antiquities, skeletons, the snake 
of iEsculapius, the owl of wisdom, Pegasus, attri- 
butes of Justice, saints, gods, symbolical figures, 
putti, etc. We are also given peeps into gardens, 
or views of temples, castles, towers, rivers, or the 

We shall not be far wrong in giving the number 
of German (including a few Austrian) " Library 
Interiors" as upwards of one hundred different 
plates ; this does not include the numerous modern 
exlibris of this class, which, though not executed 
with such patient precision, are more realistic and 
less formal.^ 

a. Engravers of Library Interior Exlibris. 

Of engravers of library interior plates the fol- 
lowing may be named : 

Johann Ulrich Kraus (Augsburg), who engraved 
the exlibris (in four sizes) of Zacharias Konrad 
von Uffenbach, Doctor Juris, Sheriff and Sen- 
ator at F'rankfurt, and a well-known bibliophile 

' A special monograph on this subject has been compiled by 
Sir Arthur Vicars (" Library Interior Book-plates," 1893), which 
gives a list of 283 different plates, including seventy-eight 
German examples ; of the twelve plates illustrated, seven are 
(Jerman. From this carefully compiled list about twenty 
( ierman plates are missing, which have come to light since its 
publication, besides, of course, the numerous modern plates of 
this class produced since 1893. The largest number of *' Library 
Interiors " are, it is safe to say, in the collection of the author 
and in that of the late Sir A. W. Franks, now in the British 
Museum. • 

270 German Book-plates 

and collector of coins and works of art.' This 
plate gives a long perspective view of a librar)-, 
with the usual accessories, and a beautiful border 
of roses. 

One of the many engravers of the name of 
Klaubcr, probably Ignaz Sebastian (Augs- 

Bartholomiius Ignaz Weyss (Munich) ; one of Ae' 
three exlibris of Ferdinand Reichsedler van 
Hosson, Member of the AuHc Council of the 
Electorate of Bavaria, electoral Herald, Secrt- 
of the Order of St. George (Munich, ennotded' 
I775). circa 1780; here reproduced (p. 271).! 
The genealogical trees, etc., point to his her- 
aldic office ; the surcoat displays the liOn of 
the Palatinate, the table-cover the Bavarian 
lozenges, and the shield of Minerva the Order 
of St. George. The plate is rather interesting 
than beautiful, Hosson's second exlibris, a 
library interior with a distant view of the sea, a 
ship and a castle, is a finer piece of engraving, 
and may be ascribed to the next-named en- 
graver, J. M. Sockler. 

Johann Michael ii'iyV-^/rr (Munich), a pupil of Jung- 
wirth ; hi.s exlibris of Heinrich Hraun, Canon 
and Ecclesiastical Councillor, reformer of the 
school system in Bavaria, circa 1770, is here 
reproduced (p. 272). It gives a view of two 
rooms, with a figure of Minerva, an owl, puiti 
and arms, framed in a simple and graceful 
rococo border. 

' Reproduced in Warnecke, plate xviJi, 

The Eighteenth Century 

Josef Anton Zunmermann, engraver to the Court 
of Bavaria (Munich). 

Aloys Count von La Rasie, Chamberlain and 
Councillor of State. President of the Council, 
etc. (Munich): an amateur who engraved, among 
other phites. the exlibris of his relative Count 

Hy K. I.Weyss 


^Theodor Moravvitzky (Munich), 1770. It has 

the usual figure of Minerva in a library. 
Martin Tjv^lNureniberg) ; exlibris of Wilhelm 
Alexander Balaus, advocate and bibliophile of 
|;^runn in Moravia, circa 1750.' 
[rmann Jakob Tyroff, pupil of his father Martin 

Reproduced in \'o 

plate 136. 


J. p. Funek (Nuremberg): exlibris of Heinrid 
Hartlib, Pastor of St. Sebald, Nuremberg, i;Ho 
It displays the owner before a table and cruciM 

IJy J. M. Stickler (, 

with a view into his library, the whole su 

rounded by a rococo frame. 
Johann Baptist //i?)«(?««, Johann Adam Schiat 

kart. Georg Christof Walwert (all of Nurei 

Georg Daniel Hctiniann (Nuremberg and GJ 

274 German Book-plates 

Johann Georg Fridriclt (Regensburg) : exUbrisof 
Johann Christof Harrer, M.D.. surgeon oft! 
garrison at Regensburg, circa 1767, here re- 1 
produced (p. 273). Interesting from the pro- 1 
fesstonal allusions. I 

Christof l-'riedrich Hermann von Gutenberg {Kvai- 1 
beueni, Augsburg and Ulm). Among other I 
plates,he engravedone for his relative, Sebastian I 
Wolfgang Ludwig Hormann von Gu 
circa 1775 : in front of a book-case 
studies the "leges divinEC " ; to the I 
books lettered "'jus civile " and "jus pii^ 
while below are volumes of the " legesjl 
ales, criminales, Germanije " and " fett^ 
The initial letters of the motto correspouS^ 
those of the name, W standing for V. 

Johann Heinrich ^F/c^^?' (Frankfurt) : exlibris9 I 
Heinrich W'ilhelm Lennemann, Doctor Jiim 
(Frankfurt). A room with book-cases> volumes 
lettered with the names of favourite books, and 
portrait collections, «Vcfl 1730. Also one of the 
exlibris of Johann Bernhard Nack, merchant 
( I'Vankfiirt), after 1 759. Nack owned two other 
plates, coarsely engraved by De St. Hilaire, 
I 759, after a design by Dr. Osterlanden Be- 
coming dissatisfied with these, as may easily be 
imagined, Nack had the same design — a mer- 
chant in front of Minerva, with Mercurj', the 
seii. and a seaport town — engraved afresh bj' 
Wicker. For the sake of economy the new 
exlibris were printed, lightly coloured, on the 
back of the former plates, a procedure which is 
probably unique. 

The Eighteenth Century 275 

Peter /^c^r (Frankfurt) engraved two exlibris for 
Johann Michael von Loen, Prussian Privy 
Councillor, President of the Council, jurist, 
bibliophile and author, a greal-uncle of Goethe 
(Frankfurt). One of these, dated 1725. is here 


By Peter Fchr (1725 

^1 reproduced. It represents the contents of \ on 

^1 Loen's library, with theological, legal, historical 

^■, and philosophical works in the centre ; on the left 

H a bureau containing a collection of prints ( Hiblio- 

^K theca Calcographica). and on the right one with 

^B a collection of MSS. ; the signification of the 

^B three figures is explained by the inscriptions, 

276 German Book-plates 

"colligendum," ** eligendum/' and " multiplier 
andum/' the collection, choice, and increase of 
books and of knowledge. Von Loen's second 
exlibris, with view of library and garden, b 
copied from a third plate engraved by G. D. 
Heumann, to which it is superior in execution. 
The same view, unsigned, is found again on the 
exlibris of Johann Daniel (von) Olenschlager, 
Doctor Juris, Councillor to the Electorate of 
Saxony and to the King of Poland, Imperial 
Privy Councillor, Sheriff of Frankfurt and pub- 
licist (Frankfurt), circa i730« This plate is 
also probably by Peter Fehr. 

" H. O. and B. A. Contgen'' (Mainz) sign the 
exlibris of Johann Philipp Burggrave, physician 
of Frankfurt (early eighteenth century). A 
vaulted library with pictures, statues, and por- 
trait-medallions. The borders of the plates by 
Peter Fehr, mentioned above, show a strong 
resemblance to this engraving by Contgen. 

Johann Martin Bernigeroth (Leipzig) : exlibris of 
E. L. von Danckelmann, 1745, arms on a 
pedestal in a library. 

Johanna Dorothea, Philippin nde Sysang (Leip- 

Karl Gottfried Ncstler, Inspector of the Print 

Room at Dresden, **liberalium artium cultor." 
as he called himself. 
The brothers Johann Friedrich and Johann David 
Schletcen (Berlin) worked together, and usually 
signed their plates **Schleuen" only. They 
engraved the plate of the German poet Johann 
Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, of Ermsleben. Berlin. 

Tlic Eighteenth Century 


nd Halberstadt, with the inscription. "Gleimii 
t amicorum " ' (end of eighteenth century). 
ann Ernst Gcrkkc (Berlin) engraved the large 
ortrait and library interior exlibris of Johann 
tarl Wilhelm Mohsen. Physician in ordinary, 
nd numismatist (Berlin), 1757."^ On the left a 
umber of bookshelves in flames refer to the 
destruction of the library by fire at the date 
' given (September i, 1753) ; another date. 1756, 
is that of the reinstatement of the library. 
Mohsen possessed also another exlibris b)' 
Gericke, 1756, a rococo cartouche with putti.'' 
Christian Benjamin Glassback (Magdeburg) en- 
—jgraved the historical exlibris of Johann Georg 
■^etnrich Oelrichs, Rector of the " Raths-und 
^Prriedrichsschule" at Kiistrin, and afterwards 
^^rorector of the Friedrichswerder Gymnasium 
at Berlin. It illustrates the bombardment of 
Kiistrin by the Russi;ins in 1758, and the de- 
struction of the library by a shell, and below, 
the re-establishment of the library in Berlin. 
1759. The idea for this exlibris was probably 
■ suggested by the Mohsen plate described above,* 
ere exist, besides, library interiors by J. J. 
W/A/Zcr (Hanover), G. Haupl (an anonymous 
|»1ate). johann Gottlob Bruc/i/io/s (exlibris of 
Uottlob), Andreas Hocgcr (exlibris of G. C. Oc, 
rith the owner reading, coin cabinets, and a 
^rge figure of Christ on the cross. 1741). 

' Reproduced in Von Hcinemann, 

' ibid., plate 139. 

• Reproduced in E. L. Z. v. 52. 

' Reproduced in Warneeke, plale '. 


278 German Book-plates 

Strganowsky, apparently a Pole or Bohemian 
(exlibris of Quirin Josef Chylik), and by the 
following foreigners : 

Gerard Scotin the elder (Paris). He engraved the 
fine plate of Dn Johann Heinrich Burckhard, 
Physician in Ordinary to the Court of Brunswick 
(Paris and Brunswick), 1715 ; a hall with 
statue of Hygeia, and various allusions to his 
profession, etc. 

Ferdinand Wachsmuth (Paris), who engraved the 
two almost identical exlibris of Johann Lorenz 
Blessig, Professor and theologian, and Friedrich 
Rudolf von Salzmann, publicist and jurist, both 
of Strassburg, circa 1775 (see above, p. 85). 
The latter was, in 1774, tutor to the future 
Minister, Von Stein, at Gottingen, and in 
1776-7 published, in conjunction with his 
friend Blessig, a weekly newspaper on National 
Alsatian lines. The friendship between the 
two men explains their use of the same exlibris. 

h, Unsig)icd Library Interior Exlibris, 
Among the unsigned library-interior plates also 
we find a number of elaborately engraved exlibris, 
some of the most interesting of which may be 
mentioned : 

Exlibris (in two sizes) of the Benedictine Monastery ^ 
Raigern (Rayhradensis), near Briinn in Moravia/ with 1 
monk writing, and the " chronostich " inscriptions (s*^ 
above p. 59), 1784 and 1789; the three exlibris of ^^\ 
Ferdinand Hommel, jurist (Leipzig), 1762 and 1767, ^'i*^" 

' Reprinted from the original copperplate in E. L. Z. ^'^' 
76, 77- 

The Eighteenth Century 279 

tatue of Apollo and the threatening " Lex BibliothecK," 
iven above (see p. 45) : Konrad Edier von Albrecht, Im- 
lerial Councillor and Resident at the Court of Portugal 
Vienna), with Minerva, Pegasus, arms, globe, and two 
lutti bearing the helmets and crests on their heads ; Josef 
Vratislaw (Edler von) Monse, Doctor Juris, lawyer, Im- 
lerial Councillor, (Briinii and Olmiitu), with owl, lamp, 
cales, sword and chain of honour (punishment and 
Bwards), lieehive and bees with flowers; eslibris of 
lie Orphanage at Halle, with long perspective view of 
touble bookcases on each side, and the Prussian eagle ; 
It Brunswick, with six busily-occupied putti, and a man in 
t^lig^e attire reading ; Johann Anton Count Schaffgotsch, 
^^*^vy Councillor, Higher District Judge in Silesia ; his ex- 
bris was engraved after his death, in 1742, with arras, a 
kull, and four allegorical figures of Justice and Learning ; 
Jbraryof the " Exercilien-Haus " of (he Jesuits (Munich), 
nth S. Aloysius von Gonzaga, S. J ,, a crucifix as symbol of 
elf-denial, a lily the symbol of purity, and the Madonna; 
[il^rary of the Sheriifs at Leipzig, with figure of Justice; 
'., H. Flick, a schoolmaster at Hamburg, with an "ara 
cientiarum" and instruments (an amateur's work); Charles 
Louis de Magis, Envoy of the Prince Bishop of I^uvain 
to the t'.erman Diet of Regensburg, probably by Johann 
Georg Fridrich (Regensburg), arms, with a lion as sup- 
porter, and a putto ; Bibliotheca Fregiana, urns, bales of 
[Oierchandise, the staff of Mercury, view of ships, etc. 
udcs the above the following are especially noteworthy 
for delicacy of engraving ; Martin Reinhardt, Pastor 
(Augsburg), with the owner reading, window, and open 
.doors ; Johann Erhard Schifl^auer, Apostolic and Imperial 
.■Notary at Freysing, 1777, apparently by Johann Michael 
'S6cklcr (Munich), a book on a table in a library ; Endter 
(Kurember^), figure of History recording events, etc. 

the foregoing plates with views of library interiors belong 
eighteenth century. 



JN the foregoing pages miiny ecclesias- 
tical exlibris have been describtd and 
reproduced, but they form so dislinc' 
and important a branch of the subj«l I 
that a separate chapter is necessary for their dw I 
consideration. The book-plates of moiiasteri** \ 
and divines are of extraordinary interest from thf 
historical point of view, though they arc »ol tn 
all cases of great artistic merit. 

The main reason which made the nionasterio 
in the Middle Ages the centres of Intellectual life. 
and the distributers of learning, was their i**' 
session of libraries. Every institution possessed 
rare illuminated MSS., of which it was justly prouil. 
and which were carefully and jealously guardei'r 
often being chained to their places to insure againsi 
theft. Such treasures would not willingly be len^ 
They must be studied where they lay. and the only 
exception to this rule would be when a volui"^ 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 



as lent to a scribe from some other monastery to 
: laboriously copied^a work lasting for months 
<)r even years. This was the only method by 
■ivhich books could be multiplied, and it is to the 
Vjndustry and patience of monkish copyists that we 
lowe the preservation of numerous literary master- 
l pieces. In those days the name of the monastery 
I would be written inside the cover or on the flyleaf 
of the volume, and often the arms of the founda- 
I tion or of the abbot would be added. So long as 
every volume had to be written by hand libraries 
were necessarily of limited extent, but after the 
invention of printing they increased rapidly in size. 
As we have seen above, the earliest printed book- 
plates soon followed, and of the three oldest plates 
known (see above, p. 94), one belonged to a 
monk, H ildebrand Brandenburg, of the Carthusian 
I Monastery of Fiuxheim, near Memmingen, in 
^ Bavaria, and another to Hans fgler, called 
Knabcnsberg, a Bavarian divine, the date of both 
being about 1470. Printed book-plates, however, 
did not find their way into monastic libraries until 
the sixteenth century, when numerous examples 
are found. From that time to the pre,sent there 
has been no lack of monastic exlibris. 

{A.) Engk.whrs ok Ecclesiastical E.xlibris. 

Before dealing with ecclesiastical plates in 
detail, the following engravers, whose names are 
found on the exlibris of monasteries and divines, 
may be mentioned : 

282 German Book-plates 

II. Exlifiris of Monasteriei. 

{Irrmanv: Augshur^: I.ukas Kilian : Monastery of 

see, 1637. 
Wolfgang Kilian ; Chiemsec, 1654, here reproduced. 
Johann UlHch Frank: Chiemsee, 16 . . 

Jrvrhnrriius ligtmniJorUf maXi^: joM 

BO0t;-i'L,\Tli OK I Hi, .MOSASTtKV Ot I 

By Wolfgang Kilian (1654). 

<!eorg Andreas Wolfgang : Kremsniunster, 17 . .1 
Andreas Ehmann : Augsburg, Holy Cross. 16 . , 
Josef Sebastian and Johann Baptist Klauber : MiinsKl 
Schwarzach, 1746. I 

Josef Erasmus Belling: Monchsroth, Wessobninn, Etttl. 'T* 
Georg Kwnrad Bodeiiehr: W'iblingen, 17 - 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 


ByChrislof J. Stenglin (1700). 

298), Rog- 

IJohann Heinrich Storcklin : Mijnchsroth (se 
genhurg, Au, 17.. 
I-eonhard Michael Steinberger : Evangelical College, Augs- 
burg, f? . . 
Matthias Sigmund Salmus Miiller: Andechs, 17 . . 
Jakob Andreas Fridrich: Regensburg (Dor 

284 German Book-plates 

Munich : Christof J. Stenglin : Tegemsee, here rtproduc*;^^ 

(p. 283), Baumburg, 17 . . 
Josef Mori : Weihenstephan, 17.. 
Franz Xaver Jungwirth : Polling, 17.. 
Johann Nepomuck Maag: Polling, 17 . . 
Peter Herwegen : Schaftlam, Munich (St. Boniface), i^-; 

Freising', M. U. Hittinger: Weihenstephan, 16 . . 
Regensbitrg\ Bemhard Gottlieb Fridrich : St P^mmeiam, 

17 . . 
Mayr : Mallersdorf, 17.. 
St, NicholaSy near Passau : Franz Buchholzer : St. Nikolaus, 

17 . . 
IVurzburg : Johann Baptist, or Balthasar, Gutwein : Oberzcll 

iriesdaden: Walter Schulte vomBriihl: OfTenburg, 1896. 
Neuwied'. " E. G. " : Sayn, circa 1775. 
Berlin \ (veorgOtto: Kremsmtinster, 1893. 
Karl Leonhard Becker (now at Bonn) : Nonnenwerth, 1896. 

Also (residence unknown) Matthias Kiisel (Wettenhausen, 

1658); H. Franck (Wengen, 1682); Alexander Maur 

(Au, 17 . .); A. Schon (Diessen, 1755): F. (irassanur 

(Monchsroth, 17 . .)• 
Austria : Vienna : Friedrich Schaur : Seitenstctten, 17 • 
Josef A. Schmuzer: Herzogenburg, circa 1730. 
Hugo (ierard Strohl: Geras, 1895. 
Olniiitz : Anton Josef Schindler : Olmiitz, 17.. 
Prague-. Johann Christof Schmischeck : Seeon, 1634 '^^ 

p. 285). 
Anton Birckhardt : Neudorf, 17.. 
1 ohann Berka : Mariabrunn, near Saar, 17.. 
Also Anton Wierix (Nikolsburg, 15 . .) : A. Drost (St. 1'^^"^ 

in the Lavantthal, 17 . .) ; F. Meyer (Seitenstetten, i/ • '' 

Ik Exlihris of Divines : 

CiERMAny: Nuremberg', Albrecht Diirer: Dr. H. I*i^>"^*^^ 

(Nuremberg), 1525 (p. no). 
Resch, or Roesch (woodcutter) : Dr. H. Ponier, 1525 (p. 1 ^°'' 
School of Diirer: Stephan Rosinus (Passau), 15 . . 
Johann David Tyroff : Erhard Christof Bezzel ( Popix.nreuth. 

near Nuremberg), circa 1720. 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 285 

: DoQiinik Cuslos : Johann Gforg von Wcrdenslein 
: Sebastian Mylk-r. Suffragan tif Augsburg, 


liy J. C. .Schmischeck( 16341 

n Striedbeck : Johann Baptist Renz (Augsbui^), 1697. 
i( : Johann Sadder : Ferdinand von uod y-w Hogenau 
Dich), 1646. 
Eninger (Munich ?) : Wilhelm i(.88. 

286 German Book-plates 

Josef Mori : Gelasius Hieber (Augsburg), 17 . . 
August Hess : J. J. J. von Dollinger (Munich), 18 . . 
Peter Halm : Friedrich Schneider (Mainz^, 189 1-2. 
Hans lieat Wieland : Emil Veesenmayr (Wiesbaden), 1899. 
Schleissheim : Otto Hupp : Friedrich Schneider (Maim), 

Berechtesgaden : Bemhard Wenig : P. Hugo Schmid (Krems- 

niiinster), 1899 (reproduced in Chap. XI., B, a), 
JVitrzdurg : Johann A. Salver : Johann Philipp vt» 

(ireiffenclau (Wiirzburg), circa 1700. 
Karl Behrens : Johann Hartmann (Dalherda, Wiirzbuigl 

1896, and Dr. Jakob von Kiihles (Wiirzburg), 1896. 
Constance (?) : T. H. V. B. : Jakob Eliner, Suffragan of 

Constance, and Dr. Bartholomaus Matzler (Constance), 

circa 1570. 
Mainz : Jakob Holdenrieder : Franz Anton Xaver vofl 

Scheben (Mainz), 17 . . 
Klemcns Kissel : Dr. Johann Michael Raich (Mainz), 18931 

and Dr. Franz Falk (Kleinwinternheim), 1892. 
Cologne : B. H. de Brockes, Electoral Councillor : Klemens 

August Duke of Bavaria, Archbishop and Elector of 

(Cologne, 1760. 
Jl'ar/n/rg: Anton Eisenhoit : Theodor von Fiirstenberg? 

Prince Bishop of Paderborn, 1603. 
Breslau (?) : Jakob Landnitz : Karl Franz Neander von 

Petersheidau, Suffragan of Breslau, 16 . . 
Gorlitz : C;eorg Starke : Adolf Treblin, Provost (Breslau)^ 

Karl Ernst : Wilhelm Sauber senior (GutengermendoO' 

SfrassiNtrg (Alsace): E. Simon (lithographer): Bishc^I 

Andreas Raess (Strassburg), 188 . . 
Hamburg: H. Rickers : John Nicolassen (Hamburg), 189^ 
Berthelmingen (Lorraine): Arthur Benoit : Dr. Herman^ 

Kuhn (Brudersdorf), 188 . 
Also (residence unknown) L. Eberle (Ingolstadt ?) ; Pr^ 

fessor Dr. Johann Oswald von Zimmern (Ingolstadt^ 

1600, portrait exlibris ; P. H. Hiiffner; Erhard Christen 

Bezzel (Poppenreuth), circa 1720. 
Austria : Vienna : Moritz Lang : Georg Szelepcheny, Arcb^ 

bishop of Ciran, circa 1670, portrait exlibris. 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 287 

Andreas Nicolai : Franz Paul von Smitmer, Archbishop of 

Vienna, circa 1772. 
Franz Leopold Schmitmer : Johann Michael Franz von 

Velhorn, Deacon (Vienna) 17 . ., 18 . . 
Graz : C. Dietell : Dr. Johann Baptist Kursky, Archdeacon, 

(Vorau and Graz), 17.. 
J. A. Prechler : Christof Reimbaldt von Royach, Benedictine 

Monk (Garsten), 17 . . 

(5.) Exlibris of Monasteries. 

In bringing together into one chapter the book- 
plates of Monastic institutions from the earliest 
times to the present day, we are dealing with 
material which is sufficient both in quantity and 
interest to form the subject of a separate mono- 
graph. Among the many matters of historical 
interest, which are brought before us by a general 
survey of monastic exlibris, are, first of all, the 
large number of monasteries that existed, especially 
in Southern Germany and Bavaria, and also the 
number and variety of the monastic orders, the 
comparative importance and power of the different 
monasteries, their taste in art, etc. In short the 
exlibris of German and Austrian monasteries — 
which are almost the only plates of their kind — 
afford the most varied opportunities for study and 

The chief object represented on monastic ex- 
libris, old and new, has been almost invariably the 
coat of arms either of the monastery or the abbot, 
or of both together : the surrounding frame and 
decoration has varied with the style of the period. 
In almost every case a crosier, or two in saltire. 

288 German Book-plates 

are placed behind the shield. The crosier (d 
Pedum) is really the bishop's pastoral staff. 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 

also of episcopal authority. To the staff is often 
attached the sudarium, a cloth originally used for 
the sake of cleanliness, the distinctive mark of an 
abbot's staff. In addition, the abbot's cap ox mitre 
is almost always placed above the shield ; the 
mitre, the two points of which are symbolical of 
the Old and New Testaments, is also in reality an 
episcopal distinction, but the Pope had the power 
of investing abboLs and provosts with the mitre 
— hence the term " mitred abbots." As a rule, 
the mitres of abbots are more plainly embroidered 
than those of bishops. The ornamentation is verj' 
varied, and consists either of plain crosses em- 
broidered in silk, cloth, pearls, or jewels, or arab- 
esques and conventional pattern work, or figures 
of the Madonna and Child, Angels. Saints, Martyrs, 
etc.— c._^., the exlibris of the Benedictine Monas- 
tery of St. Veit, on which St, Vitus is represented 
on the mitre in his kettle of boiling lead and pitch. 
In the case of monasteries, such as those of 
Buchau (WUrttemberg). St. Blaise (Baden), and 
Salem (Baden), which had temporal jurisdiction 
over their subjects, a sword^ is laid across the 
crosier. The crosses carried before the abbots are 
also represented behind the shield ; viz., the Latin 
cross with one traverse, really the sign of an 
archbishop, but also borne by many bishops, 
honoris causa, by Papal authority ; the double or 
patriarchal cross, with two bars, ending in trefoils, 
borne by cardinals : and the triple or Papal cross 
(see,c.o-., the exlibris of Wessobrunn, with figure of 
St. Peter, p. 290). These crosses are symbols that 
the bearers are the representatives of Christ, and 


Gennatt Book-plates 

have, therefore, to bear the cross of their ufiio 
in accordance with the words of Scripture, "wll 
crucem .suam." 

Z £ Atlh-f Cik S. ^ 

iSyJ. E. BcllinKd?..;. 

When the foundations — e.g., those of Hud 
and St, HIaise — were princely abbeys of \ 
Empire, they did not hesitate to add a print! 
coronet. Where a paht-bramh occurs it is; ' 
indication of a martyr. 

Ecclesiastical ExHbris 

In the eighteenth century ««^fA were frequently- 
introduced : sometimes they served as supporters, 
more often winged cherubs' heads bearing the 
mitre were placed above the shield. They were 
intended, no doubt, as an indication of the re- 
ligious activity of the monastery, and are often 
most beautifully engraved. 

Besides these we find various representations of 
the Madonna and Child, the patron saint of the 
monastery, to whom it was consecrated and after 
whom it was named, skeletons, symbolical of the 
transitoriness of earthly things, St. Michael, the 
Dragon-killer (symbolical of victory over evil), 
abstract figures, such as Time and Eternity; even 
the favourite Goddess, Minerva, appears on one 
monastic plate (VVeihenstephan) ; also St, I'eter, 
with the Papal tiara (Wessobrimn, consecrated to 
St. Peter), and his two keys, of gold and silver, 
which signify the power of ordination possessed 
by the Church and also its sovereign power. 

Besides the ordinary lettering we find mono- 
grams composed of the words Jesus and Mary, and 
the well-known symbol of the Jesuits, " I. H. S.," 
with the cross over the H. and the three nails of 
Christ below. " I. H. S." represent the first three 
letters of the Greek IHIOTS, but have been vari- 
ously interpreted at different times to stand for 
Jesus Hominum Salvator, Jesus Hortatnr Sanc- 
torum, In Hoc Salus, In Hoc Signo (vinces), Jesum 
Habemus Socium, 'Ino-our Ti'if SuTiJp, Jesus Heiland 
Seligmacher, etc. 

Of other initial letters. S. P. stands for St. 
Peter {e.g.. Monastery of St. Peter, Salzburg} ; 

292 German Book-plates 

O.S.B.zi Ordinis Sancti Benedict!: P = P^a^ 
positus (Provost) and also Pater (Father); A = 
Abbas ; B.V.M. = Beatae Virginis Mariae ; D.G. 
= Dei Gratia; S.R.I. = Sacri Romani Imperii; 
I.O.G.D.=: In Omnem Gloriam Dei; F.F.= 
Fratrum ; P.P. = Patrum ; i.p.i. = in partibui 

Many monasteries were not content with one 
book-plate but had new ones either on the accesr 
sion of a new abbot, or when some considerabk 
addition was made to the library. The Swiss 
monastery of St. Urban had probably the greatest 
number — at least thirty different exlibris ; but 
some of the Bavarian abbeys had a long suc- 
cession of plates, ^.^., Chiemsec, 13; Polling. 9; 
Baumburg, 8; Augsburg, Holy Cross, 8; Andeck, 
7; Monchsroth, 6; Thierhaupten, 5, etc. 

In the following list, which is believed to be 
very nearly if not quite complete, the monasteries 
which «ire known to have possessed exlibris from 
the fifteenth century to the present time are given 
according to their Orders, the arms and date of 
institution of which are also added. ^ 

a. Bknkdictink Order. 

Founded by St. Benedict, B.C. 529, on Monte 
Cassino, near Naples ; took root in Germany in 

* (T. H. (). Stnihl, " Einiges iiber die Wappen dcr geisl- 
lichen Orden '' ; also various articles by A. von Eisenhart and 
(loiint zu I^Mningcn-Westerburg in E. L. Z. iv. n, 48.92; 
V. ^)^: vi. ^^, 45, 95, 109; vii. 7, 78; ix. 103. (The trans- 
lator has also to acknowledge his indebtedness to Woodwards 
** Ecclesiastical Heraldry'' (Edinburgh, 1894) for the blazoning 
of the arms.) 



LVD0VICV5- FerczlAbbas 





^^ A 






German Book-plates ^^h 

the eighth century. This Order, which possessel 
15.000 abbeys at the time of the Council of Con 
stance (1415). was specially devoted to learning 



Engraved by Mayr (1? . .)■ 

Arms : Azure, a mountain of three coupca 
in base (the cross of the Monte Cassino).Mo'ifl? 
patriarchal cross, its anns paties or ; ov er aU 
word PAX in f ess sable. 

'siasHcal Hxlibrts 

Kmanv : Bavaria \ Altonuhister, Andechs, Attl, 

penediktbeiiern (see p. 293), Blankstetten, Ettal, 

Hugshofen.Irrsee. Miillersdorf (seep.294), Met- 

|,ten. Munich (St. Bnnifacc), NiederaltaicK (see 



f p. 39), Oberaltaich, Regensburg (St. Emmeram), 
Rott-on-Inn, Schaftlarn, Scheyern. Seeon. 
Tegernsee (see pp. 283, 288), Thierhaupten, 
Weihenstephan. Weltenbur^-on-Danube, Wes- 
obrunn (see illustration — St. Peter with the 
Papal tiara and cross, and keys, p. 290). 

296 Geyman Book-plates 

Snabia-. Augsburg (St. U Inch and Afra). Donau- 
worth (Werden. Holy Cross). Elchingen, Neres- 
heim, Ochsenhausen, Welngarten, VViblingcn. 

Frattconia : Amorbach, Banz, MUnster- Schwa"- 
ach, Neustadt-on-Main, Wilrzburg (St. Stephen 
and Scotch Cloister). 

Eise;vherc'. St. Blaise, in the Black Forest. 
{Abbot Martin Gerbert von Hornau, see illus- 
tration, p. 295 ; S.Q.R.I.P. stands for Simiilquc 
Romani Imperii Princeps, arms of the abbotand 
of the foundation) ; Ebersheimmiinster in Alsace, 
Fritzlar. Fulda, and SelJgenstadt in Hessei 
Mainz (St. Jacob). 

Austria : Admont, Garsten, Kremsmiinster, Lam- 
bach, Melk, Maria Zell, Raigern, Salzburg (St. 
Peter), St. Lambrecht, St. Paul in the Lavant- 
thai, St. Veit. Seitenstetlen. Vienna (Scotch 

b. Order of the Camaldolites. 

A branch of the Benedictine Order, founded by 
St, Romuald of Ravenna at Camaldoli in Tus- 
cany in the early part of the eleventh century. 

Arms : Argent, a mountain of three coupeaux sup- 
porting an open crown proper. 

Austria : Josefsberg, on the Kahtenberg near 

c. Cistercian Ohdei;. 
Founded by Robert, Abbot of Molesme, 1098, 
in a desert called Cisteau.x (Cisterzium) near 
Dijon ; St. Bernard did good service to the 
Order and alone instituted 72 monasteries. In 
all there were about 3,000 Cistercian abbeys. 


Eagraved by J. H. Storcklin (17 . .). 

or andazure, wilhht a bordurc gules (Burgum 
ancient). The Bernardine houses used : Sah 
a bend counter-cottipouy argent and gules as shod 
on the illustration on p. 297. 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 


,MANV : Aldersbacli and Raltenhaslach, in 

varia, Waldsassen in the Upper Palatinate, 

Bildhausen in Franconia, Salem in Baden, 

t-iitzel in Alsace. Eberbach in Rheingau (see 

.■ OF UKSPERr, (i; 

. .). 

Ilustration, p. 297 — in one shield are combined 

thearmsof the Cistercians, the monastery and the 

abbot), Altenbergin the Duchy of Berg, Lockum 

^in Hanover, Heinrichau and Leubus in Silesia. 


300 German Book-plates 


Neuberfj;, Plass. Marlabrunn near Saai 
. Sausenstein (Gottesthal). 


^^ '^^^^^^^TlKX^^ 


^^£iss^^^^l^'^>i^^ ^ 











d. Premonstratensian Order {or Norbertinei 
Founded in ii2i,bySt. Norbert. of Xanten, 
a meadow pointed out by Divine agency 
Prcmontre (= praliim nionstratum). near Cou< 
in France. The Order had at one time 1,5 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 30 1 

us : Azure, semS of ficur-de-lis or, over all two 
•osiers in saltire of the second. 

»ERMANV: Bavaria: Neustift (Neuzell), Oster- 
hofen-on- Danube. S. Salvator near Passau, 

Schaftlarn. Steingaden : Suabia: Kirchbirlingen, 
Roggenburo;, Roth (Monchsroth)^see illustra- 
tion, p. 298 ; the griffin and fish are the arms of 
C! : the abbot, Hermann Vogler (as is 
another exlibris), bore canting arms^ — 


German Book-plates 

a falconer with a hawk on his hand — and d 
engraver, with a defiance of heraldic law cba 
acteristic of the period, has depicted the bn 

tlying, on a string, into the first quarter off 
shield, which is thus divided quarterly ; Ursp* 
(see illustration, p. 299), with the arms of 

Ecclesiastical Exlibns 303 


1 ^-i^^l 

/A, 1^21^^ 












■i'^.i^.A, ;„ 



abbey (Ursus, abear.and berg, a hill = Ursperg) 

Id of the abbot ; Weisenau (see illustration. 
, 300) ; Franconia : Oberzell-on-Maiii (see 

304 German Book-plates 

illustration, p. 301 ), with original inscriptions r 
lating to the lending of books, and the arms < 
the monastery, the abbot and the Order, the 
last in a somewhat mutilated form ; Sayii|| 
also illustrated (p. 302) ; the saw is a references 
to St. Simon, one of whose arms the monastery 
preserves as a relic ; Steinfeld in Rhineland. 

Ad BibliotKecajn Canonia ReguiarumOiefIc 


By A. Sehfjn(i755). 

Austkia: Geras, Klosterbruck(Liica),SchldgI — see 

reproduction, p. 303 (canting arms, Schlagel ^ 

c. Rhgular Canons (Augl"stinians). 

This Order dates its origin from St. Augustine, 
whose Rule (written in 423) it follows. It was 
established in Rome, in the .A.rchibasilika 
Lateranensis, by Pope Alexander II,, at the 
end of the eleventh century, and further regu- 
lated by Pope Benedict XII., in 13 

ftMANV : Bavaria : An (Munich), Baumburg, 
Piessen (see illustration, p. 304- — -arms of the 
nonastery.the same as those of the neighbouring 

bbey of Andechs. reversed, and of the abbot), 
pietramszell. Herren-Chiemsee, Hogelworth 

see illustration, arms of abbot and moniistery. 

Ecclesiastical ExUbris 


I. B. P. H.= Johannes Baptista Praepositiis 
Hogelwerdensis) ; Polling (see illustration op- 
posite ; one of the most important of monastic 

libraries, containing 80,000 volumes, and includ- 
ing Spanish and Portuguese literature ; arms of 
monastery, which have reference to a lei^end. 
and abbot) ; Rebdorf. Rohr, Rothenbuch ( Raiten- 

3o8 German Book-pldtcs 

buch), St. Nicholas near Passau, Stadtamhof, 

Sttabia : Augsburg (Holy Cross and St. George), 
Wengen near Dim (see illustration, p. 307 ; wili 
the motto of St. Augustine, "ToUe. Lege/' and 
the arms of the Abbot Nicolaus I. Bucher- 
canting arms — of Count von Werdenberg, and 
of Count von Helfenstein) ; Wettenhausen. 
Also the nunneries of Breslau in Silesia and 
Offenburg in Baden. 

Aiislria : Gars, Graz, Herzogenburg, Neusiifi 
near Brixen, Olmiitz, St. Andrew-on-ihc- 
Traisen, St. Florian, PoIIau, Vorau, Vienna (SS. 
Sebastian and Roche ; and the Abbey of St. 

/. Trinitarians, who are also to be classed among 
the Regular Canons, though they form a distinci 

Founded in 1 198 by the French hermits, Jean de 
Matha and Felix de Valois, under the title of 
an ** Order for ransoming and freeing Christian 
prisoners from the Slavery of the Unbelievers." 
A branch of the Order, the barefooted Trini- 
tarians, was formed in Spain in 1594. by Jean 
Battiste de la Conception. 

Arms : Argcnt.a cross patic, the perpendicular gulc>. 
the traverse azure. 

Austria : Pressburg and Vienna. 

tr, Dominicans (or Preaching Friars). 

F(iundcd by the Spaniard Dominic de Guzman in 
1205. at Toulouse. The Dominican brothers 
have always been feared and respected as the 

Ecclcsiastica! Rxlibris 309 

'Hounds of the Lord" 


By J. A. Fridrich {17 , .). 

per; in chief a palm-branch and a branch of 
^ proper, issuanl from an open crown proper, 
'surmounted by an esioile or} The mother of 

ise were the correct arms, but Ihey varied considerably 
le seen from the plate illustrated on this page. 

3IO German Book-plates 

St. Dominic is said to have dreamed that she 
would bring forth a dog with a blazing torch in 
its mouth, and at his baptism his godmother 
beheld a splendid star descend from heaven and 
settle on his brow. 

Germany : Bavaria : Eichstatt, Medlingen, Re- 
gensburg (see illustration, p. 309 — arms of the 
Order surmounted by the Papal tiara, a car- 
dinal's hat, an archbishop's cap, a Papal cross 
and a crosier). Suabia : Augsburg, Kirchheim- 
on-the-Mindel ; Franconia\ Wiirzburg; JViirt- 
temberg: Wimpfen; Silesia : Breslau. 

Austria : Bozen, and Neudorf (Neovilla), 

//. Franciscans (or Minorites). 

Founded in 1240, by Giovanni Bernardone, St. 
Francis of Assisi. 

Arms : Argenl, a Cross-Calvary traversed by two 
human arms in saltire {sometimes issuant from 
clouds in base), one in bend naked, representing 
the arm of our Saviour, the otiur in bend sinister 
habited in the dress of St. Francis, both bearing 
the stigmata. 

Germany : Bavaria : Ingolstadt, Landshut, 
Munich, Regensburg, Wiirzburg; Frafuonia\ 
Briickcnau (Holy Mount Sinai), Hammelburg; 
Baden \ Rastatt ; Hesse \ Fulda, Frauenberg; 
Rhifteland: Nonnenwerth ; Silesia: Breslau, 
Goldberg; Alsace: St. Odilien (nunnery). 

Austria : Bozen. 

i. Capuchins. 

A branch of the Franciscans, founded in 1525 by 
Matteo di Baschi at Urbino. 


Ecclesiastical Exlibris 3 1 1 

Arms : As the Franciscans. 
Germany: Breslau. 
Austria : Innsbruck. 

k. MiNiMEs (or Paulani). 

Founded in 1435 ^Y St. Francis de Paule, a Cala- 

brian Franciscan. 
Armorial device : The motto of the founder, 

** Charitas " (said to have been given to him 

by an angel from Heaven), inclosed in a wreath 

of golden rays. 
Germany ; Munich. 
Austria- Hungary : Pest. 

/. Carmelites (Discalceati). 

Founded in 11 56 by the Crusader Berthold, Count 
of Limoges, in the cave of the Prophet Elijah 
on Mount Carmel in Syria. 

Arms : Sable, manteli (prchapi) argent.three estoiles 
counter-changed. The Carmes Dichaussis (bare- 
footed Carmelites) made the sable point in base 
terminate in a cross pat^e on the argent chief. 

Germany : Augsburg, Metz, Munich, Regens- 
burg, Wohlau, Wiirzburg. 

m. AuGusTiNiAN Hermits. 

Established by Pope Innocent IV., in 1244, by 
the combination of several congregations of 
recluses already existing in Italy, under the 
rule of St. Augustine. As is well known, 
Luther sprang from the Saxon branch of this 

Arms : The Order had no fixed arms, but various 
attributes of St. Augustine, such as a book with 

3 1 2 German Book-plates 

the letters '*T.L.'*' (Tolle, Lege), a heart, a 
pastoral staff, arrow, girdle, etc., were used. 

Germany : Aufkirchen and Munich. 

Austria : Korneuburg, and Miilln in Salzburg. 

n, Jeronymites. 

A congregation of hermits under the protection 
of St. Jerome. Founded about 1370 by the 
Portuguese Franciscan Vasco, and the Spaniard, 
Father Ferdinand Pacha, in the neighbour- 
hood of Toledo. 

Arms: None. 

Germany : Munich. 

o. Carthusians. 

F^ounded by S. Bruno, a canon of Cologne, in 
1084, at the famous monastery of Chartreuse 
near Grenoble. 

Arms: Argent y an orb azure, banded afid sur- 
mounted by a cross or. 

Germany : Buxheim in Suabia, whence come the 
oldest German exlibris. 

p. Sekvites (Servi Mariae Virginis). • 
Founded in 1233 by seven rich merchants of 

P^'lorence. on Monte Senatorio. 
Armorial device : A monogram of the letters 

**S.M." (Sancta Maria), out of which springs 

a plant of seven lilies. 
Austria : Volders in the Tyrol, and Vienna in 

the Rossau. 

q. Monks Hospitallers. 

This Order of ministers of the sick was founded 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 3 1 3 

by S. juan de Dio in 1540 at Granada in 

Device : A cross and pomegranate. 
Austria : Vienna. 

r. PiARiSTS (Patres scholarum piarum). 

Founded at Rome in 1597 by S. Joseph of Cala- 

Armorial device : The name ** Maria" surmounted 
by a crown and cross ; below two monograms 
representing an abbreviation of the Greek 
words meaning ** Mother of God " (6«ou w»jW/>)' 

Austria : Nikolsburg and Cracow. 

s, Theatins (or Cajetans). 

F'ounded by Pietro Carafifa, Bishop of Theate, and 

Cardinal Gaetani of Thiene (Venice), 1524. 
Arms : A cross on a mountain of three coupeaux. 
Germany : Munich. 
Austria : Salzburg. 

/. Jesuits. 

Founded by Don Inigo Lopez de Recalde, better 
known as Ignatius Loyola, in 1538, and con- 
firmed in 1540. 

Armorial device: The cipher **LH.S.," the H 
surmounted by a cross, and beneath it three 
passion nails, the whole surrounded by golden 

Germany : Ingolstadt, Munich, Wurzburg, Mainz 
(see illustration, p. 315 — gift- plate to commem- 
orate a presentation from Daniel Brendel von 


314 German Book-plates 

Hohenburg, Archbishop of Mainz, 1558; above 
is the device of the Jesuits andbelowthe achieve- 
ment of the Archbishop, his escutcheon bearing 
quarterly Mainz and Brendel von Hohenburg. 
with four ancestral shields), Fulda, Mannheim, 
Strassburg, and Leipzig ; also SS. Cyrillus and 
Methodius, the position of which is unknown. 
Austria-Hungary : Linz (Freinberg) and Press- 

This completes the list 0f the regular Monastic 
Orders ; the exlibris of the two great Ecclesi- 
astical Orders vf Knighthood must also be men- 
tioned : 

u. The Sovereign Order of St. John of Je- 
rusalem (Knights of St. John, Knights Hos- 
pitallers, Knights of Malta). 

r^ounded at Jerusalem in 1048 by merchants from 
Amalfi : recognized as a religious Order of 
Knighthood in 1 1 19. 

Arms : Gules, a cross argent. The whole escut- 
cheon is placed upon the eight-pointed cross of 
the Order. 

Two exlibris of the Library of the Chancellery of 
the Order in Vienna, and of the Grand Prion 
of Bohemia, 1899 and 1900, designed by Ernst 
Krahl (Vienna). 

V, The Hum Teutonic Order. 

Founded by pious Germans (merchants from Lii- 
beck and Bremen) in 1 128 as a Pilgrims' house 
(" Deutsches Haus") in Jerusalem; estab- 

!,x liberalicacc tVeucrcndils. arq^ 

lUullnls. Domini, Domi. Damelis Archiqjiicopt 
& Pnnapis ElcftorisMogununi, &c 





German Book-platvs 

6y: Ihris Commenda^ncemis 
Ordims ' 

(X pntno hi^ Covxrc\£r\Ac&or'e 

Cbmite de yio-rracyi^J^crraii 
Collects . 


lished as a religious Order of Knighthood b] 
the Emperor Henry VI. and Pope Celestine III. 
1 191 (Marienburg in Prussia, Mergentheim and 


Ecclesiastical Exlibris 3 1 7 

Arms : Argent, a cross sable y thereon a narroiv 
cross fiery or, on an escutcheon en surtout of the 
last, an eagle displayed of the second [the old 
German ** Reichsadler "). 

Exlibris : Commandery of Vienna ; library col- 
lected by Karl Borromeus, Count von Colloredo, 
Commander of the Order, 16 . . 

Commandery of Linz ; library collected by Johann 
Josef Philipp, Count von Harrach, Commander 
of the Order — see illustration, p. 316; the 
Count's escutcheon is placed on the Cross of 
the Teutonic Order, 16 . . 

District Commandery of Gumpolzkirchen, 1894, 
by H. G. Strohl (Modling, Vienna) ; Samson 
rending the lion. 

Library of the Order in Vienna ; used also for 
the libraries of the schools, hospitals, convents, 
and houses of mercy belonging to the Teutonic 
Order : exlibris presented by Grand Master the 
Archduke Eugene of Austria, 1898. 

^l^ Othkr Religious Institutions and Commun- 
ities WHICH possessed Book-plates. 


Berlin-. Consistory of the French Church, 1893. 

Magdeburg: Metropolitan Church of St. Moritz, 1597. 

Breslau \ Matthiasstift, 17..; library of the Church of St. 
Mary Magdalene (memorial plate), 1579. 

Stralsund'. Library of the Church of St. Nicolas, 18 . . 

Cttlm-Pelplin (West Prussia) : Priests* Seminary, 18 . . 

IJiueburg : St. Michael (Catholic Monastery till 1532, Pro- 
testant Monastery till 1655, "Ritterschule" till 1850), 17 . . 

//a//e : Evangelical Theological Institution of Tholuck. 

Fritzlar-. St. Peter's, originally a Benedictine Monastery, 


German Book-plates 

afterwards a secular institulion, 16 . ,: see illi 
(Papal tiara and ke)'s of St. Peter). 
Aaclieii : Collegiate institution of the Vii^in Mary, t 

•STKalD33 ^IK915NI 


FRITZLAR (16 . .)- 

Mariaberg (on the Rhine, or in the Tyrol), 17 . . 
Munich: Gregorianum, 1636; Library of the High C 

sistory Court of Bavaria, 18 . . 
Augsburg: Cathedral Chapter, 16..; Kvangelical CoH 


Reproduced on p. 239, 

Reproduced in R. L. 7.. vi. 46; set also [,. 113 of the 

320 German Book-plates 

Freising: Cathedral Chapter, 1770; Archiepiscopal Clerical 
Seminary, 17 . .; Archiepiscopal priests* seminary, 17 . . 

Dillingen : Seminary of St. Francis de Sales, 17.. 

Wiirzburgx Clerical Seminary of the (iood Shepherd, 17 . . 

Schwabhaiisen (near Kaufering) : Chapter of the Secular 
Priests of this Deanery, circa 1790. 

Spires : Episcopal Library, 17.. 

Eilwangen (formerly an ecclesiastical principality), Ritter- 
stift, 17 . . 

Buchau : Free Secular Monastery- for Women, 17..; see illus- 
tration (p. 3 1 9). The escutcheon bears the family arms 
of the Abbess Maria Theresa, nee Countess of Montfort 
(1693- 1 730), with the princely crown of the abbey and 
the sword indicative of temporal power. 

Amlishagen : Church Library, 17 . . 

Freiburg-im-Breisgati : College of St. Rosarius, 17.. 

Vcuha (Hesse): Church Library, 1672, by Martin Hailler 

Vienna-, Archiepiscopal Clerical Seminary, 17 . ., 18 . . 

Maria- Taferi^ 17 . . 

Spital-on-tlu-Pyrrhn : Secular Collegiate Foundation, 17.. 

Trieni: St. Bern hard, 17 . . 

Brixen: Ecclesiastical Library, circa 1580. 

Innsbruck : Erzfiirstliches Stift und Regulhaus ; see illustra- 
tion, p. 321 (with the arms of Austria), 17 . . 

Haii (Tyrol) : Foundation for Noble Women, 16 . . 

Prague: College of St. Bernhard, circa 1725. 

Kolocza : Chapter of the Metropolitan Church, 17.. 
Also in Sweden. 

Stockholm : German Community of St. Gertrude, 189 . 

Among the monastic exlibris which are espe- 
cially deserving of notice on account of their de- 
signs, the following may be mentioned : 

IVUrzburg : Benedictine Abbey of St. Stephen ; 
the Abbot, Jodocus Zimmermann, possessed 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 


armorial woodcut exlibris, 1522 
(58. with verses.' 
VHarn (Benedictine) : Provost Johaiin Ecker, 
podcut, 1545 ; the charge on the shield is a 
pTovv (" Egge," canting arms). 


bu7-g: Holy Cross (Regular Canons) ; Provost 

:org, circa 1567, two coloured woodcuts;* the 

tcheon supported by angels and sur- 

lunted by the handkerchief of St. Veronica. 

•Jiaitp/en (Benedictine). 15S7; kneeling angel 

reproduced in E. I.. 'A. x. 34, 35, 36. 


Gertnau Book-plates 


holding the abbot's shield (B.G.A. = Ben^^^ 
Gangenrieder Abbas) and the canting ann^ 
the monastery — the head of a red deer ; b^^ 
reproduced, p. 323. 

Mainz\ Benedictine Monastery of St. Jacob; Abbot 
Jakob Keim, copperplate, 1608; arms sur- 
mounted by mitre and crosier, and also by a 
pilgrim's staff and shell, the abbot having 
undertaken a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.^ 

Bozen (Franciscan), 16 . . ; St. Francis is rcpt^ 
sented kneeling before a crucifix in the clouds. 

Josef sberg (Camaldolite), on the Kahlenberg new 
Vienna, circa 1680 ; the arms of the Order wiA 
Joseph and Mary and the Christ-child in tbe 

Siiiisenstcin (" Vallis Dei," God s Valley, Cistercian] 
in Lower Austria, Seitenstettefi (Benedictine) ia 
Upper Austria (three exlibris), and EbersJum- 
milnster (Benedictine) in Alsace, all eighteenth- 
century plates, are especially noteworthy for 
their rococo borders, and cherubs' heads bearing 

Salzburg', Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter; two ex- 
libris, dated 1636, with a gardener watering his 
plants, and the motto **Conservando cresco. * 

The exlibris of the Cathedral chapter of An^^j^s- 
burg, 16 . ., and Freising, circa 1770, show the 
Madonna in j^jlory, holding the infant Christ. 

The exlibris of the Benedictine Abbeys of Sccon, 
1634 (p. 285). TigernseCy 1700 (p. 283), and 
^4 2/;';^^//;^ (Imperial Abbey of SS. Ulrich and 

' Reproduced in Burger's "Lcipziger Exlibris-Sammlung;' 
Plate XLI. 

Ecclesiastical ExUbris 323 

Afra), show their respective patron saints— 
St. Lambert and St. Benedict, St. Benedict and 

St. Ouirinus. St. Ulrich ;ind St. Afra. 


The exlibris of the Premonstratensian Abbey of 
Roggenkn-g \x\ Suabia, 1713 and 1735, have rich 

324 Geyman Book-plates 

barocjuc frames, and a later plate of 1753 bears 
the figure of the Madonna, with a wreath i 
stars and lilies, looking upwards through an 
open crown. 

The three exlibris of the Benedictine Abbey of 
St, Florian, in Upper Austria, circa 1754, 175S 
and 1766. are finely engraved, and bear the arms 
of the monastery and of the abbot. 

The exlibris of the Benedictine Abbey of Krentsr 
milnster, also in Upper Austria, 1893, gives an 
accurate representation of the beautiful rococo 
rooms which contain the library. 

(C.) Exlibris of Ecclesiastics. 

The personal book-plates of German and 
Austrian ecclesiastics, from archbishops down 
to simple clergymen and monks, afford almost as 
rich a field of interest as the monastic exlibris dealt 
with in the preceding section. Being almost 
wholly armorial, these plates do not afford any 
great variety in the objects represented ; but a 
chronological collection of them enables us to 
study the different methods of execution and 
styles of design during four centuries, and to 
observe how artistic feeling rose and fell under 
the influence of the times. 

The use of armorial bearings by ecclesiastics 
dates from a very early period, and heraldic decora- 
tion was used so frequently for church purposes— 
on the buildings themselves as well as in glass 
windows, on vestments, church vessels, etc. — that 
nothine was more natural than that the coat of 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 325 

arms should form the principal ornament on the 
book-plates of Church dignitaries. At all times a 
larore number of ecclesiastics have devoted them- 
selves more to earnest study and research than 
to the cure of souls, and we can see from the 
numerous exlibris still extant how many private 
libraries have been formed by these learned 
clerics. Frequently these collections were be- 
queathed to monasteries, and after their seculari- 
zation were transferred to municipal libraries. 
Other ecclesiastical libraries were inherited by 
relations, or fell into the hands of booksellers or 
bibliophiles. ** Habent sua fata libelli," and the 
books collected by ecclesiastics in the past have 
in the course of centuries known many curious 
changes of ownership. 

The use of the Helmet by ecclesiastics dates 
from the times when Princes of the Church led 
their armies into battle in person ; and the custom 
was carried on by theologians, who, though they 
may have fought bravely with mouth and pen, 
certainly never engaged in actual warfare. In the 
sixteenth century, by way of compromise, a crest 
of an ecclesiastical character was added to the 
helm. Thus the exlibris of Martin von Schaum- 
burg. Prince- Bishop of Eichstatt, circa 1560, dis- 
plays the arms of the see, quartered with the 
personal arms of the bishop, the escutcheon being 
surmounted by the family helmet and also the crest 
of the bishopric — an arm upholding a crosier. 

Early in the sixteenth century, however, it be- 
came usual to place the more appropriate Mitre 
over the shield, either instead of the helmet, or 


German Book-plates 

alongside of it, or between two family helmets 
The episcopal or archiepiscopal mitre is often 
sumptuously ornamented with precious stonesj 
pearls, pilgrims' shells, embroidery, figures ofl 
saints or of the Madonna, etc, 

In some cases the place of the helmet is take 
by such objects as Skulls, symbolical of the Cran'] 
sltoriness of this world, and emblematical crest^ 
— such as an hour-glass or a snake with its tail iq 
its mouth — are also found. 

In order that the various grades of ecclesiastic 
ranii might be more easily recognized, in the early! 
part of the sixteenth century, the broad-brimniecU 
Hats, such as were actually worn on special occa'J 
sionsby higher ecclesiastics, began totaketheplacq 
of helmet and mitre.or were placed above thelatterj 
The hats were distinguished by the number oq 
tassels {/louppes, Jiocci). As a rule the cardinal'^ 
hat was of red. and had 5 tassels hanging on eachl 
side ; the archbishop's hat was green, with . 
tassels : and the bishop's hat. also green, had ^ 
tassels. The last form of hat was usually worm 
also by apostolical protonotaries, but with violei 
tassels. These modest numbers were, however^ 
rarely considered sufficient, and cardinals assumei 
as many as 15 tassels (i. 2, 3. 4, 5) on each side, 
archbishops 10 (i, 2. 3. 4), and bishops 6 (i, 2, 3). 

If the further introduction of symbols of temJ 
poral authority, such as Coronets and Mantles, waa 
not considered inconsistent with the modesty eiv 
joined upon the sons of the Church, it must 1 
remembered that, in the sixteenth, and men 
especially in the seventeenth century, the Courts 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 327 

of ecclesiastical dignitaries were surrounded with 
a splendour and magnificence of which we have 
little conception. Holders of the higher offices 
in the Church were almost always the scions of 
old noble families, and in many cases the most 
stringent ** proofs of nobility" were required before 
the applicant qualified for promotion. 

Family arms were often joined with those of the 
see, either quartered on one shield or placed on 
two escutcheons side by side. Coronets are 
especially frequent on the exlibris of archbishops 
who were also Electors of the Empire. 

Other accessories, such as we have already 
described as occurring on the exlibris of monas- 
teries — crosiers, processional crosses, the sword of 
temporal authority — also lend dignity to the plates 
of ecclesiastics. The mitres are sometimes trans- 
fixed by crosiers, and the heads of the latter are 
of most varied form, ranging from the simple crook 
to the elaborately carved and decorated produc- 
tions of later times. On plates which went beyond 
the pure armorial, especially in the eighteenth 
century, we find saints as supporters, or in the 
borders of the plate, and representations of the 
Crucifixion, the Madonna, angels and symbolical 
figures, though the last are less frequent than on 
the exlibris of private people. Portrait-plates of 
ecclesiastics are also found. Allegorical designs 
are also, of course, frequent : a heart on an anvil 
or under a hammer, the sun and sunflowers, etc. ; 
and — especially on shields which have been 
assumed by the bearer for his personal use alone — 
hearts, the Lamb of God, the dove with an olive 

328 German Book-plates I 

branch, vine branches, simple crosses wreathed I 
with vine twigs, anchors, the Phoenix, fishes, I 
trefoils, flowers, palm branches, Madonnas, crud- 1 
fixes, Peter's keys, cranes, monograms such as 1 
I. H. (Jesus Heilandiz Saviour), and so on. A few I 
exlibris have representations of churches, and in I 
the eighteenth century putti and boy-angels arc 1 
common. On the plates of the Theatine FatheR 
at Munich, by Thoma, and Don Ferdinand Sterz- 
inger (17 . .) the cherub, otherwise naked, has 
a biretta on his head, lest he should appear too 

Many exlibris of ecclesiastics have been repro- 
duced in previous chapters,^ and to these the 
following may be added :^ 

Johann Egolf (Eginolf) vofi Kndringen, Bishop of 
Augsburg, woodcut, circa 1 574 ; the shield bears 
quarterly, i and 4, the see of Augsburg, 2 and 
3, Von Knoringen, the dexter helmet bearing 
the crest of the see, and the sinister that of the 
bishop. In the border are four ancestral coats: 
I, Von Knoringen ; 2, Von Westerstetten ; 3, Von 
Schwendig; 4, Von Freiberg (p. 329). 

Otto Gereon von GutmanUy Doctor of Theoloi^". 

' Jakob Hainrichmann (facing p. 10), Hiltebrand Branden- 
i'uri^ ifronfis,)^ Hector Pomer (pp. no, 112), Johann Jakob 
Miirfz(\}. 121), Johann J/<7/(fr, called -^r^t (pp. 123-124), Rein- 
hard Count zu Leiningen-lVesterburg (p. 141), Wolfgang SeidI 
(p. 143), Gcorg Hehvich (p. 152), Alfons Kennedy (p. 243), 
Heinrich Braun (p. 272). 

*'* The exlibris of abbots and abbesses, which belong to the 
monastery rather than to the individual, have been included 
in the preceding section, rather than here. 


Knoerincen, Electvs 
&C confirmatus Bpifcopus 


ALHiSBURG {n'n.-(i 1574). 

cctoral Councillor and Suffragan Bishop of 
llogne, 1624; this plate, the original size of 
uch is 8^ in. x 5J in,, is the work of an accom- 
ished engraver (p. 330). 



334 Gcniian Book-plates 1 

Sebastian Dcnicliy Bishop of Almira /././., copp^ 
plate, 1672 ; a memorial plate (p. 331). 1 

Sigismund von KollonitZy Cardinal-Archbishop ^ 
Vienna, copperplate, circa 1 730 ; this pi 
shows the arrangement of the 30 tassels (14 
each side) of a cardinal's hat (p. 332). ^ 

Gottfried Langwert von Stmmern, Sunragan ar»^ 
Administrator at Regensburg, 1728, with « 
beautiful motto and characteristic baroque con- 
struction ; one of his two plates (p. 333). 

The exlibrisof Klemens August, /7i^^^ of Bavaria^ 
Elector atid Archbishop of Cologtie^ is reproducecf 
and described below. Part II. 6. 

The folio plate (9 in. x 5f in.) of Josef Klemens, 
Duke of Bavaria^ Elector and Archbishop of 
Cologfic (1688), Bishop of Freising (1685), of 
Regensburg ( 1 695), of Liege ( 1 694), and of Hil- 
desheim (1702), copperplate, circa 171a The 
shield is quarterly, i, See of Cologfne ; 2, Dudiy 
of Westphalia ; 3, Duchy of Engern ; 4, Count)' 
of Ahrensberg ; over all an escutcheon of the 
personal arms of the elector : quarterly, i and 4. 
Bavaria ; 2 and 3, Palatinate of the Rhine. The 
archiepiscopal cross and the crosier and sword 
are placed behind the escutcheon, which is sur- 
mounted by the electoral crown ; the original of 
this exlibris was taken from a volume presented 
to the elector by Louis XIV. of France (p. m\ 

The following book-plates of ecclesiastics are 
also worthy of mention : 

Otto IV. Truchsess von Waldbur^^ Count von Stmnenbfr;. 
Bishop of Constance^ woodcut, circa 1485-90; Madonna 


336 German Book-plates 

and Child, between SS. Conrad and Pelagius, with the 
arms of Constance, Sonnenberg and Waldburg, and four 
ancestral coats (Sonnenberg-Waldburg, Werdenbaj 
Abendsberg, and Heiligenberg). 

Two exlibris of Hugo von HohenlandefUferg^ Bishf if 
Constance^ one by Jorg Breu (Augsburg), 1504, the other 
about the same date ; both have the Madonna with SS. 
Conrad and Pelagius, and the arms of Constance quartered 
with Hohenlandenberg.^ 

Johann Metier^ called Eck^ of Ingolstadt, the opponent of 
Luther ; his first exlibris, probably by Hans SpringinUet, 
circa 15 18, is reproduced on p. 123; his second plate, 1 
hand-coloured woodcut of about 1522, is perhaps by the 
same artist (see p. 124) ; a third, but very doubtful, exlibris 
of Eck, a woodcut of 1522, contains the full armorial 
achievement in a richly ornamental Renaissance border.* 

Two exlibris of Dr. Augustinus Marius^ Suflfragan Bishop of 
VViirzburg, woodcuts, 152 1, 1522, with and without the 
mitre and crosier ; arms with a cross surmounted by a 
wreath of roses with the name of Marius within it, and 
various accessories. 

Dr. Paul von Oberstain^ Provost and Chancellor of the 
University of Vienna, Archdeacon and Imperial Coun- 
cillor, two woodcuts, plain and coloured, 15 16 and 1528: 
two shields with mitre and crosier. 

Three exlibris of Melchior Vatli^ Suffragan Bishop of 
Constance, coloured woodcuts, two dated 1529, the third 
undated, circa 1529 ; arms with mitre and crosier in archi- 
tectural border, and the curious inscription, "Patronus 
Libri " (" Master of the Book ").' 

(}regor Angrer, Bishop of Wiener-Neustadt, Provost of 
Brixen, coloured woodcut, circa 1530.* 

Dr. Johann Marbach^ of Lindau, afterwards leader of the 
Lutherans at Strassburg, woodcut, apparently by Anton 

^ Both are reproduced in E. L. Z. v. 96, 98. 
'^ Reproduced in Warnecke, Plate VI. (No. 424). 
^ The three plates are reproduced in E. L. Z. v. 4 and 
^ Reproduced in Burger, Plate XII. 

Ecclesiastical Exlibris 


; symbolical representation 

Vonsam of AV'orms, cm 

f David and Goliath.' 

ann BtUdinger, Canon of St. Andrew's, P>«ising, and 

lector of Schierling, near Mallersdorf, coloured woodcut, 


W exlibris of Johann Georg von (f erdenstein. Prebendary 
*" Augsburg and Eichstatt ; one a coloured woodcut, circa 
I55S, the other three copperplates by Dominik C'ustos, 

592, and circa 1600. One of the latter is reproduced on 
p. 165. 

umn Kaspar Neiiheck, Bishop of Vienna, copper]) !ali', 
irxa 1575 ; arms in a wreath of fruits, flanked by Mary 
ind St John. 

libris of Brother Johann Nochreuter, Pastor of Rothbach, 
war Munich, and CJeorg Htichreuter, a clergyman at 
Passau ; copperplate, 1583, rich border with a Latin 

C attain, which shows that the figure of St. George on 
; shield (the " Hohe Reiter ") is a canting allusion to 
he name of the owner." 

s Ifyrsen, Vicar of Oepfingen, woodcut, before 
[581, armorial.' 
^O exlibris of Baltha.sar Dorner, monk of the monastery of 
llarchlhal, and afterwards pastor of Munderkingen, wood- 
lits, 1581, 1583; that of 1581 has merely the arms sur- 
rounded with foliage, inscription, and motto ; but the later 
plate is a much more ambitious production, displaying the 
owner kneeling before the figure of Christ on the Cross, 
with views of Munderkingen and Marchihal in the distance, 
nand three angels hovering round the cross." 

" *ior Kksei, Cardinal, and Minister of the Emperor 
[atthias (Vienna), 1623; a lai^e folio plate, displaying 
^c coat of arms with SS. Peter and Paul as supporters, 
Hnd long inscription below." 

vert Lerch, Chaplain of the Frauenkirche, Munich, copper- 
late, 1650; armorial in border with angels. 

xlaced in E. U Z. viii, 32. ''■ Hid., viii. 72. 

., iiL 53. ' liiid., vi. 9. ' Hid., \\. 8, 10. 

pteproduced in VVamecke, "Bookplates of the isth and 
"Centuries," Plate C. 

X X 

338 German Book-piates 

Maximilian Heinrich, Du^ of Bavaria, Arthhuka} i 
Caiognt, perhaps by Emanuel von Wehrbninn, nr.i 
1650; arms of Bavaria and the Palatinnie, in barapK 
border, wi^h putti, surmounted by the electoral hat.' 

Georg S%slepchtuy, Archbishop of Gran, Primate of Hungjji, 
A nli-re former, copperplate, (vwa J670; portrait in friim 
with arms and inscription. 

Heinrich Tulfien, of Kupferberg, Dean of Forchheini, (Oppa 
plate, 1680 ; arnioriat, with view of Kupferberg in tli 

AugustiH, Bishop of Spiga /./.('., Chaplain to Pope Cltino* 
XI., Vicar Apostolic, Abbot of lapsing, Privy Councilla 
to the Elector Palatine, etc. ; copperplate, 1 J . . ; atmoril 
with mitre, bishop's hat, crosier, and sheaves of com. 

Dr. Jodocus Hermann A'unning, Ecclesiastical Coundilnt 
the Elector of Cologne, Senior of the Abbey of Vtcdafc 
historian, genealogist, numismatist, and topograpiia 
copperplate, signed" A. B.,"rtn'o i72o;annorialinhMA|iii 

Two exlibris of Anton Ignaz, Count van Fuggtr-Kirclihaf 
H'eisstiihorii, Provost of Ellwangen, Prince of the Enipit^ 
copperplate, cirea 1760 ; armorial with insciiplton, whicfc 
expressly describes his books as bibliothtca privala. 

Cardinal Count von Schonhorn, copperplate, drta 1 720 ; 
with good baroque border, 

Kleraens Wenzel, Duke of Saxony, Prince of Poland, ElwW 
Archbishop of Trier, Bishop of Augsburg, copperplaU 
cirea 1785 : the main shield bears the arms of Triw a) 
.\ugsbuig with those of Poland on an in escutcheon, t 
arms of Saxony being placed over the latter t 
here reproduced, p. 339. 

I'Vanz Gregor, Count Giannini, Margrave Carpinctti, Canal 
Provost, and Apostolical Protonotary (Oltniit/, Bresli 
and Znaim), died 1758, had six different book-plates* 
shield and supporters, coronet, helmets, lance.s mitre, ll 

U'olfgang Eder, an Augustinian monk (Munich ?), cop 

' Reproduced in Burger. Plate XL^^ 
^ Reproduced in E. L. /.. v. 105. 

(WYfl 1 765 ; arms with mantle, coronet, hal, cross, and 

long list of all the owner's titles. 

lann Neponiuck po» Permtf, Ecclesiastical Councillor to 

he Elector of Bavaria, Canon of the Frauenkirche in 

Munich, copperplate, 17..; arms, keys, books, writing 

materials, Roman temple, and the Frauenkirche. 
rtin Rdnhardt, pastor (Nuremberg), copperplate, 17..; 

the owner in his library. 

1 Raticfi. a Piarist monk, copperplate, 17 . . ; library 

340 German Book-plates 

interior, wtlli llie badge of the Order (the Virgin Mirj) 

Magisler (iotlfrred Balthasar Seharff, Archdeacon d tk 
Church of the Holy Trinity at Schweidniti, coppcirWe, 
with two different inscriptions, library interior. 

Ilenjamin Stabenau, Deacon (Danzig), copperplalt by Msini 
TyrofT, 17 . . ; an obelisk with the eye of God, Koab'sKi 
and dove, between the figures of Faith and H(J[h:, i" t 
rococo frame. 

Georg Chrislof Wilder, Dean of St. Lawrence. Nutcmfet^ 
poet and etcher ; two exlibris, 1806, etched by himseifffl' 
one plate, and cut up after priming ; one displays 
monument in ihe form of a broken cross, with inscriptwn, 
the other a tablet with inscription by a fountain. 

Dr. l^onhard Nussbaum, Ecclesiastical Councillor (Municlil, 
circa 1840 : arms placed on the star of an Order. 

Dr. Johann Josef Igraz von Dg/Wnger (Munich), the refc 
brated Catholic theologian, woodcut, 1866, bj' Ai^l 
Hess ; sealed figure of Historj'.' 

Fricdrich Schneider, Capitukr of Mainz, and Ecclesiasiiol 
Councillor; sixteen different exlibris by Otto Hupp and 
Peter Halm, the principal motive of all being a cross.' 

Dr. Josef Danko, Titular Bishop, and I'rovost of the Cathoial 
of St. Martin, Pressburg ; two exlibris by L. Kauschet, 
• **93 (process reproductions) : arms in Renaissance boida. 

Dr. .Adolf Fran%, Prelate (Gmunden, formerly Breslau) . f 
Prof. \V. Behrens, 1895 (a variety, with inscription alien 
1899) ; allegorical figures of Faith and Historj-, the N 
donna, two putti, etc. 

Pater Hugo Schmid, Librarian of the Benedictine Monadd 
of Kremsmiinster, by Bernhard \Venig ( Berth tesgadeo 
1899 (reproduced in Chapter XI. B. a. below), 


Although typographical labels possess noartisdi 
merit, they have been in use for four centuries 
and must not pass altogether without notice here 

' Reproduced in E. L, Z. ix. 24. ' //>id., W. 4, pp. 



Such labels are usually small, with merely a 
printed inscription, sometimes framed with one or 
more lines of the simplest character. Some two 
hundred ecclesiastical exlibris of this type are 
known, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth cen- 
tury. As an example we reproduce a plate which 
has the advantage of being historically interesting, 
that of they^iw/Zi' College at WUrzbnrg; it exists 


Herb. Epifcopus,Franconii Dux, hunc cum 
aliis fcx circicer librorum millibus, plerosq; a 
Suecis bello rapros, a Cicfar. milite iterumc- 
rcDtos,&:acrc S.C redemtos , munificentifli- 
mc clementiffimeque donabat Collcgij So- 
ciccacis Ie s u Hcrbip.BibIiotheca:,vcrusilliu5 
Rcftaurator. Deus seternumbcncfadat. 

nnOK-Pl.ATE OF THE .1 

in four sizes, circa 1634. The inscription records 
the munificent gift of 6,000 volumes, which were 
among those carried off by the Swedes after the 
capture of Wiirzburg in 1631. Three years later 
the Swedes were defeated at the battle of Nord- 
lingen by General Melchior von Hatzfeldt, brother 
of Francis von Hatzfeldt. Prince-Iiishop of Wiirz- 
burg and Bamberg, who then bought the 6,000 
recovered volumes from the victorious army and 
presented them to the Jesuits' College.^ 

2, where the largest si/.e is 

Wt ' See E. 



Gerfnan Book-plates 

Other typographical labels worthy of 
are : 

Benedictine Monastery of St Peter, 
circa 1 706, with threat of excommunication 
borrowers who fail to return books, by virtue of i 
special bull of Pope Clement XL* 

Three exlibris of Karl Freiherr von Da/ierg, 
Archbishop and last Elector of Mainz, Primate of 
the Confederation of the Rhine, and (from 18 10 to 
181 3) Grand Duke of Frankfurt; the archbishop 
being an enthusiastic supporter of Napoleon, the 
inscription is, naturally enough, in French ; it is 
also inaccurate. It runs : " Biblioth^que de S. E. 
Mr. Le Due de Dalberg"; he was, however, 
never ** Duke," though he was sometimes called 
so, but '* Grand Duke,'* and never " Duke von 
Dalberg," but ** Freiherr von Dalberg, Grand Duke 
of Frankfurt." 

* See E. L. Z. vi. 46. 



IHE lack of taste and general aridity 
which are characteristic of the early 
part uf the nineteenth century show 

themselves, naturally enough, in the 

book-plates of the period, which are beyond doubt 
the most uninteresting specimens known to col- 
lectors. It is sometimes said that the use of 
book-plates died out between iSoo and 1S70; but 
this is hardly true, for though the output was less 
than it had been, a large number of plates exist to 
prove that the custom did not altogether fall into 
disuse. The author's collection alone can show 
about seven hundred German and Austrian exlibris 
of this period, and there are perhaps about eight 
hundred examples known in all.' 

Here, too, we might proceed to classify into 

' In England more plates were produced during this period 
in at any other lime ; these are mostly pure armorials, formal 
style and not of great artistic value, though often finely en- 


344 German Book-plates 

heraldic, allegorical, and typojj;r;iphical exlibr 
but it is not worth while to treat this period in C^ 
much detail. The duty of the chronicler is rath 
to select, and, the general character of the plat' 
being very similar, to describe a few as samples ■ 
the whole. 

Copper-engraving still remains the most commofl 
method of reproduction, but some steel engravings' 
are found and also a few lithographs. In almost 
every case the execution is extremely neat and 
precise, while in the designs themselves senti- 
mental insipidity alternates with the most rigid 
formality. This is especially true of the first half 
of the century, during the reign of the Empirt 
Style (iSoo-20) and the Bicdermeicr period (late 
Empire. 1820-40). In the middle of the century 
came the classical revival, founded on Greek art, 
of which Schlnkel of Berlin and King Ludwig 1. 
of Bavaria were the most famous exponents. 
About i860 an Improvement in taste set in, but 
it was not until after 1871 that book-plates, which 
so surely reflect the art of their time, again rose to 
a high level of excellence. 

If we examine the purely heraldic exlibris after 
1800^ — and, as usual, they form a majority of the 
whole — we find a number of " impossible " heraldic 
forms, such as never existed in reality, either in 
Germany or in England, whence were borrowed, 
e.g., the late Georgian "spade" shield, with the 
cusped top, and the casque-like " die-sinker" 
shield. Other shields are reminiscent of Renais- 
sance types, some are many-eared, some oval, 
some round, while some, borrowed from Greek or 

The Nineteenth Century 345 

Roman shapes, hardly admit of definition, and 
could only have proceeded from the minds of 
designers utterly devoid of style or taste. Among 
other enormities we find crests poised in the air 
instead of being fixed on the helmet, helmets with 
wasp-like necks, into which the owner could not 
possibly have squeezed his head, vizors through 
which it would have been impossible to see, and 
coronets which are either pure inventions or are 
imitated from foreign countries. Though we can- 
not excuse the artists who thus drew on their 
imagination, and produced work which shocks us 
by its hideous incongruity, we must remember that 
good examples of heraldic design, such as are now 
placed within the reach of all in our museums 
and illustrated text-books, were not then easily 

In the non-heraldic allegorical exlibris of this 
period the same lack of taste is evident. JThe 
figures are effeminate, the symbolism far-fetched, 
and the general effect bald and insipid. In short, 
a general deterioration is evident, and while in 
earlier times bad plates formed the exception, it 
now becomes a difficulty to seek out a few good 
specimens from the mass of those which, to us at 
the present day, seem to lack both beauty and 
interest. Of the typographical exlibris, which 
were much used, there is little to be said ; they 
have sometimes long inscriptions, sometimes only 
the name, and are generally inclosed in a simple 
border. Impressions from stamps, unornamental 
and generally far from clear, are also found. 

A large number of engravers produced exlibris 


346 German Book-plates 

during this period, but comparatively few signed 
their work, and though experts may assign some 
plates to this or that engraver with tolerable 
certainty, in many cases the attributions must 
remain mere guess-work. It was the exceptioo 
for any artist of importance to devote time to 
book-plates, and most of the designs look as if 
they had been turned out wholesale by " heraldic 
stationers," who did not sign their productions as 
they do now. 

It must here be mentioned that to the period 
under consideration belongs the first German 
publication on the subject of book-plates: in 
his ** Bilderhefte zur Geschichte des deutschen 
Buchhandels" (Cologne, 1853-65), Heinrich Lem- 
pertz the elder, a dealer in books and art at 
Cologne, devoted a chapter to book-plates, with 
twenty illustrations (one exlibris of the fifteenth 
century, sixteen of the sixteenth, three of the 
seventeenth), and was thus the first to draw atten- 
tion to exlibris in print.^ 

{A,) Designers and Engravers of Exlibris, 


The following is a list of artists whose names 
are found on the plates of this period : 

Munich : Otto Titan von He/fter, and his heraldic 
institute (six plates) ; a designer who, though 
he produced slovenly work, worked after old 
and good examples. 

^ See, for further information, E. L. Z. vi. 57-63. 

The Nineteenth Century 347 

Franz, Count Pocci, designer and etcher of his 
own exlibris. 

Dr. Karl ^^^and Son, lithographers, printers to 
the Court and University. 

Nuremberg: Georg Christof Wilder, Dean of 
St. Lawrence, poet and etcher. 

Johann Ludwig StahL 

Professor Eugen FreiJierr Loffelholz von Colberg, 
heraldic artist and miniature painter (Nurem- 
berg, Ansbach, and Munich), who was already 
doing good heraldic work in the sixties, but did 
not reach perfection until twenty years later. 

Regenshurg : Franz Anton Nieciermeyer, one of 
the earliest lithographers. 

Frankfurt-on-Main : Geiler. 

Halle : Moritz VoigL 

Strassburg : Benjamin Zix, painter. 

Dresden : Karl Friedrich Holzmann. 

Adrian Ludwig Richter, who engraved the pretty 
plate of Otto Jahn, the celebrated philologist, 
Professor at Bonn (children under fruit trees). 

Eduard Bendemann, Professor in the Academy of 
Art at Dresden, and Director of the Academy 
at Diisseldorf ; exlibris of Benoni Friedlander, 
numismatist (Berlin), woodcut, circa 1850; Dr. 
Julius Friedlander, Director of the Coin Cabinet 
in Berlin, etching, i860; and Ernst Friedlander, 
archivist, woodcut, circa 1882 ; these three 
plates were executed by Professor Hugo Biirk- 
ner (Dresden). 

Julius Hilbner, Professor and Director of the Pic- 
ture Gallery, brother-in-law of Eduard Bende- 
mann. He designed exlibris for his four sons, 

348 German Book-plates 

the plates being etched with extreme dellcaq 
by Professor Hugo Biirkner, viz. : Fraw 
Hiibner, Privy Councillor (Berlin) ; Emil 
Hiibner, Professor of Philology in the Uni- 
versity of Berlin; Hans Hiibner. Professor ot 
Chemistry in the University of Gottingen ;and 
Martin Hubner, banker (Berlin), 1868, 1854, 
1868. One of these, the humorous exlibrisof 
Hans Hubner, is here reproduced (p. 349); a 
bottle of Hochheimer is weighed in the balance 
against a sleeping toper in a retort, whidi 
ascends as the genius of the wine escapes. In 
the centre are the Hubner arms. 

Professor Hugo Biirkner^ a man who was mainly 
responsible for the revival of the old German 
woodcut for book-illustration, etc., in the middle 
of the century, and was also an accomplished 
etcher, executed the exlibris designed by Bcndc- 
mann and Hiibner, just mentioned, and also 
those by Karl Ludwig Theodor Graff, Privy 
Councillor, Professor and Director of the School 
of Art at Dresden. Biirkner s beautifully exe- 
cuted exlibris form a noteworthy group among 
the inferior work of the time.^ 

Meissen : O. E. Godschcy lithographer. 

Berlin: Joseph Caspar \ exlibris of Gustav 
Parthey, bookseller, philologist, archaeologist, 
orientalist , etc. (Berlin), a fine steel engraving, 
circa 1826, displaying the figure of Victor)^ in a 
four-horsed chariot, with a palm tree behind.* 

^ For further information see E. L. Z. vii. 46-49. 
■ Reproduced in W'arnecke, Plate XXI. 

The Nineteenth Century 


rriedrich Geneily and Professor Johanii Samuel 

' . Otto. 
• Halle ; exilbris of the Prussian General Fried- 
rich Boguslaw Emanuel, Count Tauentzien von 
Wittenberg (Breslau and Berlin), copperplate. 


By Julius Hubner(iS68). 

Ludwig C/cwKj (Berlin and Magdeburg) ; twelve 

exlibris before and after 1871. 
Hanover : Julius Gicrc. 
, Sagan : Leonhard Dorst von Schatzberg. Iieraldic 
artist and architect. 

350 German Book-^plates 

Hamburg : F. Rosmdsler (also at Doberan, 1816) 
and Gustav h^oM Forsmann. 

Vienna : Klemens Kohl and Jakob HyrtL 

Prague : Johann Berka. 

Paris : Georges, or Mucius, McUbeste ; exlibris of 
Prince Friedrich Salm-Kyrburg, 1827. 

London : Richard Silvester, who engraved the ex- 
libris of Peter Godefroy (Hamburg). 

Milan : Ripamonti Carpano, papermaker and 
lithographer ; exlibris of Anton Thomas (Milan, 
died in Venice). 

Also the following: L. Ratisch, ^wAiM von Busu, 
J. E. Lohrenz, Christian Hammer ^ Neubautr, 
Hans N. (?) Fincke, J. Marianus, M. Balktr, 
Christof Nat/ie (Vienna ?). 

{B.) Unsigned Exlibris. 


We have already mentioned (see p. 250) that 
Goethe, during his student days at Leipzig, etched 
an exlibris for Kathchen Schonkopf, circa 1767. 
Though he does not appear to have possessed a 
book-plate of his own, two typographical labels 
must be mentioned which bear his name. These 
were printed and fixed in his books in the forties 
— he died in 1832 — when his library was dis- 
persed. They have different borders, and the in- 
scriptions run : " Aus der Bibliothek Johann Wolf- 
gang von Goethe's '* and ** Ausdem Nachlasse des 
Staatsministers Dr. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe." 
The poet's son, Julius August Walther vofi Goethe, 
possessed a simple armorial exlibris, copperplate, 


^neteeHih CenTury 351 

-,^09; it has the coat of arms with Inscription 
T.J- A. W. V. Goethe " above, and the date below. 
I t Z'^'' ^'^ death a typographical label was fixed in 
L'*is books also, reading " Aus dem Nachlasse des 
k*eheimen Kammeraths u. Kammerherren Julius 
August Wahher von Goethe " {circa 1S40). 

An exlibris also exists of another member of the 

nily, Wolfgang Maximihan von Goethe, a grand- 
pn of the poet, copperplate, 18 . .; it shows the 

at of arms with inscription "M. W. von Gbthe " 

ove and the date " iS. . " below. This plate is 
I puzzle, for not only are the initials in the wrong 

der, but. as is well known, the spelling "Gothe" 
' Goethe " was intensely disliked by the family. 
Jlo used examples have been found, but some 
_pnused impressions exist, and possibly they were 
presented to the owner by some amateur en- 

All these five Goethe exlibris were probably 
executed in Weimar. In the same connection 
another typographical plate may be mentioned 
{circa 1840) bearing the inscription " Henriette 
Freifrau von Pogwisch, geb. Grafin Henckel von 
Donnersmark " ; the owner was the mother of 
Ottilie Freiin von Pogwisch. who married Julius 
August Walther von Goethe. 

Of other unsigned plates the following are the 
most important : 


Georg Emsl Levin, Count von U'in/zingerodt, Minister of 

State at Stuttgart, cirea 1815. 
Rudolf, Count Stiii/ried von Alcantara und Raltonitz, Prus- 
sian Chief Master of the Ceremonies, writer on art, 

352 German Book-plates 

genealogist, and herald ; three different plates, one having 
three varieties of colour, circa 1849. 

Leonhard Dorst von Schatzherg^ architect and heraldic artist 
(Sagan) ; four exlibris, circa 1844-6. 

August von Kotzebuey German dramatist and Russian Coun- 
cillor of State, assassinated at Mannheim in 18 19 : copper- 

Dietrich Heinrich Ludwig von Omfteda^ Minister at Han- 
over and Brunswick, and writer on international law. 

Ludwig Friedrich Viktor Hans, Count von Biilow^ Westpha- 
lian and Prussian statesman. 

Eugen Reichsjreiherr von Maucier^ Representative of Wiirt- 
temburg in Vienna (Oberherrlingen), 1839. 

Johann Gottlob von Quandt^ collector of works of art and 
writer (Dietersbach in Saxony, and Dresden). 

Georg Heinrich Krieg von Hochfeldeny General in the army 
of Baden and author. 

Gottfried Keiiner, German Consul at Odessa. 

Georg von Kochy Minister at Brunswick, and herald. 

Karl von Heideloff^ architect and painter (Nuremberg and 

Karl Albert von Graefe^ oculist (Halle). 

Christian Karl (Freiherr von) Bunsen^ savant and statesman 

Karl Peter Lepsius^ Priv)- Councillor and archajoloi^nst 

Dr. Karl Ritter Mayer von Mayerfeh^ herald (Munich). 

Dr. Georg Wilhelm von Raumer^ Director of the State 
Archives and historian (Berlin). 

Dr. Henry Bethel Strousberg (originally Baruch Hirsch 
Strausberg), railway contractor (London and Berlin). 


Heinrich Oswald Theodor Freiherr Tschammcr von OsUn 
(Schlaupe, Silesia), officer in the Prussian landwehr, mort- 
ally wounded at Leipzig, 181 3; a palm tree with shield 
leaning against it, at the side a pile of books. 

Dr. Eduard Backing, Professor (Bonn); four exlibris, one 
with portrait of Ulrich von Hutten, one with Gothic archi- 
tectural frame, one with four shields, and one (with three 
varieties of paper) with a figure of Justice. 

The Nineteenth Century 353 

KtrusseAu/e, Dresden, the town "gymnasium," first men- 
tioned in 1 300 as a Catholic school, became Protestant in 
' 539 ■' tablet with globe, Bible, and lyre, in border of ivy. 

llemhard (Kreiherr von) Kohne, archjKologist, a numismatist, 
and herald (Berlin), in 1844 Conservator of the Coin 

E Bibliotliea 




VON) KOHNE (18 . 


"ahinet of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; inscriptio 
ihe obverse and revurse of a Brandenburg coin, hi 

iduced. There are also two exlibrjs of Bernhard Hein- 
Ich Withelm Kohne and Karl Bemhard Wilhelm Kohne, 
• both with beehives, 

Edtiard Gerhard, archoMlogist (Berlin) : two exiibris. one 

354 German Book-^plates 

pure armorial, the other showing the coat of arms vitb 
representation of Romulus and Remus with the volf,i 
candelabrum, and a man with a griffin. 

Dr. Friedrich Philipp Usener^ Syndic, historian, and col- 
lector (Frankfurt) ; name with five small landscapes. 

Freimaurerloge (Freemason's Lodge) zu den 3 Welth^lM 
(Berlin), circa 1840; in the form of a medal, with die 
Prussian eagle above three globes. 

Loge Leopold zur Treue (Karlsruhe) ; triangle with chain, the 
initials L. Z. T. and the masonic motto " Sehen, Horen, 

Loge zur Einigkeit (Frankfurt-on-Main) ; masonic symbols 
with inscription, in a wreath of stars. 

Ludwig Cavalli (Darmstadt) ; Minerva crowning Mercur^. 

Adam Walter Strobei^ Alsatian historian. Professor at Strass- 
burg, circa 1840; two exlibris, showing the Cathedral of 

Johann Georg Schmaizer, master carpenter, 1775, member of 
the town council at Miilhausen in Alsace ; one of the first 
lithographs by a pupil of Senefelder, Gottfried Engelmann, 
who introduced lithography into France ; it shows a pile 
of measuring and surveying instruments. 

Johann Gottfried Schweighduser^ Professor at Strassburg, 
circa 1843 ; designed by Pastor Johann Ringel (Allmenns- 
weyer and Uelzach) ; rocky wall of the Odilienberg. 

Dr. Wilhelm Gesenius, Protestant theologian, Professor and 
Orientalist (Halle) ; typographical. 


From the historical point of view the three large folio plates 
(two varieties of engraving and one of colour) of the 
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany^ 
and from 1802 to 1805 temporal Elector of Salzburg, 
brother of the Emperor Francis I. of Austria, are of 
interest. These plates were made by order of the 
Electoral Governments, but the existence of the Electorate 
of Salzburg was of so short duration that all the prints were 
not used, and the remnant, following the fortunes of the 
electoral and archiepiscopal library, came into the pos- 
session of the Imperial Archives at Vienna; copperplates, 
armorial, circa 1813. 

The Ntneieenth Century 355 

^^^Estorically intt^resting also is the plate of Btidacls tie Zitlaerl, 
^^* last Roy d'Arnies, Herald in the Chancellery of the Nether- 
lands in Vienna. After the loss of the Netherlands (1795, 
iSto, 1815), the chani.ellery ceased to exist, but the 
records of nobility remained for some time in the posses- 
sion of ihe King at Arms, until they too found their way 
into the Imperial Archives ; about the year 1825 the refer- 
ence library belonging to the office, the volumes of which 
contained the book-plate in question, also passed into the 
same depository. The ejtlibris is a massive copperplate, 
area 1815, displaying the Imperial double eagle, with the 
arms of Austria, Lorraine, and Burgundy, and two inscrip- 
tions, " Appartient ^ la bibliothfeque " above, and " Donne 
par le Conseiller premier roy d'armes Beydaels de Zittaert " 
below (the two inscriptions are generally cut off). 

Another plate of historical interest is that of the Imperial 
Library of St. Mark, Veniee {from i8ig to 1866 under 
Austrian dominion), copperplate, circa 1S50, two sizes; 
above the inscription "lmp[erialis] R[egia] r)[ivi] Marci 
Venctiarum Bibliotheca" are seven books, one of which 
the winged lion of St. Mark holds in his left fore-paw, while 
in his right he brandishe.s a sword round which a scroll is 
wound with the words "Custos vel ultor " ("Guard or 
avenger "). 

9itax, Count von MiTveliit, Cavallery General, Austrian 
Ambassador in London ; armorial, 

Cleorg Andreas Freiherr Bajzath 71/n Peszak, Councillor to 
the King of Hungary ; four large armorial exiibris. 

Fran; Kilter von Hauslah, Field Marshal (\'ienna) ; 

Frtihtrr von f^iudon (Laudon), Castle Bistritz am Ho.stein. 
Moravia; armorial. 

Thcodor von Knrajan, Germanist and historian (Vienna): 

Alfred Grenstr, herald (Vienna) ; one armorial plate and two 
with palm tree, snake, and inscriprion-tablet. 

University of Craeaiv, Jagellonian Library ; armorial. 

(Nicobus Miklos) ya«i<7T'iirA von Wadas, assessor, writer and 
collector, Pest, 1830 ; his library formed the nucleus of 
the " Landesbibliothek " at Pest, founded in 1832 : arms 
in border. 




|HK foundation of the modern German 

Empire, which had so great an inHi 
I ence on all branches of intellectuil 
I activity, was not without results in the 
domain of art; and the formality, coldness, and 
insipidity of the preceding period soon gave wa| 
before the health and vigour of the new movement 
The revival of German art. in which Munid 
took the lead, did not start on an independent 
footing with the formation of a new style, but vnu 
based on the works of the old German artists of 
the Renaissance. Since the word " Deutsch ' 
had ceased to be merely a collective name for a 
number of independent states, and had again come 
to designate a geographical and political idea full 
of vitality and energy, an effort, half unconscious, 
had been made throughout the Empire to give 
expression to this newly-created German national 
feeling. Thus a return was made to the most 
brilliant period of German art, the German Re- 

' Modern ExHbris 357 

hssance, and buildings, furniture, decorations 
ornaments were all executed in the " old 
" style. Soon, however, this gave way to 
\ imitation, in succession, of the Baroque, Rococo, 
pd Empire styles, and into the short fifteen years 
"Xivn 1875 to 1S90 was crowded every fashion in 
art which had been slowly developed during the 
Lthree previous centuries. The time has rightly 
' een called the " period of repetition " ; yet it was 
ot without splendid results. Not only were old 
nasterpieces. especially in the applied arts, mag- 
Fniticently reproduced, but artists and workmen 
I imbibed the spirit of the early German masters 
> thoroughly that new works were produced on 
be old lines, which are worthy to be placed by 
side of the best creations of the fifteenth 
It was natural enough, at a time when old 
\ usages were being revived, and when art had once 
[ more begun to exercise an influence over the 
I smallest details of everyday life, that the custom 
[ of employing book-plates should awake to new 
vigour. At first heraldic plates were almost uni- 
versal, but a welcome return to the fine old models 
is apparent ; later came imitations of Renaissance, 
Rococo, and other styles, and also allegorical and 

I symbolical designs. 
Among the many styles which were imitated 
and absorbed during this period, special mention 
must be made of the so-called " New English 
Style," which was the result of an endeavour to 
introduce art in a simple and practical form into the 
feveryday surroundings of life. It found its way 

358 German Book-plates 

into Germany, as into other countries, and its 
influence extended not only to sculpture and 
painting, but, more particularly, to metal-work, 
furniture, and all kinds of designing — includii^ 
book-plate composition. The Pre-Raphaelite 
movement, and the sudden discovery of Japanese 
art, also exercised a powerful influence on German 
art and on German book-plates. 

Meanwhile — amid a chaos of all possible styles 
and imitations — the last five years have seen the 
rise of the ** Modern" movement, which is charac- 
terized by simplicity of line, by an effort towards 
convenience in all articles of furniture, etc, and, in 
decorative design, by the use of volutes and spirals, 
and especially by a most varied conventional 
treatment of flower and plant forms. This move- 
ment is being cultivated in every art centre in 
Germany — in Munich, Berlin, Dresden, Stuttgart, 
Karlsruhe, Darmstadt, Hamburg, and. in a some- 
what distinctive form, in Vienna — and the inter- 
change of ideas is stimulated by the numerous 
art magazines published in Germany and Austria. 
It is too early yet to pass any definite criticism on 
a movement which is still in course of develop- 
ment, but it may safely be predicted that its life 
will not be of long duration. 

The book-plates of the present time, closely 
connected as they are with the book-illustrations 
which have again become so common, accurately 
reflect, as usual, this modern movement, and many 
of the most original of the younger artists of the 
day are showing through the medium of the modest 
exlibris what the '* modern" style really is. 

Modern Rxlibris 359 

As we have already pointed out (see p. 13), the 
most varied methods of reproduction are now in 
use. A great revival has taken place recently in 
the art of wood-engraving, and many exlibris are 
now cut on the wood by the artists themselves ; 
many designs are also drawn in the bold manner 
of the old woodcuts. 

Etching has also come in favour again among 
book-plate designers, and copper-engraving still 
flourishes, and is often employed in combination 
with etching. Many plates have also been repro- 
duced in pkotograzntre during the last five years. 
Lithography, both in black and white and in colours, 
has reached a pitch of perfection in Germany 
which it will be scarcely possible to surpass, and 
many exlibris have been produced by this method, 
not only because of its comparative cheapness, 
but because by working direct upon the stone the 
artist can obtain the exact effect he requires, in- 
stead of leaving his work to an artisan who may 
not interpret it correctly. The commonest and 
cheapest method of all, the ordinary zinc-process. 
also reproduces a drawing with absolute accuracy, 
though care must be taken that the reduction is 
not too great, and also that the block is well 

These modern processes have also been applied 
to the production o{ coloured ^yXCox'x^^'a. revival of 
the old and typically German coloured plates of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Germans 
have always had a peculiar love of colour in de- 
coration, as their fine old costumes, painted house- 
Bfronts, Interior decoration, etc., witness, and in no 

360 German Book-plates 

other country do we find so many exlibris printed 
in colours. 

As we have already seen, the revival of exlibris 
after 1871 followed naturally on the general re- 
vival of art ; but the fashion was stimulated by 
the numerous writings on the subject, from costly 
works of reference to magazine articles, which 
followed each other in rapid succession. The pub- 
lication of Lempertz' " Bilderhefte " {circa 1853). 
to which we have already referred, was followed 
by several works in French and English,^ of which 
*' Les Exlibris fran9ais," by A. Poulet-Malassis, 
Paris, 1874-5, ^^d "A. Guide to the Study of 
Book-plates,'' by J. Leicester Warren (Lord dc 
Tabley), London, 1880 (reprint 1900), are the 
most notable. 

In 1 88 1 August Stoeber, Alsatian historian, 
poet, and librarian, issued his " Petite Revue 
d'Exlibris alsaciens," containing Alsatian exlibris 
of the old German, French, and modern German 
periods. He, was followed in 1883 by Arthur 
Benoit, with a monograph on the two exlibris of 
Johann Daniel Schopflin of Strassburg (see 
p. 232). 

In 1887 the Bavarian Royal Herald, Gottfried 
von Bohm, published in the ** Zeitschrift des 
Mtinchner Alterthums-Vereins" (Nos. 2-4), the 
first modern article on German book-plates, and 
so led the way for the numerous writers who have 
succeeded him. In 1889 appeared HerrCarland- 
ers important volume on Swedish exlibris, and the 

^ See the Bibliographies in Castle's "English Book-plates*' and 
Hamilton's ** French Book-plates," in this series. 

Modern Exlibris 361 

following year saw the publication of the first 
great German work on the subject — the late 
Friedrich Warnecke's "Die Deutschen Biicher- 
zeichen." This volume contained, besides an intro- 
duction, a detailed list of 2,566 exlibris (among 
which are included, on account of their German 
names, besides Austrian, some F*rench-Alsatian, 
Swiss, Dutch, and Swedish book-plates). To-day, 
ten years later, about 4,500 old and 5,900 modern 
German and Austrian exlibris are known. 

More recent articles and monographs will be 
found enumerated in the Bibliography at the end 
of this volume. 

In dealing with the great mass of modern ex- 
libris, among the designers of which are to be 
found many artists of the first rank,^ and many 
who have made their reputations in various other 
branches of art, it would be possible to classify 
them in various ways, according to their technique, 
style, schools, etc. It will, however, be best to 
keep to the simple classification which we have 
adopted in previous chapters, viz., heraldic and 
non-heraldic, with a brief mention of the purely 
typographical labels. 

{A) Heraldic Exlibris (with arms only). 

The coat of arms is the most individual orna- 
ment (with the possible exception of the portrait) 
which any possessor of books can place on his 

^ Unfortunately some of the giants — Menzel, Lenbach, Stuck 
— are still missing from the list of exlibris artists. 


362 German Book-plates 

exlibris, and it is therefore not surprising that, as 
the earliest German book-plates were mainly 
armorial, so now about one-half of the plates of 
the last thirty years have no other design but 
the coat of arms, with perhaps an architectural or 
decorative border. 

To many artists of the younger generation, 
however, the simple coat of arms appears too 
monotonous, and thus on many plates it has taken 
a subordinate position or been altogether dis- 
carded. Such plates will be dealt with in the 
next section {B.). 

Before 1870, in spite of the writings of such 
excellent heralds as Dr. Hermann Grote (Han- 
over), Freiherr Leopold von Ledebur (Berlin), 
Otto Titan von Hefner, Karl Ritter Mayer von 
Mayerfels, Ralf von Retberg (all of Munich), and 
Prince Friedrich Karl von Hohenlohe-Walden- 
burg (Kupferzell), armorial design remained, as 
we have seen, in a most deplorable condition. The 
earlier " Wappenbucher " of the eighteenth cen- 
tury were debased in style, and had entirely lost 
sight of the good old principles of heraldic design. 
Great attention was paid to unimportant details, 
while the simple old rules were transgressed time 
after time. It was not until after 1871 that 
the publication of a succession of practical and 
well-illustrated heraldic handbooks again made 
draughtsmen familiar with the fundamental rules 
of armory and raised the level of heraldic draughts- 
manship. Of these works the most important were 
Prof. A. M. Hildebrandt's " Heraldisches Muster- 
buch " (1872), and Fr. Warnecke's ** Heraldisches 

Modem Exlibris 363 

Handbuch," illustrated by Prof. Emil Doepler, 
junior (1880), both of which went through a 
number of editions. 

Mention may also be made of Prof. A. M. Hilde- 
brandt's excellent little ** Wappenfibel " (1887), 
several works by Gustav A. Seyler — especially his 
brilliant ** Geschichte der Heraldik " and hiis con- 
tinuation of ** Siebmachers Wappenbuch " — Maxi- 
milian Gritzner s ** Heraldische Terminologie *' 
(1878), and ** Grundsatze der Wappenkunst *' 
(1889), ^r^d, most recent of all, Hugo G. Strohl's 
** Heraldischer Atlas" (1899). 

At the present time bad and incorrect heraldic 
designs are still to be found, just as badly-drawn 
landscapes and portraits are only too common. 
They stand out, however, as exceptions among 
the many fine armorials produced in recent years. 

a. Designers of Heraldic Exlibris. 

The following are the most important designers 
of armorial book-plates at the present time. 

Professional artists : 

Germany : Berlin : Professor Adolf M. Hilde- 
brandt, the most prolific designer of exlibris in 
Germany. H is early plates were purely armorial, 
within ornamental borders, but recently he has 
introduced decorative motives of various kinds 
(e.g., plant and flower forms), which are often 
suggested by the charges on the shield. The 
variety displayed in his one hundred and forty 
plates is amazing, no two being alike, and as far 

364 German Book-plates 

as the heraldry is concerned they are irreproaeh^ 
able. As an example we reproduce the exlibri; 
of the German "Exlibris-Verein" (Berlin), 1S92 
another is given in Part II. 8. Among his best 
plates (many of which are in colour) may be 
mentioned those of the Luther Library in the 
Wartburg. Kegierungsrath Hubert Freiherr von 
Gumppenberg (Wiirzburg). Rittmeister Emmo 
F"reiherr Grote (Neustreh'tz), three plates of 
Prince Stolberg (Wernigerode). two of Gustav 
A. Seyler. Privy Councillor (Berlin). Archiv 
des fiirstlichen Hauses Leiningen (Amorbach), 
and Charles Howard. Viscount Morpeth (one of 
six English exlibris designed by this artist).' 
Professor Emil Doepler, junior. President of the 
German Exlibris-Verein, who, basing hts style 
on the old German masters, has produced many 
beautiful and typically German armorial exlibris. 
Many of his designs are also adorned with figures 
and other decoration. Among his fifty-five 
plates we may mention especially the follow- 
ing: the Emperor William H. (reproduced in 
Part II. 5), Kaiser-Wilhelm Bibliothek, Posen, 
six exlibris of the family of Bachofen vun 
Echt (Vienna). Verein Herold (Berlin), Kunsi- 
gewerbe- Museum (Berlin), Hermann F. Gies- 
ecke (Berlin). Otto Freiherr von Aufscss 
(Regensburg). Oberprasident Wilhelm (Bill) 
Count Bismarck (Konigsberg), Lieutenant Kurt 

' See an article on Hildebrandt's work, E. L. Z> vii. t t3-tio. 
He has also published three albuina, each containing twenty- 
five book-plates (Berhn, J. A. Stargardt, 1893, 1S94, 1898]. 


Modern Exlibris 


Auervon Herrenkirchen (Berlin), photogravure, 

thecoloured plate ofArmin Freiherrvon Folker- 




By Ad. M. Hildebrandt {1892). 

sam (St. Petersburg), Paul Nikolaus Ratajczak 
(Berlin), photogravure, Max Ravoth, architect 


German Book-plates 

(Berlin), and Alfred Bovet (Valentigney) (t).' 
As an example of Professor Doepler's work thf 
exlibrts of the author and his wife is here re- 

Rudolf Otto, court engraver ; exHbris of Professor 
Franz Reuleaiix (Berlin), 1SS2. 





ItyE, Doepler,junior([89g). 

Georg Otto, a pupil of Doepler ; his heraldic de- 
signs are good and correct in treatment, and h 

' This useful symbol, always employed by German write 
to signify "deceased," is here, and throughout, retained for tl 
sake of convenience [Tr.]. 

'' See an article on Doepler's work in E. I*. Z. viii. 77-81 
rii ; also iii. 4, 5, 37, 41 ; iv. 16, 67 ; v. 12 ; i*. 21, 11. 

Modern Exlibns 

Bs also produced numerous non-heraldic plates, 
lisexlibrisof Otto Haak (Berlin), 1898, is here 
lustrated. Amontr his oni; hundred and seven 


UyGeorg Olio {1898). 

ates special mention maybe made of those of "' 
Emaos da Verdade (Rio de Janeiro). Oskar 
essing (Berlin), H. von Eckardt (Constantin- 
ple), Deutscher Graveur-Verein (Berlin), Lieu- 


German Book-piates 

tenant Kurd Warnecke (Metz). Harry 6A 
Forest-Smith (Gardiner), Otto Boas (Berlin)a 
Erich Schmidt, the Goethe scholar (Berlin), Vom 
Transehe (Neuschwanenbiirg). Max von Wedeg 
(Berlin), Freiherr von Korff (Preekuln), etc. 
Oskar ^d/c^' ; twenty-three exlibris, also very cori 

By himself (1899). 

, is he 

rect heraldicaliy. His own plate, 

Paul Voigt.^n official in the Imperial Governmen 
Printing Office, for which he has etched fou]^ 
exlibris, as well as two for the Imperial PosQ 
Office ; they are exquisitely printed platesj 
with a beautiful conventional treatment of tb 
imperial eagle.' For others of his thirty-onj 
plates, see the next section (^.)- 
' Somi; of these are given in E, I.. Z. iv, 54 and 90. 


Modern Exlibris 369 

Emil Zelhier, architect, twelve exlibris. 

Heinrich Nahde, court heraldic designer.^ 

Hermann Heling, court heraldic designer. 

Johann Sauder, proprietor of the firm of Armand 
Lamm, lithographer and engraver. 

Robert Mielke, drawing master, 

Munich : Otto Hupp (Schleissheim, Munich), the 
designer of the famous Munich Calendar (1885- 
1901), whose heraldic drawings, in Gothic or 
Renaissance style, are as excellent as they are 
entirely individual. In his treatment of animal 
forms, crests and mantling, he shows the fine 
decorative feeling of the early German masters. 
Of his twenty exlibris, most of which are 
coloured, we may mention : Gabriel Seidl, 
architect (Munich), woodcut, 1880; Arthur von 
Osterroth (Castle Schonberg), 1895, of which 
a black and white reproduction is here given 
(P- 370) ; M. von Wilmersdorffer, banker 
(Munich), 1897; Professor Dr. Max Kirmis 
(Neumlinster), 1899 ; two exlibris of Rosa and 
Heinrich Kronenberger (Munich), 1900; and 
Cornelius von Heyl (Worms), 1900. 

Otto Titan von Hefner (t), who has already been 
mentioned in the last chapter (p. 346) as at 
work before 1871 ; ten exlibris. 

Eugen Freiherr Ldffelholz V07i Colberg (f). Pro- 
fessor, and miniature painter ; his family came 
from Nuremberg, whence he inherited his 
artistic instinct and capacity. 

Karl Rickelt, whose beautiful exlibris of Freiherr 

^ For two of his plates, see E. L. Z. ii. No. 2, pp. 8, 9. 


ExLiBRiSjj^ij, Arthur- DE 

372 German Book-plates 

von Lipperheide (Berlin), 1894, is here repro- 
duced (p. 371) ; it exists in six sizes. 

Josef Wtdmann, Professor Ferdinand Barth^ Lud- 
wig Eduard von Hamier, Eduard Forster, Karl 
Wolf, Max von Baumgarten. 

Max Gube, court engraver, fifteen etched exlibris, 
good heraldic designs. 

Karl Oehring^ court engraver. 

Karl Josef ZwerscAtfui, Wilhelm Standtke. 

Karl Be/z, Seligmann Stumtband^ engravers. 

Starnberg : Georgz^^^ Urlaub ; etched exlibris of 
Antonie von Pannwitz (Munich). 

Regensburg: Lorenz ^. Rkeude, thirty exlibris, 
some of them coloured, in good heraldic style. 

WuRZBURG : Karl BehrenSy sculptor. 

Nuremberg : Professor Ludwig Kilhn, whose ex- 
libris of C. Freiherr Heyl zu Herrnsheim 
(Worms), etching, 1 891, is a fine specimen of 
simple and dignified design. 

Professor Friedrich Wanderer, exlibris of the 
** Albrecht-Diirer-Hausstiftung," on the model 
of Durer's Pirckheimer plate, woodcut, 189 .. 

Stuttgart : Gustaf Adolf Closs, an admirable her- 
aldic painter, who has based his work chiefly 
on the Zurich " Wappenrolle " (thirteenth and 
fourteenth century) and Konrad Griinenberg's 
*' Wappenbuch " (fifteenth century) ; three ex- 

Karlsruhe : Professor Karl Eith. 

Constance : Heinrich Schmidt- Pecht. 

F'reiburg-im-Breisgau : W€mx\{^ Jantzcn. 

Mannheim : Josef Esswein (formerly at Mainz) ; 
exlibris of Prince Friedrich von Sayn-Wittgen- 

Modern Exlibris 


stein, now Count von Altenkirchen (Cassel), 
1890, and Karl Count zu Eltz (Eltz and Vuko- 
war), iSgi. 
Strassburg (Alsace) : Alfred Erdntann. 
. MuLHAUSEN (Alsace): V.ovX?, Sckonhaupt ; his own 
exlibris, 1882. 

By K. L. Becker (18 

:kk von uethmann 

Frankfukt-on-Main: Gottfried Theissinger. Otto 
Lindhehner, and Professor Eugen Klivtsch (t). 

Weimar: Dr. Adolf wn den Veldcn; his own 

Bonn : Karl Leonhardt Becker, the German Sher- 
born — if not in the number of his plates, yet at 

374 German Book-plates 

least in the quality of his heraldic designs and the 
fineness of his engravings : seven exlibris, among 
them five masterly copper-engravings, viz.: 
Therese, Countess Hahn-Basedow, 1890, from a 
design by E. Doepler; Simon Moritz Freihenr 
von Bethmann (Frankfurt), 1889, armorial after 
Hans Sebald Beham, here reproduced (p. 373); 
Adolf Bachofen von Echt (Vienna), 1889; 
Albertine Bachofen von Echt (Vienna), 1893. 
from a design by E. Doepler ; his own portrait- 
exlibris, 1893.^ 

DussELDORF : Hans Deiiers. 

Magdeburg : Ludwig Clericus^ herald (f) ; ten ex- 
libris of little importance. 

Hanover: Ferdinand G9decke\ a well-designed 
armorial plate of Count von Burghaus (not 

Albert Brager ; exlibris of Dr. Theodor Roscher, 
lawyer (Hanover), 1895. 

ScHWERiN : Karl Teske (f), four exlibris, among 
them those of the late Grand Duchess Sophia 
of Saxony, the late Grand Duke Frederick 
Francis HI., and the reigning Duke John 
Albert of Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; in correct 
heraldic style. 

Hamburg : Hugo Groothoff, architect. 

Altona: Gustav Hogetop\ four exlibris designs 
with fictitious names.* 

Austria: Vienna: Ernst Krahl, heraldic painter 
to the Court,^ came originally from Dresden 
and was a pupil of E. Doepler in Berlin. Since 

^ The last three reproduced in E. L. Z. iii. 63, 67, 89. 
'^ Ibid.y V. 16. ' Ibid,y ix. 11 2-1 18 ; x. 44, 65. 


eing in Vienna he has been chiefly occupied 
rith book-plates, of which he has produced 
hirty-seven, all characterized by good heraldic 

Uy E. Kralil (1S87), 

Hraughtsmanship, and some of them having 
tiodern decorative accessories. His exHbris of 
he Imperial and Royal Austrian Heraldic 

376 German Book-plates 

Society "Adler" (Vienna), 1887, is here repro- 
duced (p. 375), and another example of his work 
(the book-plate of the author) is given on p. 90. 
Among his best plates are : Karl Krahl 
(Vienna) (f), George Marie, and Hanna von 
Hutterott (Trieste), Adolf Count von FOrsten- 
stein (Ullersdorf), Max Freiherr von Imhof 
(Steyr), and Bailli Fra Rudolf Count von 
Hardegg (Vienna)* 

Hugo Gerard StrShl (Modling, Vienna ^), of whose 
** Heraldischer Atlas" an English edition is 
in preparation ; * fifteen exlibris, among which 
those of Alexander Freiherr von Dachenhausen 
(Munich), Oskar Guttmann (London), photo- 
gravure, executed in London, and his own, a 
coloured plate, are conspicuous, as well as that 
of Lydia Freifrau von Sterneck (Vienna), 1899, 
which is reproduced here. 

Milan Su7iko ; several exlibris, including the 
beautiful plate of the late Josef Leidinger, 
Councillor (Vienna), 1886 and 1896. 

Heinrich Jaimer, court engraver ; among others 
the exlibris of Heinrich Freiherr von Gudenus, 
chamberlain (Waidhofen-on-Theya), 1891, after 
an old engraving. 

Johann Scliwerdhtcr^ Imperial Councillor and en- 
graver ; among others, two etchings of Ernst 
Count Marschall and Camillo Freiherr von 
Althaus, ci7^ca 1880 and 1898. 

Karl Boess, heraldic painter ; Vincenz Katzlcr, 

^ See " Blatter fiir Kunst-Gewerbe," Vienna, 1899, ix. 
•'' "The Art and Practice of Heraldry" (Edinburgh, T. C. 
and E. C. Jack). 

Modern Exlibyis 377 

painter; Leopold Geisbe. woodcutter; Oskar 

Griiner ; Camilla Lambotte. 
Thcyer und Hardtmuth, stationers. 
C. Angerer nnd G'oschl, process engravers, etc., 

who executed in chromo-lithography the original 
I -but very appropriate exlibris of Anthony von 

I!y H.G. Slrohl (1899). 

Siegenfeld (Vienna), a seal in green and red 

wax on parchment, 1S97. 
Blvdene : Jakob Ickey: exUbris of Douglass of 

Tilquhillie, coloured armorial. 
.Also in France : Paris : Hirsch and Slein, who 

have engraved several German exlibris; Alexis 

David, one of the two plates of Eduard Grise- 

Ibach, Consul-General, and poet (Berlin), 1881 ; 

378 German Book-plates 

and Henry 'AndrSy.owt, of the author's plates, 
Nancy: Claude E. Thierry^ exlibris of Nikolaus 
Ehrsam, author of the '* Livre d'Or " of Miii- 
hausen in Alsace, 1 88 .. . 

Amateur artists: 

Germany : Berlin : Armin Freiherr von Folkcr- 
sam (Berlin and St. Petersburg), the possessor 
of property in the neighbourhood of Riga; 
twenty-five exlibris which display great talent, 
good ideas, and highly artistic execution. His 
plates are mainly heraldic, though carried out 
according to modem taste.^ The early medi- 
aeval plate of K. E. Count zu Leiningen- 
Westerburg, 1899, is here given. It is designed 
as a piece of embroidered wall-hanging, shaped 
like a crown at the top, while on a background 
diapered with the Leiningen linden-leaves are 
the initials K. E. L. W., inclosing a panel 
bearing the crosses of Westerburg and the 
eagles of Leiningen. 

Adolf Sclibnbeck, Prussian Captain (retired). 

Arthur voji Oertzcjt, Prussian Lieutenant (retired) ; 
Bernhard Korner, lawyer ; Dr. Theodor Tocclie- 
Mittler ; Theodor Hennig, 

Munich : Jakob Heinrich vo7i Hc/fier-Altcneck, 
Privy Councillor, writer on art, etc., and author 
of the well-known book on costume ; his own 
five exlibris in Dlirer s manner, three process 
reproductions (black and hand-coloured), and 
two copperplates, engraved after his design by 

^ Two exlibris reproduced in E. L. Z. ix. 49. 

Johann Klipphan (Aschaffenburg and Nurem- 

ilf von Retberg-Wettbergen (t), Durer scholar; 
his own fourteen exlibris are almost all based 



By Armin Frciherr von Fiilkersam (i8 

on designs by Diirer, whose spirit they catch 

Freiin ReiehliH-Meldegg, Mistress of the 
fcobes (retired); exlibris of William, Duke of 


German Book-plates 


Uracil, Count of Wiirttember^ (Stuttgan), 
1899; seal-shaped, with armorial bearings. 

Sigmund Friedrich von Prauji, Bavarian Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel (retired); two etched exlibris in 
the style of the Nuremberg hatchments, 

Alexander Freiherr von Dachenhausitt, Prussian 
First Lieutenant (retired); thirty exlibris, some 
in brilliant colours, the heraldic draughtsman- 
ship being extremely correct : we may meniJoa 
his own, 1 893 ; ' Albert Bock (Rudolstadt). 
1895: Dr. George H. Falkiner-Nultall (Cam- 
bridge), 1S9S ; Alfred Freiherr von Dachenhau- 
sen. Captain of Horse (Radymno, Austria), 
1900, here reproduced ; and four of the faniil;^ 
of Freiherr von Schdnberg (Thanimenhain), 

NuREMHEKc: Emst Ferdinand Karl Kirchnrr, 
clerk in the custom-house. 

Cassel : Otto Kleemann, merchant, a draughl 
man with good heraldic feeling. 

Trebschen : Heinrich W\. Pri?ucRetiss, Prussian 
General of Cavalry, Imperial Ambassador (re 
tired) ; one exlibris (etching) for his censor^ 
PrincessAlexandrine, area 1885; arms in circlet 

Havixbeck (Munster inWestphalia) : Maria />«)' 
von Twickcl. 

Naumbukc : J alius von Lowenfeld, Major-General 

Aachen ; Frau Theodora von Rommet, nie Kirsch 

St. Johann-on-Saar : Alwin Ziehme. 

Hamul'kg : Eduard Lorenz Meyer, wholesale mer- 
chant ; a very good designer of heraldic an< 
modern plates, full of character and individu 
' The original is given in E. L. Z. iii, 70, 


By Alexander Freiherr von Dachenhauscn (1900). 


German Book-plates 

ality, author and designer of several excelleo 
local works of an heraldic nature. He has pro 



Ry himself (1S94). 

duced thirty-seven exlibris, of which his owl 
1894, is here reproduced. 

Modern Exlibris 383 

Altona : Fritz von Bronsart, Prussian Captain. 

Pirn A, Dresden : Erich Freiherr von Hauseny 
Major in the army of Saxony : twenty-one ar- 
morial exlibris in the old style. 

SoNDERSHAUSEN : Karl Kurt von Blodau, assessor ; 
eleven armorial exlibris. 

Kalbe : Martin Taubert, First Lieutenant (re- 
tired), and postmaster. 

Austria: Vienna : Moritz von Weittenhiller^ Privy 
Councillor and Chancellor (Dobling, Vienna) ; 
a correct heraldic draughtsman and a skilful 

Also Punta-Arenas : Bernhard Osenbriigg, of 
Hamburg; his own plate coloured in the 
manner of Otto Hupp. 

b. Unsigned Heraldic Exlibris, 1 8 7 1 - 1 900. 

The following unsigned heraldic plates are 
worthy of mention : 

Hugo Sholto Freiherr von Douglas (Aschersleben), Major 

(retired), by Heinrich Nahde (Berlin) : arms in Gothic 

quatrefoil on a Scotch blue and green plaid ; printed in 

Hugo von Donop (t), Lord Steward of the Household 

(Weimar), 1885 ; arms in ornamental frame. 
Hermann Freiherr von Miillenheim, Chamberlain, and 

Prussian Major (retired) (Strassburg) ; two coloured armorial 

Willy von Hardt, Prussian Major (Cassel), 1893; arms in 

Count von Mirbach, " Fidei Kommiss-bibliothek " at Harff, 

1888 ; armorial in seal form. 
Count Fugger-Glott (Kirchheim), 1897; copy of a coat of 

arms of 1628, with putti and trophies. 

384 German Book-plates 

Count VVerthern (Beichlingen), circa 1880; armorial with 
four ancestral coats. 

Ludwig Freiherr von Bongart (Pfaffendorf), circa 1895; imita- 
tion of rococo exlibris of Von Gymnich and P. Schneltgen 

Mumm von Schwarzenstein (Johannisberg), 188 . ; four ar- 
morial plates (one by Stem, Paris). 

Friedrich 2^rncke, celebrated Germanist, Leipzig (t), 
copperplate, circa 1875 ; arms in baroque frame. 

Barbara Freifrau von Plessen, nke Princess Gagarine (t) 
(Baden-Baden), 188 . . 

Stanislaus von Leszczynski, Prussian Major-General (Berlin), 
circa 1898; full achievement placed on the Iron Cross 
in a mandorla ; not signed, but drawn by Dr. Theodor 
Toeche-Mittler (Berlin). 

Paulus Museum, Worms ; arms of the city upheld by the 
Nibelungen dragon, 1891. 

Franz Schenk Freiherr von Staufienberg (Risstissen), member 
of the Reichstag, 188 . ; arms in arch, after an old signet 

Napoleon Vecchioni, editor and politician (Munich), the 

Prince Auersperg, " Fidei Kommiss-bibliothek " (Laybach), 
189 . ; arms surrounded by inscriptions. 

Dr. Heinrich Kabdebo of Capri (f), 1886, art critic, and 
bibliographer of the Siege of Vienna by the Turks, circa 
1880 ; arms in the style of H. S. Beham, probably by Karl 
Boess (Vienna). 

Georg Count Hoyos (Fiume), 1898, copperplate, armorial. 

Julius Count von Falkenhayn, Imperial Privy Councillor. 
Austrian Minister of Agriculture (f) (Vienna), 188., 

(/?.) Non-Heraldic Exlibris. 

This section of German exlibris, which includes 
all pictorial, allegorical, and other plates which are 
not in the main heraldic, is of remarkable interest 
owing to its great variety. Though we find more 
than one artist working after one original, and 
though pupils show the influence of their masters. 

Modern RxHbris 


yet there has probably never before been so much 
original talent displayed in black and white de- 
sign. Almost all of tJie most important German 
artists, each inspired by his own artistic convic- 
tion, have an unmistakable style of their own, by 
which their work can at once be distinguished. 

Ihe best exlibris designers, such men as Max 
Klinger, Otto Greiner. Hans Thoma, Heinrich 
Vogeler, Otto Eckmann,VonGebhardt,and others, 
possess a distinction and individuality beyond the 
reach of their imitators, though their influence may 
be seen in the work of many young artists of their 
respective "schools." 

Special groups of artists are also noteworthy, 
who work together on particular lines — e.g., the 
archaic school, whose work is mainly based on 
Durer — Josef Sattler, Georg Barlosius, Paul Voigt, 
Karl Spindler. and Melchior Lechter ; the Munich 
and \'ienna secessions, the artist colonies of 
VVorpswede (near Bremen). Dachau (near Mun- 
ich), and Darmstadt, the " Kunst im Handwerk" 
at Munich, etc. ; and besides these the " modern " 
school who work for the Munich illustrated weekly 
■' Jugend," a journal which has had a very strong 
influence on the younger generation of artists. 
To these groups belong such men as Julius Dies. 
Bernhard Pankok, "^^vXRieth, Emil Orlik, Walther 
Caspari, Albert Weisgerber. YnizErlcr, Erich Otto 
Engd, and Paul BUrck. 

More independent spirits among exlibris design- 
ers are Otto Ubbelohde, Franz Stasscn, Bernhard 
/-^■«/^, Hermann jYiVz^/, and EduardLorenzJ/^^r. 

IManv desieners, foHowingf either their own 

386 German Book-plates 

tendency or the wishes of their client, take their 
style from old examples, and produce pure '* old 
German " plates ; others combine old motives with 
modern, while an increasing number work entirely 
on modern lines. The tendency of the present 
day is to be as modern as possible. Japanese 
naturalism has many votaries in art of all kinds, 
and conventional plant decoration is to be found 
in all applied design, as well as on book-covers, 
book-illustrations, and the latest book-plates. 

As for the objects represented on the exlibris 
of the present day, their diversity is without any 
parallel in previous times. References to the 
owner are, of course, expressed in the most various 
ways, though it is matter for regret that so many 
plates are produced with designs of a general 
character which would be as suitable for anyone 
else as for the real owner, and as appropriate for 
any other purpose as for a book-plate. Symbol 
and allegory find especial favour at the present 
time ; indeed many designs are of so mysterious 
a character that it is quite impossible for anyone 
who is not in the secret to understand or explain 
them. This practice is not in accordance with 
the purpose of a book-plate, which is intended to 
protect and decorate the books in which it is 
fastened, and should not present an insoluble en- 
igma to the inquirer of a later generation. 

It would be impossible to classify scientifically 
and enumerate all the objects represented on 
modern plates, but the following lists give at any 
rate most of the motives which are to be found on 
the exlibris of to-day : 

Modern Exlibris 387 

J^gures : the gods of Olympus and other mythological per- 
sonages, e^,, Jupiter, Minerva, Venus, Mars, Mercury (or 
their Greek equivalents), the Muses, the Graces, Pan ; 
Cassandra ; Wotan, the Valkyries, Parsifal ; Madonnas, 
saints(^.^., St. George, St. Cecilia), angels, devils; allegorical 
figures representing religion, history, art, painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, poetry, truth, light, fortune, freedom ; 
Germania, Hygeia, war, victory, fame, old Germans, knights, 
landsknechts, soldiers, savants, and councillors in old 
costumes, monks, fools, men, women, and children, in 
old and modern costumes, and engaged in occupations of 
all kinds ; whole or demi-figures of a classical character ; 
nude figures, male and female ; men sowing, planting 
trees, reading, studying by lamplight, or stretching out 
their arms towards the sun ; figures of fairyland and fable, 
wild men, gnomes, putti ; portraits of the owner ; portrait 
medallions, with heads of historical personages, as emperors, 
p)oets, statesmen, composers, etc. 
Afilitary. arms, e,g.y swords, sables, lances, helmets, cuirasses, 
shields, rifles, cannon, shells, bombs, drums, flags, pennons, 
landsknechts, accoutrements of various troops. Mars, god- 
dess of victory. 
JVaval', ships of all sorts, from sailing boats to ironclads, 

anchors, flags, pennons, compasses. 
Theological', crosses. Bibles, cups, churches. 
Legal: swords, scales, law-books, goddess of justice, figure 

of Roland. 
Medical: snake of i^Lsculapius, Hygeia, microscopes, ther- 
mometers, medicine bottles, bowls, mirrors, instruments, 
skeletons, skulls, the reaper, etc. 
Chemical: retorts, phials, scales. 
Literary and Theatrical: pens, paper, books, lyres, masks, 

Architects : columns, capitals, architectural structures, build- 
ings, plans, compasses, rules, set-squares. 
Artists : shield of the Artists' Guild, painting utensils, 
brushes, palettes, paint-boxes, camp-stools ; sculptures, 
busts ; painters, sculptors, embroiderers, at work. 
Indus tricU Arts : hammers, anvils, set-squares, with or with- 
out the arms of the Artists' Guild. 
Handicrafts : hammers, rules, saws ; details of machinery. 

388 Gennan Book-plates 

Students : broadswords, rapiers, bandages. 

Musical: music, violin bows, musical instruments, e.g.^ pianos 
harps, lyres, flutes, violins, guitars, etc. 

Mountaineering : Alpenstocks, axes, haversacks, ropes, Alpine 
flowers (edelweiss, Alpine rose, etc.), and Alpine animals. 

Ladies-, favourite flowers, occupations, books, music, em- 

Landscapes : views of towns, rivers, mountains, glimpses 
of sea and lake, views of woods, parks, gardens, and 
meadows; temples, altars, churches, pagodas, fortifka- 
tions, castles, ruins, villas, towers, town-halls, private 
houses, schools, barracks, library buildings, factories, home- 
steads, picturesque courtyards, mills. 

Interior-, living rooms, libraries, ladies' boudoirs, chimnc)- 
corners, studios, halls, salons. 

Animals : owls, pet animals, such as dogs and cats ; deer, 
swans, doves, hares, snakes, snails, tortoises, spiders with 
webs, frogs, monkeys ; dragons, P^asus, sphinxes, printers' 

Flowers: natural or conventional flowers, especially roses, 
lilies, violets, lilies-of-the-valley, chrysanthemums ; heraldic 
flowers ; the flower of Romance ; plants, trees, such as 
oaks, limes, beeches ; laurel and acanthus wreaths. 

Collectors-, bibliophiles — books; numismatists — coins and 
coin cabinets ; heralds — arms ; genealogists — documents : 
exlibris collectors — exlibris; shell collectors — shells. 

Symbols of Learning-, single books, folios, piles of books, 
manuscripts, documents, writing materials, globes, old 
Roman lamps, reading lamps, candelabra; bookcases; 
bookshelves ; writing desks. 

Ships : large and small, ancient and modem, men-of-war and 
merchant ships, boats ; ships with books in the interior, 
books in the form of ships. 
Various Accessories : hour-glasses, clocks, chess-boards, burn- 
ing torches, electric lamps, Rontgen rays, printing presses. 
Mercury's staff, beehives, statues, busts, vases, statuettes, 
runes, masks, cartouches, decorative ornaments, love-knots 
children's toys ; skulls and skeletons ; monograms with 
and without crowns. 

Arms : not used as the chief ornament of the plate, but in a 
subordinate position : portions of the arms used decora- 

Modern Exlibris 


lively, house marks ; arms of states, towns, trade associa- 

rions and companies ; arms of the Artists' Guild. 

This list will give some idea of the endless 

riety displayed in the designs of the present 

lay. and though it is possible that other objects 

toa.y hereafter be depicted on book-plates, it seems 

lardly likely that the imagination of artists or the 

aprice of their clients will add very largely to 

he wealth of ideas represented under the above 


The number of designers of book-plates is now 
so large that it is quite impossible in the space at 
our disposal to name them all. The following list, 
however, contains all the most important designers, 
"with a brief mention of their best plates. 

Desigficrs of Non-Heraldic Plalcs. 
Professional artists : 
jERMANV : Munich, a city which may be con- 
sidered to be " Prima inter pares "; 

Professor Rudolf 5f?y:: and Anton Sei/s (t), each 
of whom has unfortunately only produced one 
plate, viz.. Dr. Georg Hirth (publisher), and 
August von Eisenhart. Councillor of State 
(retired), both of Munich. 

Professor Peter Halm, whose etchings are well 
'1 known; ten exlibris. among them the coloured 
plate of the Grand Duchess Victoria Melita of 
Hesse, 1895. 

Otto Ubbflohde, the eminent landscape painter ; 
eight exlibris, of which his own, a noble etching, 
may be named. 

390 German Book-plates 

of which IS the very original, interesting, and 
typically modern etching of Richard Holscher 
(Darmstadt), 1899; the symbolism has reference 
to book-thefts. 

Wilhelm Volz ; two book-plates, of which that of 
Heinrich Schmidt- Pecht (Constance), 1898, is 
especially good, and very appropriate to the 
famous old " Haus zur Katz" at Constance. 

Max Esterle (from Cortina d'Ampezzo in 'South 
Tyrol, and until the autumn of 1900 in Paris); 
an extremely clever representative of ^ 
modern movement, who, generally with vciy 
few lines, produces a design characterized Iqr 
great delicacy and graceful composition ; twenty- 
one exlibris, mostly with female figures, busts, 
or heads ; especially good are those of Pauline 
von Knoll (Bozen), 1899; Emilia Wittouck 
(Brussels), 1899; Jules Claretie, Director of 
the ** Comedie Francjaise" (Paris), and Georges 
Claretie, advocate (Paris), 1899; his own, 1899; 
and a second exlibris of Frau Philippine Kuhn 
(Innsbruck), 1899, here reproduced; also etch- 
ings : his own and that of F*rau Fiffi Kuhn (Inns- 
bruck), both 1900. 

Albert Welti, a Swiss artist ; two exlibris of Franz 
Rose-Dohlau, etchings, 1899- 1900. 

Julius DieZy a draughtsman well known to the 
readers of ** Jugend"; thirteen book-plates, of 
which that of Dr. Georg Hirth, the publisher 
(1899), is here given (p. 392).* 

^ Another plate, that of the " Kunstgewerbe-Verein " 
(Munich), is reproduced in J. W. Simpson^s "Book of Book- 
plates," No. I. 

Bernhard Pankok, also a frequent contributor to 
" Jugend, " and wel! known also for his modern 
interior decorations, and through his illustra- 
trations for the official catalogue of the German 
Empire for the Paris Exhibition, 1899; seven 
exlibris, one of which is an etching, and four 

woodcuts : that of Frau Hargarethe Strauss 
(Magdeburg), 1899, with the head of Wotan, 
is here reproduced (p. 393).^ 
Wahher CaspaH ; four exlibris, among them an 
appropriate plate for the poet Wiihelm von 

392 German Book-piafes 

Scholz (Munich), and one for Mr. Gushing 

{Galesbury, 111.). 
Maximilian Dasio; eighteen very good exiibris. 

with simple and appropriate classical allusions.' 
Alois Balmcr, a Swiss artist, who knows how to 

combine good heraldry with modern ornameni: 

fourteen exliliris. uf which iiis own. with cantit^ 

arms (holly ^"Stech-/'<i//«^"), and the winged 

ox of St. Luke, patron saint of painters, l" 

1900. is here reproduced (p. 394). 
Hans Beatus Wieland, also a Swiss ; seven good 

modern plates. 
Ernst Berger; nine exiibris, printed by means of 

' Only fourteen of these have been carried out ; icn are re- 
produced in " Kunsi und Kunsthandwerk " (Munich), *ol. 49, 

Modem Exlibris 


stencil plates direct into the volumes {see p. 13, 

and E. L, Z. viii. 48, 51). 
'\ilolf Hcngeler, the inimitable humorist of 

■■ Kliegende Blatter": cxlibris of Johann 

Leichtle (Kempten), 1883. 
■ritz £rlcr, known through "Jugend," as well as 

By Bcmlinrd Pankok {1899). 

im his modern interior decorations ; eighteen 
xlibris, of which those of the composer Hugo 
Wolf (Vienna). Privatdocent Dr. Karl Mayr 
(Munich), Frau Clementine Schonfield, concert 
singer (Munich), Ulrich Putze, picture dealer 
"[■Munich). Gustav Eberius (t). bookseller (Mun- 
:h). adapted from a cover-design for "Jugend." 
the most pleasing. 

394 German Book-piates 

Ferdinand Barl/i. Professor ; among others a prelty 
series of book-plates for the " Freiherrlich von 
Cramer- Klettsche HausbJbliothek " (Munich), 


By himself (1898-1900). 

1S91; armorials with seven diffcrem bordera 
with landscapes, figures, etc. 
Ludwig Seyfried; two attractive plates in lat 
eighteenth-century style of Prince and Princes 
Oettingen (Munich), and Bibliothek Aulendor 
Count Konigsegg, 1899. 

Modern ExUbfis 

Anna May. three exlibrls, among them that of 

Princess Ruprecht of Bavaria, i 900. 
i)toIia, CoHjUess Kraszeti'skn \ a dignified modern 



By AiiKUSi Pacher (1890). 

classical plate of Lily von Poschinger (Munich). 
Ernst Krcidolf, a Swiss artist who has produced 
some excellent children's picture-books ; his own 
exlibriSand thatof Lili Burger, pianist (Munich), 

396 German Book-plates 

1897, lithograph, showing two hands on the 
keys and an allegro symbolically expressed.^ 

Robert Weise\ two lithographs, Adolf Spemann 
(Stuttgart), 1899, ^'^d Peter Hubert Becker, 
author (Munich), 1900. 

Hans von Hayek ; woodcut exlibris of Dr. Ernst 
Fischer (Buchloe), 1900. 

August Packer ; exlibris of Franz Xaver Zettlen 
Councillor of Commerce, a well-known glass 
painter (Munich), 1890, in the manner of Johann 
Esaias Nilson, with the towers of Munich in 
the background ; here reproduced (p. 395). 

PsLulRze^k ; collection of Dr. M. Schubart (Munich), 
1899, photogravure (also a zinc-block).* 

Albert Weisgerber, a piipil of Franz Stuck, and 
one of the " Jugend" artists; several good ex- 
libris of modern character.' 

Otto Porsche ; a pretty, simple exlibris of Dr. Paul 
Parey (t) publisher. First Lieutenant (retired) 
(Berlin) ; book, pen, sword and the Iron Cross.* 

] Sixnes B iederkra7i^ ; two etchings, Dr. Rudolf Stein- 
hauser (Munich), 1899 and 1900. 

Hilda Lodeman, an American ; two exlibris of Dr. 
R. Wedel (Munich), 1899, one of them a good 

Hermann Kellner\ exlibris of Markus Schiissler 
(Nuremberg), 1897, with St. Mark and the Castle 
of Nuremberg. 

^ Reproduced in E. L. Z. vii. 50. 
Ibid,^ X. 24. 

Five exlibris reproduced in " Kunst und Kunsthandwerk/ 
vol. 50, No. 7. 

* Reproduced in E. L. Z. x. 66. 




^skar A(hm ; two graceful plates of Franz Xaver 

Zettler (Munich). 1899. 
AviViReituis; etched exlibris of Frau Sofia Menzler 
(Munich), igoo, 
[Maximilian ]osci Gradi \ ten extibris in modern 


By Maximilian Josef GradUiSgS). 

Style, someshowing English influence' ; that of 
Rudolf Oldenbourg, publisher (Munich), 1898, 
is here reproduced. 
Hermann Torgoler,o{Qr^z; fourverygood exlibris, 
including that of Dr. Max Maas (Munich), 1900. 
' Five exlibris reproduced in E. L, Z. vi. 20, 21. 

398 German Book-plates 

Heinrich Kronenberger, architect ; seven exlibris. 

Theodor Fischer^ architect, who erected the 
Bismarck Monument on the Starnberg Lake; 
four exlibris. 

Fritz Berner, architect ; seven exlibris. 

Ludwig Hohlwein, architect; eight ultra-modern 

Knorr und Hirth^ printers. 

Dr. C. Wolf und Sohn, Printers to the Court and 
University, who have produced many excellent 

E. F. Genzscky type foundry, who set up nine very 
attractive exlibris, with type oi*naments and 
lettering designed by Otto Hupp, printed by 
Reinhold ^rtJ^»f^^ (Munich), igcxj; a novelty 
in exlibris.^ 

Otto Tragy (Pasing, Munich) ; exlibris of Captain 
Emil Heuser (Spires), 1898. 

Erich Otto ^;/^i?/, animal painter (Dachau, Munich), 
who etched a book-plate, full of character, for 
Dr. Max Halbe, author (Munich). 

Berlin : Ludwig Burger (f) an industrious and 
well-known illustrator and painter; nine exlibris, 
lithographs and woodcuts. 

August V071 Heydeuy Professor (t), painter and de- 
signer of costumes ; two military exlibris for 
General Ernst von Prittwitz, Karlsruhe, and the 
Hessian Field Artillery Regiment, No 25 
(Darmstadt), 1886, with guns and standard- 

Ferdinand Count von Harrach, Privy Councillor 
and Professor ; three delicately drawn exlibris : 

^ See E. L. Z. x. 71. 

his own, 1893 (photogravure); Count Ernst 
Harrach (f) (Kleinkrichen). 1896; and Ulrich 
Count von Schwerin (Belgrade), 1899. 
Emil Doeplcr, junior. Professor, and teacher in 
the Royal Industrial School of Art, already 
named among the heraldic designers ; fifty-five 

By himself (iSgS). 

noteworthy exlibris, partly heraldic, partly with 
figures, etc. : some of these have already been 
mentioned (p. 364). 

[elene Varges, a pupil of Doepler ; nine original 
and delicately drawn exlibris, full of fine senti- 

iUi Hirsch, also a pupil of Doepler ; four good 

400 German Book-plates 

Otto Eckmann, Professor, a gifted pioneer in the 
region of modern decorative art and handicraft, 
who is known not only for his beautiful wood- 
cuts and book-decoration, but also for his designs 
for textiles, metals, glass, furniture, etc. ;^ fif- 
teen exlibris, of which we may mention especially 
the four plates (three of them coloured litho- 
graphs) of Emil Uhles, Councillor of the Supreme 
Court (Berlin), 1898-9. Eckmann's own ex- 
libris, a simple but effective monogram, 1898, is 
here reproduced (p. 399). 

Hans Meyer, Professor in the Royal Academical 
High School of the Fine Arts ; two etched 
book-plates: his own, 1882, with two putti, after 
Andrea del Sarto, and that of George Bandroft, 
American Ambassador in Berlin and author (f), 
1874, after Raphael. 

Franz Stassen, a talented exlibris artist, whose de- 
signs are symbolical and classical, but imbued 
with the modern spirit ; ten exlibris (some 
etchings), of which those of Dr. Josef Poppel- 
reuter (Berlin), 1896; Eduard Stucken, poet 
(Berlin), 1899; the Magdeburg Museum, 1900; 
the musical exlibris of Frau M. Strauss (Mag- 
deburg), 1900; and that of M. Stein thai (Berlin), 
1900, are the most beautiful.'' 

Friedrich vo7i Schennis, a Swiss artist ; his own 
etched exlibris successfully combines old heraldic 
drawing with a sphinx in the modern style. 

' See two articles, with numerous illustrations, in " Deutsche 
Kunst unci Decoration," April, 1900. 

^ See reproductions in E. L. Z. x. 42, 43, and " Dekorative 
Kunst," June, 1900. 


By Josef Sutler (1893). 


Modern Exlibris 401 

Hans am Ende, one of the Worpswede school; 
etched plate of Wilhelm Felsing (Berlin), 1898.^ 

Melchior Lechter, a Gothic designer, known among 
other things for his designs for painted glass, 
etc. ; two exlibris in the Gothic style of Consul 
Auerbach (Berlin), 1896, and Karl von Gross- 
heim, Baurath (Berlin), 1897. 

K\^yjdS\di^T Liebmann ; five exlibris (three etchings).^ 

Hans Baluscheck\ six exlibris, of which that of 
Heinz Tovote,author (Berlin), 1895, with motive 
taken from his novel ** Fallobst, wurmstichige 
Geschichten," may be mentioned. 

fosef Saltier y the designer of the monumental 
edition of the ** Nibelungenlied," whose wonder- 
ful book-illustrations, though mostly in the spirit 
of the sixteenth-century illustrators, are in the 
highest degree original ; an extraordinarily pro- 
lific worker of wide-ranging fancy, his motives 
are often pleasing, but as frequently grotesque 
and bizarre. He has published an album of 
forty-two exlibris designs, beautifully printed in 
colours ; of these, however, only about a dozen 
are in actual use as book-plates ; one of them, 
the ** punning'* plate of Friedrich Karl Haupt 
(1893), ^s here given.^ Besides these Sattler 
has produced five other exlibris designs and 
twenty actual book-plates, the best of which 

* See E. L. Z. xi. No. i. ^ Ibid.^ x. 13, 14. 

' This album spread the fame of the artist in England and 
America, and, other modern German exlibris being little known 
n those countries, gave rise to the belief that Sattler was the 
)nly book-plate designer in (Germany. The list given in these 
3ages should finally dispose of this belief, if it still exists. 


402 German Book-plates 

are those for Dr. Robert Forrer, archaeologist 
(Strassburg, Alsace), 1892 (Sattlers first ex- 
libris) ; Eberhard Freiherr von Bodenhausen 
(Berlin), 1895; Georg Haehl (Robertsau), 1895; 
Anton and H ed wig Woworsky (Berlin), 189S; 
Fritz and Hans Curschmann (Dresden), 189S; 
Hermann Heinrich Alexander Wentzel (t). 
architect (Berlin); and Daisy Neumann. 1899. 

Paul Voigt, Head of a Department in the Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Berlin ; some of his thirty- 
one exlibris are in the manner of Sattler, and 
he has also produced some good interiors ; we 
may mention the exlibris of Julius Wolff, poet 
(Berlin), 1894; Max Hinterlach, assessor (Itze- 
hoe), 1898, here reproduced ; Karl Rosier (A n- 
clam), 1895; and his own exlibris, etching, 1S98, 
here printed from the original plate. Voigt 
also engraved the four exHbris of the Govern- 
ment Printing Office and the two of the Govern- 
ment Post Office (Berlin) ; and those of Dr. 
Paul Fischer, of the Government Post Office; 
Karl Busse, Privy Councillor, Director of the 
Government Printing Office ; and C. Schwartz 
(Berlin, altered for Stephen Wiesand), 1891- 

** Fiihis " i^nom-dc-phime of Wwgo Ho/>p€7nr) ; four 
exlibris ; his best is that of Hermann von 
Kissling (Riva), 1900. 

Gustav Ridscliel (Berlin and Paris) ; three etch- 
ings for Karl Schfnitzdorff( Brandenburg), 1895. 
only one of which was used. 

^ See E. L. /. iv. 53-54 and 90-91, and ** The Studio," winter 
number, 1898-9, pp. 64, 65. 


Ily hiniieirtiSyS). 

Fisckcr-Corlin ; six extremely well-drawn 
■bris, collotypes, mostly in classical taste 

in the style of Greek vases, of which those 
Karl Koch, Professor Breitbach. 1899, and 

Modern Exlibris 


ill and Helene Souchaj 1900 (all of Berlin). 
y be mentioned 

rd Liesen ; six exlibris, among them a 
dern design for C. H. Oskar Lange, book- 
er (Berlin), 1899, and a good plate for Wil- 
[fl Arndt, sculptor (Berlin), 1900. 

404 German Book-plates 

Anna von Wahl, of Dorpat ; seven exlibris, among 
which are two good plates, viz., Charles von Wahl 
(Dorpat). 1877, vase of flowers with book, and 
Mercedes Zuologa, a South American Spaniard 
(Hamburg), 1899, female head with wreath of 
roses and thorns ; also three stencilled exlibris. 

Sophie Bernfiard, painter and sculptor ; exlibris 
of Max Harrwitz, dealer in rare books (Berlin), 
circa 1895, and Dr. Ernst Oberwarth (Berlin), 
1899, good modern designs. 

Kathe Schdnberger\ five exlibris, some of which 
show originality of ideas ; ^ one for Walther von 
Zur Westen, assessor (Berlin), 1899, is here re- 

Luise Cldson ; a good modern exlibris of Mathilde 
von Treu (Nieder-Rosen), 1899. 

Marie StiiUr-Walde \ four modern exlibris. 

Max Zambony\ a pretty exlibris of Otto Ltistner 
(Essen), 1896, with view of the Castle of Weil- 
burg, books, violin, and some bars of music. 

Otto Protzen ; two etchings, one of which is an 
excellent plate for Karl G. F. Langenscheidt 
(Berlin), 1900. 

Efraim Mose Lilien ; ten exlibris, mostly with un- 
draped female figures.^ 

Alexander Zick, Professor ; universal exlibris for 
books for the young published by Velhagen 
und Klasing (Leipzig), 1899.^ 

* Two exlibris reproduced in " Deutsche Kunst und Decora- 
tion," iii. 7. 

'^ Four reproductions in the " Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde,'* 

• • • 

m. 7. 

^ Reproduced in E. L. Z. x. to. 

Modern Exlibris 


pchard Bdhland. the gifted painter of the splendid 
rfatjade of the " Deutsches Haus " at the Paris 

^uct,ae«rbl,ciy^ 1 

^^v^S*- \ 

"nmrnr 1 





er : _ ... 


By Kathe Schonberger {[899). 

J Exhibition, igcxs; sketch for an exlibris of an 

artillery regiment.' 
Martin Rdnike; a pretty exlibris of Friedricb 
Pfeilstucker, bookseller (Berlin), 1889. 

' Re|)roducfd in K. I., Z. iv. 67, 

4o6 German Book-plates 

Emil Zellner, Baumeister ; twelve exiibris in the 
Gothic style, with good heraldry. 

Government Printing Office, which has produced 
the excellent etched exiibris mentioned above 
(under Paul Voigt), and also that of the Kaiser- 
Wilhelm Bibliothek at Posen, designed by E. 

Charlottenburg, near Berlin : Geoi^ Barlosius, 
teacher in the Municipal Industrial School of 
Art, Berlin, a talented artist and book-illustrator; 
though older than Sattler, he works in the 
same archaic style of -the sixteenth centurj', 
and is a prolific and fine draughtsman, full 
of good ideas. Of his twenty-four exiibris 
(eighteen only carried out), the following may 
be mentioned : coloured book-plates of Anna 
Kruse-Lietzenburg, 1898 (with landscape); 
Klementine Bohm (Wilmersdorf), 1898; Karl 
G. F. Langenscheidt, publisher (Wannsee, Ber- 
lin), 1900 (with landscape); and that of the 
author of this volume, 1898 (with landscape);' 
also in black and white : Friedrich Gottheiner 
(Charlottenburg), 1899; Hans Denecke (Bruns- 
wick), 1898, with portrait of Wagner and 
music ; Friedrich Altmann (Sachsenhausen. 
Frankfurt-on-Main), 1900; village librar)^ of 
Grosslusewitz, i9chd ; Hans Lukas von Cranach. 
Governor of the Wartburg, 1900 ; Victor Count 
Schlieffen (Weimar), 1900; Lothar B. von 
Carlshausen, Captain of Horse (Stuttgart), 1901 ; 

^ Reproduced in E. L. Z. ix. 14; "Exiibris Journal," ix. bS; 
and Catalogue of the Antwerp Exiibris Exhibition, 1900. 


A'illibald Franke, publisher (Berlin), 1899, a 
^ery appropriate book-plate, here reproduced. 
Termann Hirzcl, a Swiss artist ; original modern 

By Gcorg Unrliiaius (1899I. 

alates with landscapes and conventional fiower 
and plant decoration : has recently shown skill 
as an etcher. Of his sixty-four exlibris we may 
mention: Alfred Doren (Berlin), with view of 
tFrankfurt-on-Main, 1897; Stanislaus Cauer, 

4o8 German Book-plates 

sculptor (Rome), with Monte Cavo, 1897; Otto 
Graumann, assessor (Breslau), altar in land- 
scape, 1898; H. Ernest Opdenhoff (Brussels), 
landscape, 1898; Nelly Brodmann, operatic 
singer (Wiesbaden), meadow with trees and 
statue of Apollo, 1 898 ; Hans Hermann (Beriin). 
landscape with altar, 1899; Walther von Zur 
Westen, assessor, meadow with trees, 1899; 
two of Etienne Baud, lawyer (Geneva), zinc- 
block and etching, landscapes, 1897 and 1900; 
Dr. Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer(Winterthur),two 
zinc-blocks with views of Megara and the 
Acropolis of Athens, and one etching, tree in a 
meadow, 1892 ; Dr. Felix Gattel (Berlin), zinc- 
block and etching, 1 899, book in landscape with 
trees ; ' Karl G. F. Langenscheidt (Berlin), 
1900; Sulzer-Steiner (Winterthur), 1900; Dr. 
Kessler( Berlin), 19chd; Paul Nicolaus Ratajczak 
(Berlin), 1901, etching, etc. 

Friedknau, near Berlin : Julius Q.Maess\ twenty 
exlibris, mostly fine, six being etchings. We 
may mention his own plate, 1895 » ^"^ those of 
Dr. Otto Braun (t)» author (Munich), 1895: 
INIaorda Countess zu Leininoren-Westerburg 
1896; Otto Rau (Berlin), 1898; and two of 
Karl G. F. Langenscheidt (Berlin), 1897. 

Grunkwald, near Berlin: Meinhardyirzr^^'; four 
modern exlibris, three being etchings. Espe- 
cially crood are the portrait-plate of Else Benn- 
dorf (Vienna), 1897, and an original exlibris of 
Dr. Flesch (Frankfurt-on-Main), 1898, whose 

^ Six reproductions in the ** Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde," 
iii. 1 1, and four reproductions in E. L. Z. viii. 46, 47. 

Modern Exlibris 


strong hand is depicted wresting the sickle 
from the hand of Death. 


liy Hans Thoma (1898). 

'oTsDAM : Lucy i/h Bois-Raymond, daughter of the 

celebrated physiologist; seven exlibris, mostly 


4IO German Bookplates 

etchings, among them one of Paul Hensel 
Professor of Political Economy at Strassburjj, 

Stuttgart: Adolf Fischer \ a charming exlibris 
of Dr. Friedrich HauflF (Feuerbach, Stuttgart). 
1899, with arms and view of Stuttgart through 
a window. 

Edmund Schdfer ; ten good exlibris. 

Karlsruhe (Baden) : Hans Tkoma^ Professor, 
and Director of the Art Gallery, formerly of 
Frankfurt-on-Main. This well-known painter 
of romantic pictures, full of truly German poetrj* 
and sentiment, was urged to the designing of 
exlibris by the author, and since 1895 has pro- 
duced twenty- two plates ; ^ the designs include 
landscapes, figures of children, subjects from 
German mythology, fabulous beasts, etc. Some 
of his plates are executed by algraphy (printed 
from aluminium plates) ; that of August Rasor 
(Frankfurt-on-Main), 1898, is here reproduced 
(p. 409) ; the pearls which the cupids are ex- 
tracting from the shell refer to the business of 
the owner, who is a pearl merchant. 

Hans Richard von Volkmafm ; his own exlibris, 
1897 (wild man in wide-stretching landscape). 

Karl Biesc (Grotzingen, Karlsruhe), four modern 
exlibris, lithographed in colours by himself. 

Darmstadt : Paul Burck ; his own ** punning " 
plate (Birke 11: birch-tree), 1899,^ that of the 

* Three are reproduced in "The Studio," winter number, 
1898-9, pp. 62-63. 
" Reproduced in E. L. Z. ix. 93. 

Modem Exlibris 


IBiichgewerbe-Verein " (Leipzig), 1900, and 
at of Ludwig Sang (Darmstadt), 1900, as well 
as some designs for exlibris in modern style. 
Anna Becker; two etchings, Alex, and Vicky von 
Frankenberg-LudwigsdorlT (Darmstadt). 1900. 
EsriKN : Albert von Zaitn (t) : exlibris of the 


Ily Eduard von Gebhardi (1897). 

amous ecclesiastical historian Karl August 

rtase (t) (Jena), 1873; this was redrawn by 

, Nieper. and eleven other plates for members 

»f the family of Von Hase have been made 


go Burkner. Professor, and Karl Ludwig 

' See Chap. V.. pp. 88-80. 

412 German Book-plates 

Theodor Graff \ the exlibris of Professor Georg 
Hermann Quincke (Heidelberg), 1877, and 
Field-Marshal Josef Edler von Latour-Thurn- 
burg (Vienna), 1877. 

Johann Vincenz Cissarz, a skilful book-decorator: 
exlibris of the bookseller . Robert Voigtlander 
and his wife (Leipzig), 1899. 

DussELDORF : Emst Forderg, Professor ; exlibris 
of W. Spemann, Privy Councillor of Commerce 
(Stuttgart), circa 1876 ; a very finely engraved 
copperplate, after a bronze by Peter Vischer, 
the design being by Professor Friedrich von 
Thiersch (Munich). 

Eduard von Gebhardt, Professor, the well-known 
historical painter ; fifteen exlibris, full of German 
feeling ; especially good are the suggestive plate 
of himself and his wife (here reproduced, p. 41 1), 
and those of Betty von Gebhardt (Dusseldorf), 
1898; RochusFreiherrvon Liliencron,the origin- 
ator of the " Allgemeine deutsche Biographic " 
(Schlesvvig), 1898; Klara Ponsgen (Dusseldorf). 
1899, a particularly good plate, showing Sieg- 
fried listening to the song of the birds after he 
has slain the dragon and sprinkled himself with 
its blood, and above, the bird-motive from 
Wagner's " Siegfried " ; Oskar and Anna Volk- 
mann (Dusseldorf), 1898, husband and wife in 
wooded landscape ; Georg Freiherr von Rhein- 
baben, Minister (Berlin), 1899, with St. George 
and the dragon ; Walther and Klara Preyss 
(Diisseldorf), 1899, with portrait of Hans Sachs. 

Johannes Gchrts\ a very pretty portrait-plate of 
Arnold Hirth, publisher (Leipzig), 1896, and 

Modem Exlibris 413 

an etched portrait-plate of Eduard Lorenz 
Meyer (Hamburg), 1895/ 

Otto^^^r; two exlibris of Karl Heine, lawyer 
(Diisseldorf), 1898, interior with view from a 
window, and Johanna von Cramatzki (Diissel- 
dorf), 1899, Roman altar with view of a castle 
on the seashore. 

Hamburg: Emil Horst\ a very fine exlibris of 
Johann Merck (Hamburg), 1898, photogravure, 
representing Don Quixote, in a Spanish Gothic 

Hermann de Bruycker\ an excellent plate of Dr. 
Adolf Lenert Wex, lawyer (Hamburg), 1898, 
photogravure, with arms, landscape, figure of 
Justice, and view of Hamburg. 

3skar Schwindrazheim ; twenty-one exlibris and 
twelve designs for exlibris.*- We may mention 
those of Oskar L. Tesdorpf, 1892 ; Siegmund 
Hinrichsen, President of the City Guilds, circa 
1892, here reproduced (p.4 15); HermannLange, 
junior, 1897 ; and Dr. Emil Tungel, 1897 (all of 
Hamburg); four exlibris of children of the family 
of Schiff (London), 1900; musical exlibris of 
the three sisters Schiff (Hamburg), 1900. 

Adele Lippert ; six ladies' exlibris, mostly of 
graceful design. 

Altona : Alfred Mohrbutter ; five ultra-modern 
ladies' exlibris. 

' E. L. Z. X. 91, 92-93, and "Exlibris Journal," xi. i, 
frontispiece. ^ 

' Reproduced in E. L. Z. iii. 57, 58 ; in " Liebhaber-Kiinste " 
(Munich, 1896); and in "Beitrage zu einer Volkskunst " 
(Hamburg), ii. 20. 

414 German Book-plates 

Magdeburg : Karl Wegnery Professor ; two ex- 

Halle : Heinrich Kopp ; exlibris of the Kunstge- 
werbe-Verein (Halle), 1900. 

GoRLiTZ : Georg Starke, of the firm of C. A. 
Starke, Purveyor to the Court, printer and 
treasurer of the German Exlibris- Verein, a firm 
which has produced numerous exlibris. Georg 
Starke has himself designed fifteen plates. 

Frankfurt-on-Main: Bernhard Mann/eld, the 
well-known citcher ; two etched exlibris of Dr. 
Hermann Kletke and Dr. R. Dohme. 

Bertha Bagge, a skilful etcher; five exlibris, of 
which the best are her own, with view of the 
Eschenheimer Tower at Frankfurt, 1895,* and 
that of A. Lask6, lawyer (Frankfurt), with 
flowers and the cathedral in the distance, 1895. 

Annette Versel\ three delicately etched exlibris: 
Eduard Riesser (Frankfurt), 1899, with view of 
the cathedral and the Main bridge ; Marie and 
Luitpold Rosenthal (Wiirzburg), 1899, with the 
'* Kiirschnerhofchen '* ; and Jakob and Kate 
Rieder (Wesserling), 1900, view of a castle. 

Ottilic Rbderstein ; a very good etched exlibris of 
Ferdinand and Anna Hirsch (Frankfurt), 1898, 
with portraits and allegorical figures of Mercurj- 
and Charity. 

Frau Kathinka Ochs {}i6e Schlenker) ; four exlibris. 
of which that of Karl Eller (Karlsruhe), 1893, 
arms with the edelweiss of the German- Austrian 
Alpine Club and figure of Justice, and that of 

* A print from the original plate is given in Miss Laboucherc'> 
** I^idies' Book-plates " (London, 1895), p. 190. 

Modern Exlibris 


Siegfried Ochs, bandmaster (Berlin), 1899, with 
cherubs' heads as notes,' have great decorative 
Ferdinand Lulhmcr, Professor : universal exlibris 

liy Otto Schwindraihciiii 

lesign, and two etchings of Moritz von Kuffner 
Vienna), 1895, showing a putto with coat of 
irms, book-case, and the tower of St. Stephen's 
~!hurch, and Alfred Hahn, bank director (Frank- 

Reproduced in " Dekoi 

; Kunst," Jui 

4i6 German Book-plates 

furt), 1898, with cock (Hahn), book, and sport- 
ing appliances. 

''Francis " = Francis OppenJieimer (Frankfurt and 
Paris, born in London), a draughtsman and 
etcher of great talent and with an excellent 
style of his own ; twelve good modern exlibris, 
among them one English plate, the late Sir 
Charles Oppenheimer (Frankfurt), young man 
in a landscape, crests and badges, etc. ; others 
are Frank Kirchbach (Munich), armorial : G. L. 
Sand (Munich), statue of Nike, with books; 
Stella B., young woman with flowers ; Alberta 
von Puttkamer (Strassburg, Alsace), female 
figure in landscape (motto : *' Die mlide Mensch- 
heit erfrischt sich an den Bliithen der Poesie ") ; 
Mary B. Brittan (San Francisco), etc., 1899 
and 1900. 

WiEsiiADEN : Walther Scliulte vo7n Briihl, editor, 
author, and illustrator; forty-nine exlibris.^ of 
which the best are : exlibris of Albrecht Witt- 
linger (Zurich), 1895 I Waltrud Schulte vom 
Bri'ihl (Wiesbaden)/- 1894; Adolf Neuendorf 
(Wiesbaden), 1894; Convent of Notre Dame 
(Offenburg), 1895; Rudolf Benkard (Paris), 
[895, a humorous design; Hedwig Lange. 
actress (Munich), 1897 I Josef Lauff, Major (re- 
tired), poet and dramatist (Wiesbaden), 1899. 

Krkfeld: Karl Wolbrandty architect, and Di- 
rector of the Technical Schools ; sixteen ex- 

^ Of these forty have been published in two volumes of 
** Twenty Exlibris " (1895 ^^^ ^^899). See also E. L. Z. ii. No. 3, 
p. 15 (four illustrations), and x. 22. 

■ Reproduced in I^abouchere's " Ladies' Book-plates," p. 229. 

Modern ExHbris 


libris. mostly of pleasing design, with conven- 
tional flower decoration, arms, etc' 
Bakmen : Heinrich Konig, a German Bohemian ; 
exlibris of Dr. Rudolf Neumann (Reichenberg, 
Bohemia), 1900, 

\Efss-oN-Rn!NE: KJaus Rdklingcr, architect. 

Wieoensahl: Wilhelm Busc/i, the famou.s humor- 
ist ; exlibris of Friednch Warnecke (f). Privy 
Councillor (Berlin), lithograph, 1889, an owl on 
a tree-trunk. 

Bremen : Anton Alders; three original woodcuts 
in modern style. 

Worpswelje (near Bremen) : Heinrich Vogelcr,3in 
exlibris designer who may worthily be named 
after Klinger and Greiner; but while the last- 
named artists, in spite of their modern style, 
draw by preference on classical subjects for 
representation, Vogeler's individuality expresses 
itself best in views of moorland, full of deep 
sentiment, with -reminiscences of the scenery of 
Friesland, parks, flowers, fruit trees, birch trees, 
etc. He has shown himself at the same time, 
both in his etchings and his poems, to be a 
■' Marchenpoet" of the first order. Of his 
twenty-two exlibris, sixteen are'etchings and the 
others zinc-blocks. The following are especially 
good : Margarethe Herwig. 1896, river-land- 
scape, with play on the old German name of 
Herwig; Schotteck, estate of the Wolde family 
near Bremen, 189S, park-scenery;* Frau Adele 
' See E. L. Z. ix. 108-111, where twelve plates are repro- 



.eproduced in " Dekoraiive Kunsi," Jui 


4i8 Gevfnan Book-plates 

Wolde, nSe Von Knoop (Bremen), 1898, woman 
reading, with view of church, arms, and rose- 
border ; Johann Baron Knoop (St. Magnus, 
Bremen), 1898 ; park-scene with flower-border, 
and violin, lyre, and arms ; Alfred Heymel, 
editor of'* Die Insel" (Munich), 1899, fountain 
in park with faun and nymph, here reproduced; 
Wilhelm Oelze (Bremen), 1900, ship, medallion- 
portrait of Goethe in border of trees ; Vogeler's 
own plates, one ( Barken- H off ) with girl reading, 
birch trees and farm-house, and the other with 
open book and rose, in front of a monument 
under a tree; Luise Wolde ^Bremen), 1 900, child 
in garden ; Georg Wolde (Bremen), 1900, ship 
with view of Bremen.^ 

HiLDESHKiM : Elli Wille, a pupil of Doepler ; five 
good exlibris. 

Nuremberg: Ludwig Kuhn, Professor; three 
excellent etchings : Markus Schiissler (Nurem- 
berg), 1895, portrait and view of his paternal 
house ; Frau Helene Schiissler, 1899, portrait 
and view of Kadolzburg,- both plates combining 
high artistic merit with first-rate technique: 
also Freiherr Cornelius Heyl zu Herrnsheim 
(Worms), 1 89 1, arms in fruit-border, a beautiful 
and effective plate. 

Wilhelm Behrens, Professor ; ten exlibris in various 
styles, characterized by fine drawing and taste- 
ful composition. Especially good are : Rudolf 
Benkard (Paris), 1893, with figure represent- 

' Nine exlibris by Vogeler reproduced in " Deutsche Kun>i 
und Dekoration," ii. 7. 
" See E. 1^. Z. ix. 108. 

420 German Book-plates 

ing a successful fencer and gymnast; Magda 
Countess zu Leiningen-Westerburg, 1892, ar- 
morial in the rococo style in vogue in 1892/ 
Ernst Count Mirbach (HarfF), 1894, view of 
his castle in Renaissance border ; Pauline von 
Henzler-Lehnensburg (Munich), 1894, rococo, 
armorial ; Reinhold Kohler (f), librarian 
(Weimar), for collection of folk-lore, Frau 
Sage in Rhine landscape ; Maria Theresia and 
Hedwig Countesses Droste zu Vischering von 
Nesselrode-Reichenstein (MUnster in \Vest- 
phalia), 1895, rococo, armorial ; Valerie Brettauer 
(Trieste), 1898, piano in rococo flower-border 
with putto ; ^ the last four plates are particularly 

Gcorg Kellner ; two exlibris for the Germanic 
Museum (Nuremberg). 1898. 

Berchtesgaden : Bernhard VVaiig, an artist in the 
modern style of great talent and good ideas, 
whose exlibris have the effect of rich woodcuts; 
twenty-seven book-plates, with busts, flowers, 
landscapes, etc. ; that of Father Hugo Schmid 
(t) (Kremsmiinster), 1899, is here reproduced: 
other very good plates are : Wenig s own 
exlibris, 1897 ; Countess Sofie du Moulin 
(Munich), 1897 ; Dr. Adolf Preyss (Berchtes- 
gaden), 1897; I^2irl Selzer, painter (Munich). 
1897; three plates of Johann Nepomuck Eser 
(Buchloe), 1899; two of Dr. HeinrichStumckc 

^ See E. L. Z. viii. 52, and I^bouchere, "Ladies' Book- 
plates,*' I). 431. 

' Reproduced in "Zeitschrift fur Biicherfreunde," iii. r, and 
in the "Ex-libris Journal," x. 86. 

Serlin). i8g8; Professor Hermann von Sicherer 
Munich), 189S; Julie Speyer (Vienna), 1898; 
^uis Ring (Berlin). 1S99; Dr. Hans Lichtenfelt 

Modern Exlibris 



By Bemhard Wenig {1899). 

8onn), 1900;' Dr. Louis Merck (Darmstadt), 

!)00, etching. 

"iTANCE: Walter W. Sturtzkopf(t). well-known 
inter of horses and wild animals ; six charming 
te reproductions in E. L. Z. vii. 136-138 ; \iii. 18: ix. 11. 

422 German Book-plates 

exlibris, with landscapes, castles, and arms ; ^ that 
of the ** Brunegger Bibliothek," with view of 
the Abbey of Brunegg, Switzerland, now in the 
possession of Dr. Binswanger (Constance), 1897, 
is here reproduced. 

St. Legnhardt (Alsace) : Karl SpindUr^ an excel- 
lent illustrator, who often works in the manner 
of Sattler ; four exlibris, of which those of the 
Municipal Art Gallery at Strassburg, 1895; 
Moritz Himly (Strassburg), 1895 • ^^^ Albat 
Rieder, engineer (Miilhausen, Alsace) 1899, are 
worthy of special praise. 

Mainz: Bruno Panitz, teacher in the Technical 
School ; exlibris of Rudolf Opfermann (Mainz), 

Clemens Kissel \^ forty-seven exlibris of varied 
character, with figures, arms, landscapes, and 
interiors ; we may mention his own, with the 
arms of Hesse, 1896 ; Dr. K. G. Bockenheimer 
(Mainz), 1890, here reproduced (p. 424) ; John 
Morgan (Aberdeen), 1896 ; Alphons von Steiger 
(Kolmar), 1894 ; Fritz Mouths ( Ruttenscheid, 
Essen), 1896; and Otto von Brentano-Tremezzo 
(Offenbach-on-Main), 1897. 

Leipzig : Max Klinger, Professor, painter, etcher, 
and sculptor ; ^ one of the most original, versa- 
tile, and imaginative artists of the present day, 

* See E. L. Z. ix. 73-76. 

" A volume containing twenty-five of his exlibris was pub- 
lished by J. A. Stargardt, Berlin, 1894. 

^ See article on his exlibris, with complete list (exclusive of 
two plates executed since) and two illustrations, in E. L. Z. 
vii. 15-19. 



By W. W. Siurizk(.pr(i897). 

1 beyond doubt the greatest master of book- 
late design now living, either in Germany or 
Bsewhere. His ten exlibris. all etchings, may 

Modern Exlibris 425 

instead of lance, in front of a lamp and retorts, 
and the monogram H. K. below. Two exlibris 
of Fritz Gurlitt, fine art dealer to the Court 
(Berlin), 1887 : (1) a naked man among rocks on 
the seashore, walking towards a castle, and a 
naked female figure standing on a globe in the 
sea holding a trident ; ' the allegory- denotes the 
steadfast progress forward, in spile of tempta- 
tion, the woman representing Art ; (2) two naked 
female figures, with colonnade and water, and 
above, a caryatid with mask ; symbolism : in Art 
as in Nature, the mature is the most beautiful. 
Exlibris of Dr. W, Bode, Privy Councillor. 
Director of the Picture Gallery (Berlin), 1894;* 
a man carrying three women, in classical, re- 
naissance, and modern costumes, through water, 
landscape in the background ; symbolism : a 
Herculean representative of art-history — a refer- 
ence to Dr. Bode's position — -carries the repre- 
sentatives of the three chief epochs in the history 
of art through the mire of the barbarous and de- 
based age. Musical Library of Peters ( Leipzig), 
1S96, portrait of Beethoven.'' Max Klinger's 
own exlibris, 1896, perhaps his best, here repro- 
duced (p. 427); a naked female figure, with sea, 
rocks, etc., in the background : this plate shows 
the artist's love for the classical representation of 
Nature and of the perfect human form. Reinhold 

' Reproduced in "The Studio," winter number, 1898-9, 
p. 66. 

' Impression from the original plate in E. L. Z. vii. 18. 

I' Reproduced in "The Studio," winter number, 189S-9, 
p. 64. 


German Book-plates 

Richter (Wannsee. Berlin), 1898; young man, 
naked, on the seashore, with book. Frau Elsa 
Asenijeff-Nestoroff. authoress (Leipzig), 1899: 
on the seashore, with distant view of moun- 
tains, a naked woman, who is setting her knee 
on a man's neck, a symbol of all-conquering 
Otto Greiner (now in Rome) ; an artist who in 
his noble paintings, as well as his exlibris de- 
signs, is nearly allied to Klinger, to whom, in- 
deed, he approaches in excellence ; he has pro- 
duced five exlibris (four lithographs and om- 
ctching) in the antique style and of a beaulifui 
classical character, which are to be found in ven 
few exlibris collections ; two exlibris of Wilhelni 
Weigand, author (Munich), 1S95, one represent- 
ing the battle of the Titans.^ the other, Athene 
springing from the head of Zeus ; Dr. Fau! 
Hartwig, of the German Archaeological Institun- 
(Rome). 1895. the owner occupied in repairing a 
Greek vase, and above, two symbolical figures 
representing the aesthetic and joyous sides ol 
Hellenism holding up the perfect vase;* Dr. 
Wolfgang Erhardt, physician to the German 
Embassy in Rome. tSgg. with an allegorical 
representation of his motto, " Non frangor." 
here reproduced (p. 428); Marianne Brockhau<i 
(Leipzig). 1899, a female figure reposing and 
dreaming, in a rose-border with fauns. 

' Reproduced in "Zeitschrifl fiir Biicherfreunde," iv. p.jfi^. 
■ Reproduced in "The Studio," winter number, 1S98-9 

p. 64. 

' Ihid., p. 66. 

P^^B^I ^M 


H By himself (1896), 


Modern Exlibris 


mention, besides her own, 1896 and 1898. and 
that of Ludwig Volkmann (Leipzig). 1894, the 
exlibris of Prince Otto Bismarck, which was 
placed in a number of books presented to the 

Uy Hermann Feldmann. 

Prince on his eightieth birthday in 1S95 by the 
Booksellers' Association in Leipzig (reproduced 
in Part ii. 7) ; the exlibris of her husband, Kon- 
rad Burger, librarian (Leipzig), 1S98, is here 
reproduced (p. 430). 


German Book-plates 

John Jack Vrieslander; ten exlibris, among t) 
two original modern coloured plates of 
Hans H. Ewers, author (Dusseldorf),and Mrs. 
Georgia M. Ovington (Diisseldorf), 1900, as 
well as some humorous exlibris. 
Richard Grimm ; three good modern exlibris, 
Weimar : Giulio Aristide Sariorio, Professor (no' 
in Rome) ; two exlibris for himself,' and one for 


By Una Burger [ 1 89S). 

Onorato Carlandi, 1895 and 1899, two of which 

are etchings. 
Georg Heil: exlibris of Thomas Ewing Moo« 

American Consul at Weimar, 1896. 
Austria: Vienna: William Ungcr, Professod 

the well-known etcher; a good and appropriate 

exlibris of Hugo Thimig, of the Court Theatre' 

' One is reproduced in " Dekorative Kunst," June, 

Modern Exlibris 

circa 1898; etching, with rolls, music, wooden 
sword, etc. 

Alfred Cossmann, pupil of linger ; exlibris of 
Nicolaus Dumba, Privy Councillor, a well- 
known patron of the arts ft 1900); etching. 

Hshowing the Parliament House in Vienna, with 

^K Genius laying a laurel wreath before a bust of 


Koloman Moser, Professor ; exlibris of Fritz and 
Grete Schwartz (Munich). 1900. 

Hans Mac/it, Professor; exlibris of Josef Lewin- 
sky, the famous tragedian of the Court Theatre. 
1 892 ; mask, laurel, the three rings from Lessing's 
" Nathan der Weise," and crown in architectural 

Anton Kaiser; two very fine etchings, the exlibris 
of Dr. Karl Becher (Karlsbad). 1900. being 
especially good, 

Felicien Baron Myrbach, Director of the Industrial 
Art School (Vienna) ; exlibris of the Theresian 
Military Academy (Wiener-Neustadt), 1900. 

Marianne Schreder; seven exlibris, of which we 
may mention those of Wilhelm Hegeler (Ha- 
lensee), 1899 ; Ethel GiUmor (Cresion, Iowa), 
1899; Berthe Jouvin (Paris), 1899; and Abbie 
Margaret Strong (St. Paul), 1900 

Graz: Da.niel/'(77i/w-r/; thecharmingexlibris, here 
reproduced (p. 432), of Dr. Hanns Lbschnigg 
(Graz), 1898, with the allegorical figure of Ro- 
mance, the heraldic panther of Slyrla, the owl. 
representative of learning, the clock tower of 
Graz, the snake of /Esculapius and bowl, as 
' Reproducfd In E. l- Z. x. 52. 



German Book-plates 

symbols of the medical profession, and a ~|| 
gra figure, for art-history. 


By Daniel Pauluz 

Prague; Emil Or/ZX- (at the present time in Japa 
twenty-four exlibris, mostly in modern style, v 


Modern Exlibris 


inal and clever ideas; two etchings, the 
minder coloured lithographs. The follow- 
'may be mentioned: his own, a humorous 
b. 1897: Dr. Anton Wiilfler (Prague), 1898: 

tesor E. Zaufal, 1S98 ; Dr. Hugo Sahis, 
fc (Prague), 189S -. Rainer M. Rilke, poet 
kmargendorf, Berlin), 1S9;, here reproduced; 
b Erich Hartleben. author (Berlin). 1898 ; 

434 German Book-plates 

Professor Max Lehrs (Dresden), 1899; andL>^ 
Hans W. Singer (Dresden), 1899.^ 

Karel Hlavdtek (t) ; six strange exlibris. 

Wm^o Steinevy ei^ht modern exlibris. 

Foreign Countries : Rome : Otto Greiner. Se^ 
above, under Leipzig. 

Venice: Michelangelo Guggen/ietmer ] twoexlibri-^ 
of Ludwigand Valerie Brettauer (Trieste), 189 

Paris : Edgar Walther, an American sculptor 
exlibris of Elsa Rau, pianist (Berlin), 1900. 

Aglaiis Bouvenne (Paris), Claude E. Thitrr^ 
(Nancy), and Gaston Save (St. Di^) have a^-J 
designed exlibris for Arthur Benoit (t) (Bet"— 
thelmingen, German Lorraine), those by th^ 
two former being etchings, 1883, 1884. 

Brussels : Fernand Khnopff\ exlibris M. v. 
B(6hn) (Munich), 1896, woman sface in acircle. 

Georges Lemmen ; three exlibris of Harry Graf 
Kessler (Berlin), 1899. 

London : Reinhold Thiele, painter and illustrator, 
who represented ** The Graphic " in the Boer 
War; exlibrisof Georg Pflumer(Hameln), 1894, 
interior with view of *' Hamelin town." 

Charles W. S her born, the most famous of English 
book-plate engravers, whose work is strongly 
reminiscent of the German little masters: among 
his innumerable exlibris are those of the Duke 
and Duchess of Teck (White Lodge), 1890 and 
1896, which ought, perhaps, to be mentioned 
here, and also one of Curt and Lilli Sobernheim 
(Berlin), 1894. 

^ Two plates reproduced in " Ver Sacrum," ii. 9 ; one in 
** Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde," iv. 10, 11. 

Modern Exlibris 435 

Edinburgh : Joseph W. Simpson ; exlibris of Karl 
Emich Count zu Leiningen-Westerburg, 1898, 
with St. Catherine, the patron saint of litera- 

Amateur designers : 

Germany : Munich : Irene Freiin Reichlin- 
Meldegg, Mistress of the Robes (retired). 

Berlin : Johann Joachim Hildebrandty son of Pro- 
fessor Hildebrandt, a clever young artist; six 

\^2\\}c\^x Bddeker, bookseller (from Danzig) ; eight 
modern exlibris. 

Stuttgart : Karl Rosjier, editor of " Die Garten- 
laube " ; two exlibris for himself. 

Darmstadt : Prince Louis of Battenberg, Colonel 
in the Hessian army and Captain in the English 
navy ; five exlibris, viz. : Prince and Princess 
Henry of Prussia, his own, Princess Victoria of 
Battenberg, and Princess Beatrice of Batten- 

Alexander von Frankenberg-Ludwigsdorfy Cham- 

Heinrich Freiherr von Senarclens-Grancy , 

Hamburg : Eduard Lorenz Meyer ^ already men- 
tioned among the heraldic designers (pp. 380, 
382), but must also be included here for his 
original and mostly pleasing floral, musical, and 
ladies' plates in the modern style ; thirty-six 
exlibris, mostly lithographs, in one or more 
colours, of which the following may be named : 

' See illustrations of his work in E. L. Z. viii. 99-101 ; ix. 
15, 20, 21. 

436 German Bookplates 

Alice Meyer (Hamburg), 1895, reproduced in 
Part 1 1, (p. 479) ; Magd^ena Merck (Hamburg), 
1895; Meta Baur (Hamburg), 1895; Mary 
Reincke (Hamburg), 1896; Lili Merck (Ham- 
burg), 1897; Magda Countess zu Leiningen- 
Westerburg(Neupasing, Munich), 1895. These 
five plates with flowers, music» and arms. 
Another plate of the last-named, 1896, is here 
reproduced (p. 437). Elsa von Ohlendorff 
(Hamburg), 1898, with holly; Anita Brockmann 
(Bangkok), 1898, with the Wat Chang temple 
in Bangkok ; Marie Wormann (Hamburg), 1899, 
with palm-tree and the ship " Marie Wormann" 
ofT Zanzibar. 

Frau Amalie Engel (nie Reimers) ; eleven woodcut 
exlibris, of which those of the Johanneum in 
Hamburg, 1894, and Ernst Rose (Bergedorfl, 
1895, are especially good. 

Frau Dr. Olga Schramm {nie 0*Swald) ; three ex- 
libris, of which that of Theo. Behrens (Ham- 
burg), 1895, flowers and view of Hamburg, is 
very good. 

FrauToni O' Swald {n£eW?i^^x)\ exlibris of Alfred 
O'Swald (Hamburg), 1895, with ^^^ factory in 
Zanzibar; exlibris of Maggie Haller (Ham- 
burg), 1899. 

Frau Anna Harriet Kan^iengiesser {nfe Sauber) ; 
four exlibris, among them one of Eduard 
Kannengiesser, district judge (Hamburg), 1896. 
interior with view of scenery. 

DocKENHUDEN, near Blankenese : Robert Wege- 
"^ler ; a very pretty exlibris Wegener, 1 899, with 

Modern Exlibris 


Hachenburg : Alexander Count von Hachmburg. 

Strassbukg (Alsace) ; Rerroff, pseudonym of Dr. 
Robert Forrer, archaeologist : twelve exlibris, 
mostly in the old style ; among them a dedication 
book-plate {not used) for Prince Otto Bismarck, 
|8g8, fist with sword, arms and ink-pot, and an 




By E. L. Meyer (1896). 

exlibris of the Convent of St. Odilia (Alsace). 

1898. with St. Odilia and the Odilienberg. 
Paul Reibtr; his own exlibris and that of his 

father Ferdinand ; two etchings, 1900 and 1S79, 

with the Cathedral of Strassburg. 
ScHWERtN : Frau Elisabeth von Biiioiv (n^e Schar- 
Uach) ; six exlibris. 

438 German Book-plates 

Austria : Vienna : Emil Hutter, liquidator (t) ; 

two etched plates : his own, 1872, and that of 

Julius Kaschnitz Edler von Weinberg (Vienna). 

Viktor Christ, member of the Orchestra of the 

Court Theatre ; four well-drawn exlibris. 
Dr. Hans Przibram ; four good exlibris. 
DoBLiNG (Vienna) : Moritz von WeittenhilUr, Privy 

Councillor, Chancellor of the Teutonic Order: 

thirteen exlibris, of which nine are etchings 

(four still unfinished). 
Stockerau (Vienna) : Frau Ernestine Countess von 

Coudenhove {n£e Countess Breuner) ; two exlibris 

of Princess Eleonore Auersperg (Goldegg), 

Wiener-Neustadt : Eduiard von Zamdaur, Cz^- 

tain, Professor in the Military Academy ; his 

own exlibris, with quotation from the Koran in 

Arabic characters, 1900. 
Erlaa: Friederike von Oldenburg, Countess von 

Welsberg ; exlibris of her mother, Nathalie, 

Duchess of Oldenburg. 
Foreign Countries: Hollingbourne (Kent): 

Major E. Bengough Ricketts; besides numerous 

English plates, four exlibris for the author. 


b. Unsigned Exlibris, 

Of other and unsigned plates the following may 
be noted : 

Frau Dr. Helene Zorn (Heidelberg), 1898 ; a 

Modern lixlibris 439 

collotype reproduction of the well-known picture 
by Arnold Bocklin, ** Poetry and Painting." 

Ludwig August Reuling, inspector (Munich), 
1898 and 1 90 1, two portrait-exlibris. 

Dr. Adolf Magnus-Levy (Berlin), 1894, ^vith re- 
production of Michelangelo's ** Prophet Zacha- 
rias '* from the Sistine Chapel at Rome. 

Dr. Salomon Fuld, Councillor of Justice (Frank- 
furt-on-Main), 1895, ^^^ a reproduction of 
Raphael's frescoes in the Camera della Segna- 
tura in the Vatican. 

Martin Schwarzschild(Frankfurt-on-Main), 1896, 

Dr. E. Schneegans (Heidelberg), circa 1895, with 
the standard of Strassburg. 

Royal National Gallery (Berlin), 1895. 

Anton Einsle, bookseller and composer (Vienna), 
circa 1885, harp and music. 

Dr. A. Kornfeld (Vienna), circa 1890, with 
Murillo's head of Justina (Vienna). 

Georg Eckl, bibliophile (Vienna), circa 1898, two 

(C) Typographical Labels. 

As this form of book-plate has no artistic or 
pictorial interest, it will be sufficient to note that 
the custom of printing the owner's name and rank 
only on a label to be fastened in his books still 
survives, either from motives of economy, or be- 
cause the owner does not feel the need of decorat- 
ing his volumes as well as insuring their safety. 
Public libraries, if they do not employ a coloured 


German Book-plates 

stamp, are especially given to the use of i 
tasteless typographical book-plates. None of i 
labels of this period are worthy of mention. Tlj 
mostly contain the inscription alone, though s 
have a simple border, or at best a cartouche, o^ 
wreath of laurels. 




E have hitherto considered exilbris with 
reference to periods and style. The 
material, however, admits of further 
subdivision, into special classes. In- 
deed many collectors make a speciality of one or 
other of these classes, and admit only plates be- 
longing to them into their collections. 

Many of the exlibris in question have already 
been described, and in the present chapter the 
subject need only be briefly dealt with, especially 
as the headings of the sections in most cases 
explain themselves. 

{[) Double Exlibris. 

These were used only in early times, and, when 
not belonging to a married couple, were the result 
of the owner's desire to make his volumes doubly 
secure. They are generally found inside the front 
and back covers of the book, e.^., a portrait-plate 

442 German Book-plates 

in front and an armorial at the back, or vice versa ; 
an example in the Royal Library at Munich shows 
that they were sometimes engraved on one wood- 
block, and cut up after printing. 

The custom of using a double exlibris never 
came into general use, and a few examples only 
need be mentioned here : 

Melchior Schneider and Frau Barbara, nle Schoner (Augs- 
burg), married in 1514;^ two coloured armorial wood- 
cuts, both turned towards the contents of the book. 

Dr. Sixtus Kapsser^ physician of Duke Albrecht V. of 
Bavaria, 1560 (hitherto wrongly ascribed to S. Kercher), 
woodcuts, portrait and arms (reproduced above, pp. 50- 

Dr. P>anz Pfeily Town Syndic (Hamburg and Magdeburg), 

1564, woodcuts, portrait and arms.' 
Magister Hieronymus IVolf^ Doctor of Theology, Rector and 

Town Librarian of Augsburg, 1574, woodcuts, portraii 

and arms.' 
Johann Schwanberg^ pastor (Frank furt-on-Main), 1580, 

copperplates, portrait and arms.* 
John Frederick the Magnanimous, Elector of Saxony^ and his 

Consort, Sibylla of Jiilich-Cleves, 15 . . ; two portraits with 

Michael Aschettbrenner^ court apothecary, and master of the 

mint, and Frau Christiana, nee Musculus (Berlin), 1588. 

armorial woodcuts." 
Kempter von Rietburg (Tyrol), circa 1650 ; two armorial 

woodcuts, almost identical.' 
Johann Baptist Gadner, Presbyter (Bavaria), 17 . ., copper- 
plates, armorial and typographical.* 

^ Burger, " Leipziger Exlibris-Sammlung," pi. 5. 

- Ibid., pi. 25. ' E. L. Z. iv. 46. * Burger, pi. 3;. 

' Lempertz, " Bilderhefte," Exlibris, V. Plate A. 

" Ibid., iv. pi. 4-5. ' E. L. Z. vi. 115 ; see also vii. 32. 

** Seyler, " Exlibris-Taschenbuch," p. 41. 

Memorial Exlibris 443 

Married people, or owners of several book-plates, at the 
present day might easily follow this custom, by placing 
one exlibris at the beginning and another at the end of 
their books. 

(2) Memorial and Gift Exlibris. 

Memorial plates are those which, by inscription, 
arms or portrait, are intended to perpetuate the 
memory of the previous possessor or the be- 
queather of a library ; in the same way gift-plates 
commemorate the donor. On such book-plates 
the inscriptions usually record the history of the 
acquisition of the volumes, and in some cases 
the plates come also under the heading of historical 
exlibris (see 4). 

The following examples may be given : 

Two of the College of St, Nicholas in Vienna^ for the volumes 
bequeathed by Bishop Johann Faber of Vienna, 1540 ; * the 
exlibris of the gift of the Archbishop of Mainz^ Daniel 
Brendei VON Hohenburgy to t\iQ/esuiis ^il/a/«2, 1555, 1558,^* 
1570, armorial ; and that of the Abbof ofFulda^ Balthasar 
von Dernbach^ to the Jesuits ofFulda^i^i'^^ i574> armorial ; 
Markus Swyn^ Governor of North Dithmarsch, in 1582 
presented his library to the parish church of Lunden^ as 
is recorded on the exlibris ; ' the Monastery of the Holy 
Cross, Augsburg, inherited in 1588 over 1,000 volumes, as 
well as mathematical instruments, from Wolfgang Andreas 
Rem von Ketz, Provost of Augsburg ; Library of the 
Church of St. Maria Magdalene, Breslau, gift-plate of 
citizens of Breslau, 1579, inscription with housmark, hand- 
painted ; * two exlibris of the Library of the Clergy-house of 
St. Lawrence, Nuremberg, 1 6 1 8 and circa 1 7 1 8, which record 
the foundation of the library by Johann Vennitzer, portrait- 

^ Warnecke, p. 6, and Seyler, p. 36. ^ E. L. Z. vii. 80. 

' Ibid., iv. 82. * Ibid., vi. 14, 26. 

444 German Book-plates 

plates ; * University of Marburg^ foundation of the Chan- 
cellor, Johann Georg Estor^ 1768, two copperplates, arms 
on pediment ; Teutonic Order^ Vienna^ presentation of the 
High Master, Archduke Eugen of Austria^ 1898, arms of 
the Order, with inscription; etc. 

(3) Complimentary Exlibris. 

Under this heading are included complimentan* 
exlibris presented to an institution or to a private 
book-collector by the artist or a friend ; e.g,, the 
exlibris of the Historical Society of the Palatinate, 
by Professor Hildebrandt (see p. 465) ; another 
example is the exlibris designed by August 
von Heyden (Berlin) and presented to the 25th 
Hessian Field Artillery Regiment by Colonel von 
Prittwitz, 1886. The number of such plates is 

(4) Historical Exlibris. 

These also are not numerous, but among them 
are some very interesting plates. This class in- 
cludes exlibris which commemorate by their in- 
scriptions a historical event with which the libran' 
is intimately connected. In the earlier examples 
the event is always of a military nature ; some of 
them are also memorial plates. Among historical 
exlibris the following may be named : 

a. Exlibris of the Bihliotheca Palatina (Heidelberg and 
Rome), copperplate in two sizes, by Raphael Sadekr 
(Munich), 1623, here reproduced. After the capture oi 

^ See pp. 166, 195, 471; also E. L. Z. i. No. 1, p. 8: ii. 
No. 4, p. 24. 

am dc Bibliotheca, quam Heidelberga 

capta,SpolJum fecit, & 

P M. 


trophaeum misit. 
iMaxirnilianus Vtriusqi Bauaria; Dux Sec, 
I S. R.I .Archidapifet^ct Princeps Elector. 

446 Gennan Book-plates 

Heidelberg by the Army of the League under Tilly in 
1622, the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria presented the 
valuable library of Heidelberg (then worth 80,000 crowns, 
and containing, among other treasures, 3,500 manuscripts) 
to Pope Gregory XV., and had this exlibris engraved and 
fastened in the volumes. The whole library was then 
packed in 196 cases and taken on the backs of mules 
across the Alps to Rome. The greater portion still 
remains in the Vatican, only a fraction having been re 
turned to Heidelberg in 181 5. This may be coupled 
with Durer's exlibris of Willibald Pirckheimer, as the most 
interesting book-plates extant^ 

b. Wurzburg^ Jesuit^ College^ 1634 ; typographical, four 
varieties of size and print (see above, p. 341).^ 

c, Johann Karl Wilhelm Mohsen^ court physician, numisma- 
tist (Berlin), 1757; one of his two plates, by Gericke, 
commemorating the burning and reinstatement of his 
library (see p. 277).' This plate evidently served as a 
pattern for the following. 

d^ e. Two exlibris of Johann Georg Heinrich Oelrichs^ rector 
of Kiistrin and prorector of Berlin (one engraved by 
Glassbach), showing the destruction of his library during 
the bombardment of Kiistrin by the Prussians in 1758. 
and its re-establishment in Berlin, 1759 (see p. 277).* 

/ Prince and Princess William of Prussia (now German 
Emperor and Empress) ; exlibris presented, on their 
marriage in 1881, by the Corporation of Booksellers of 
Berlin, designed by E. Doepler, junior ; angel holding 

g. Exlibris of the late Grand Diuhess Sofie of Saxony ini's 
Princess of the Netherlands), designed by Karl Teskt 
(Schwerin) to commemorate her golden wedding, Ociolxr 
8th, 1892 ; lithograph in gray and gold ; arms, portraits of 
Goethe and Schiller, and date of the golden wedding. 

h. l^xlibris of Marie Gabriele, Princess Ruprecht of Bavaria 

^ See further, for the history of this plate, E. L. Z. ii. No. 4, 
p. 12. 

''- IMd., vi. Ill, 112. * Von Heinemann, pi. 139. 

* Warnecke, pi. xix. * Jbid,y pi. xxv. 

Historical Exlibris 


I bad 

[«& Duchess of Bavaria), on her marriage, July lolh, 
1900 ; designed by Anna May (Munich) ; on a plinth 
ilh iDScription and two Bavarian coats of arms, a female 
'ith pen, surrounded with roses, in front of two 
crowned with bowls of fire, 
".rnst Gptt, factory owner. Captain of Land w eh r (Leipzig), 
himself, 1895 ; with motive from Beethoven, figure of 
:the, and letter of Bismarck (a reference 10 the three 
test Germans of the nineteenth century, whose works 
represented in his library), and also the last verse of 
le inscription on the war-monument at Leipzig, which 
composed by Ernst Got/.' 
Lothar Buderus von Carlshamen, Captain of Horse in the 
Army of U'iintemberg (Stuttgart), 1897, in memory of the 
German centenary celebration of the bir[h of the Emperor 
William the Great, with his portrait after I-'ranz von l^n- 
bach, by Gustav Alms (Ditsseldorf).' 
Three exlibris of the " Kaistr-Wilhelm-Dank, Verein 
Soldatenfreunde" (Berlin), 1898 and 1899 ; the first (/) 
a German knight ; the second (wi), a portrait of the 
Emperor William I., a German knightand (iermania ; and 
the third (n), a portrait of the Emperor William 1 1. ; (/), the 
first Colonial exlibris, is for the library of the German 
garrison at Kiautschou, and has a sentence from a speech 
delivered by the Emperor, December 16th, 1897 ; (n) is 
"for the " Kaiser biicherei," the library founded by German 
lublishers in honour of the tenth year of the Emperor's 
■_ • The figures of the knights in (/) and (m) are from 
sketches by his Majesty. 
Exlibris of the Kiautschou Library^ the sdvitd Colonial 
exlibris, 1898, presented by the Kiautschou Library-Com- 
mittee in Berlin for the library of the Artillery head- 
qu&rters at Tsintau ; ship with inscription.* 
The following, though not, strictly speaking, a German ex- 
libris, is nevertheless worthy of mention here from its 
expression of loyal devotion to the mother-country, and 
I from the arms represented : exlibris of the Historical Sodety 

' E. L. Z. ' 
' nid., ix. 

' Hid., xi. I. 
' Jl>id., ix. 50-53. 


448 German Book-plates 

of the Reformed Church in the United States of Am 
(l^ncaster, Penna.), 1881. This plate, which comes 
a republican country, bears the arms of the Elector ] 
tine, Frederick III., 1563; the founders of the See 
mostly emigrants from the old Palatinate (which i 
prised tlie Bavarian Palatinate of the Rhine and the 1 
tory of Heidelberg), chose for their exlibris the arms 01 
Elector who had been in favour of the Reformation, 
had been instrumental in introducing Calvinism into 
Palatinate; the date on the inscription, 1563, refers tc 
promulgation of the Heidelberg Catechism. The s 
arrangement of the three shields of the Palatinate, Bav 
and Spanheim is often found on seals of the Palatii 
and may be seen also on the Castle of Heidelberg.* 

(5) Exlibris of the " Reichsritterschaft 

The German Knights of the Empire consis 
of those nobles who held their titles immedial 
from the Emperor, yet had no seat or vote in 
Reichstag, as had other '* immediate " nob 
Under the Emperor Maximilian II. these Knig 
of the Empire formed themselves into a cl 
society called the ** Reichsritterschaft/* which ' 
divided into the Circles of Franconia, Suabia, 
the Rhine. Each of these Circles was again s 
divided in fifteen '* Cantons.'' The Reichsrit 
schaft came to an end with the mediatizatior 
the nobles in 1 806. 

At the headquarters of some of the Cant 
libraries were formed, of which the following 

a. Odenivald (Ottenwald) ; imperial eagle with shield, w 

' E. L. Z. iii. 7. 

bxtit/ris of Sovereigns and Princes 449 

horst- in front of trees, the whole surrounded by the in- 
scription ; three varieties. 
[ A Steigerwald ; springing unicorn in front of trees, in rococo 
■. Suabia (.\llgau. Hijgau, Bodensee); imperial eagle with 
shield ; falcon with sceptre, and fish with sword. 
I i. Brtisgau (Anterior Austria) ; St. George and the dragon, 
in rich cartouche. 
■- Centra! Rhine \ arms between branches of laurel and palm. 
' / Upper Rhine (Orttenau); imperial eagle with shield and 
St. George and the dragon. 
All these are copperplates of the eighteenth century. 

(6) ExLiBRis OK Sovereigns and Princes. 

A considerable number of exlibris of German 
rinces exist ; but they are not, as a rule, easily 
ocurable. and are not to be found in every col- 
iction. The following are plates belonging to 
■embers of reigning sovereign houses : where no 
her description is given, the designs are mainly 

t. German Empire : 

Wiliiam II., German Emperor^ R'ing "/ Prussia, by Emil 
Doepler, junior (1896), here reproduced (p. 451): the 
impt;rial arms with the high Order of the Black Eagle, and 
a •' W " formed of books (two sizes). 

Auguste Vicloria, German Empress, Queen of Prussia {nfe 
Princess of Schieswig-Holstein) : two exlibris: (i) by 
Georg Otto, 1893, angel holding shields;' and (i) by 
Josef SatEler, 1896, arms on a cross (two sizes). 

Frederick III., German Emperor, King uf Prussia, while 
Crown Prince ; the letter " F" with the German Crown 
Pnnce's crown and inscription, circa 1880. 

I'ictoria, German Empress, Dowager Empress Frederick : two 

E. !.. Z. i 

8-63. 81-86. 

= ////</.. ii 


450 German Book-plates 

exlibris : ( i ) as Princess Royal of Great Britain and Ireland, 
circa 1857, "V" with crown; (2) as Dowager Empress,by 
Josef Sattler, armorial, 1897 (two sizes). 

If, Prussia : 

A Margrave of Brandenburg, 15 . .» after Albrecht Diirei. 

John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania, 1596. 

Prince and Princess William of Prussia (see above, p. 446).' 

Prmcess William {nie Princess of Schleswig-Holstein), 18S1; 
angel with shields. 

Prince Henry, Vice- Admiral, 1896; Prussian eagle inquatre- 
foil ; designed by Prince Louis of Battenberg. 

Princess Irene {nie Princess of Hesse), 1896; Prussian eagle 
and Hessian lion ; designed by Prince Louis of Batten- 

Prince Joachim Albrecht, 1899. 

Prince Adalbert, Admiral, 18 . . ; typographical, ¥rith crown. 

Prince Adalbert, Prince August William and Prince Oscar, 
sons of the Emperor William II., 1900. 

c. Bavaria : 

Wolfgang, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Veldenz, Duke 

of Bavaria, 1559, by Virgil Solis (see above, p. 119). 
Library of the Dukes of Bavaria, 16 18, in numerous 

Duke Albrecht Sigismund, Bishop of Freising and Regens- 

burg, 1650. 
Duke Max Philipp and his consort Maria Pebronia {nee I)e la 

Tour d'Auvergne), 1670. 
Duke Max Heinrich, Elector- Archbishop of Cologne, 16 . . 
Duke Josef Klemens, Elector-Archbishop of Cologne, circa 

1715 ; two plates (see above, pp. 334, 335). 
Maria Anna Karoline, Countess Palatine of the Rhine, 

Duchess of Bavaria, circa 1718. 
Duke Johann Theodor, Bishop of Freising, 1727. 
Karl Philipp, Elector Palatine, 1726.' 

^ Warnecke, pi. xxv. 

- See above, pp. 161, 175-176, 184, and Von Heinemann, 
pi. 74. 

^ E. L. Z. iii. 59. 

Exlibris of Sovereigns and Princes 45 1 

i>e Electress Maria Anna (f^t Princess of Poiand), circa 

1770 ; two plates. 

Wee Klemens August, Elector-Archbishop of Cologne, 
1760, one of the most wealthy princes of his time, fond 
of display, and conspicuous for his love of hunting and 


By E. Doepkr, junior (1896). 

■.travel ; exlibris engraved by his Councillor, Bartholonieus 
i'Heinrich de Brookes, 1760, here reproduced {p. 453); fol- 
flowing a custom originated by Louis XIV. of France, the 
"' roi soleil," it displays the initials surrounded by rays, as 
^though their owner, like the sun, cast a glory around hira. 
B-In the centre are the arms of theArchbishopric of Cologne, 
I «iid the four escutcheons at the sides are those of his Sees 

452 German Book-plates 

(of Hildesheim, Miinster, Paderborn, and Osnabriick, of 

which this Prince of the Church was also Bishop). 
Otto, Prince of Bavaria, King of Greece, circa i860 ; three 

varieties of colour. 
King Louis I. and King Louis II. ; two gift-plates, «>(ffl 1848 

and 1870; typographical. 
Prince- Regent Luitpold, circa 1890; typographical. 
Marie Gabriele, Princess Ruprecht, 1900 (see above, p. 446). 

d, Wiirttemberg \ 

Duke Karl Christian Erdmann, of Wiirttemberg- Oels, circa 

1780 ; two plates. 
Queen Olga (Russian Grand Duchess), 187 . ; monogram 

and crown. 
Duchess Vera (Russian Grand Duchess), 187 . ; monogram 

and crown. 
Duke Philipp, 1892. 
Prince August, Prussian Colonel General, 1 8 . . ; two plates, 

Duke Wilhelm von Urach, Count von Wiirttemberg, 1899. 
The exlibris of the Duke and Duchess of Teck, 1890 smd 

1 896, by C. W. Sherborn (see above, p. 434), may also be 

mentioned here. 

e. Saxony : 

Electress Magdalena Sibylla (nee Margravine of Branden- 
burg), r/><ra 1630; monogram.* 
Johann Ernst VIII., Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld, circa 1680: 

Sophie Hedwig, Consort of the foregoing (nee Duchess of 

Saxe-Merseburg), circa 1680 : monogram. 
Duke Ernst Eriedrich Karl of Saxe-Hildburghausen ; four 

exlibris, partly by Martin Tyroff, 17.. 
Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxe-Eisenach ; two exlibris, 

1722 * (see p. 203). 
Duchess Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Ciotha (nee Duchess of 

Saxe-Meiningen), circa 1760, with " F. R. (Fridericus 

Rex) Vivat." 

* E. L. Z. vi. 15. '^ Von Heinemann, pi. 126 

By B. H. de Brockes (1760). 

Duke Klemens Wenzel, Elector- Arch bishop of Trier, < 

King Frederick Augustus I., t8 . . 
King Frederick Augustus II., print collection, 18 . . 

454 German Book-plates 

Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, i8 . . 

Peter (Dom Pedro) Augustus, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-GotI 

circa 1892. 
Grand Duke Karl Alexander, Wart burg, Luther Libra 

1895, by Ad. M. Hildebrandt/ 
Grand Duchess Sofie (nee Princess of the Netherlands), i8< 

by Karl Teske (see above, p. 446). 
Duke Ernst of Saxe-Altenburg, 1887, by Ad. M. Hili 

Ducal Library at Coburg, Duke Alfred, 189 . ; two variet 

of colour and two of arms. 
Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, Prince of Bulgaria, 1 85 

six varieties of colour. * 

f. Baden : 

A Margrave, 17 . . 

Margravine Karoline Luise (tiee Landgravine of Hes 

Darmstadt), circa 1780; typographical. 
Margrave VVilhelm, 187 .; typographical. 

g, Meck/enburg'Schwerin : ^ 

Duke Ulrich ; six exlibris after Lucas Cranach the eld 

i559» i573» 1582, 1590- 
Duke Johann Albrecht IL, circa 1620. 

Duchess Luise Friederike {tiee Duchess of Wiirtteinber 

17 . . 
Grand Duke Friedrich Franz L, 18 16, by F. Rossmasler. 
Duke Friedrich, circa 1780 (Ludwigslust). 
Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IIL, 1894, by Karl Teske a 

W. Behrens. 
Duke Johann Albrecht, Regent ; two exlibris, by Ad. 

Hildebrandt, 1888, and Karl Teske, 1892. 
Hereditary Grand Duchess Auguste {nee Princess of Hes 

Homburg) (posthumous), 1898. 

h. Brunswick : 

Duke Ludwig Rudolf of Brunswick-Liineburg ; three 
libris, circa 1730. 

' E. L. Z. V. 119. 

^ Ibid., iv. 43 (printed from original plate). 
^ See K. Teske, " Das Mecklenburgische Wappen und < 
Exlibris," and E. L. Z. x. 4. 

Exlibris of Sovereigns and Princes 455 

Duchess Elisabeth Sofie Marie of Brunswick-Liineburg 
{nk Princess of Holstein-Norburg), circa 1760. 

Duke Karl of Brunswick-Liineburg, circa 1 760. 

Duke Karl and Duke August of Brunswick-Oels, 17.. 

Duke Friedrich August of Brunswick-Oels, 17 . . ; two sizes 
and numerous varieties of engraving and colour. 

Duke Friedrich Franz, 17 . . 

/ . Hesse : 

Landgrave Friedrich; two exlibris, circa 1795. 

Landgrave Karl, 17 . . 

Princess Luise, circa 1800. 

Landgrave Gustav Adolf (Homburg), while still Prince of 

Hesse, circa 1845. 
Grand Duchess Victoria Melita (nee Princess Victoria Melita 

of Edinburgh, afterwards of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), 1895, 

by Peter Halm (Munich). 
"Fiirstlich Battenbergsche Bibliothek," temporarily in the 

possession of Prince Alexander of Batten berg. Prince of 

Bulgaria, Count of Hartenau, 187 . ; seal-shaped. 
Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg, 189 . ; almost the 

same as the last-named. 
Victoria, Princess Louis of Battenberg («^tf Princess of Hesse), 

189 . . 
Prince Henry of Battenberg, 188 . . 
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg (nee Princess of Great 

Britain and Ireland), 189 . . 
Prince Henry of Hanau, 18 . . ; typographical. 
Princess of Hanau, 18 . . ; typographical. 

A\ Anhaii: 

Princess Henriette Katharina, 17 . .^ 

Elizabeth, Hereditary Princess Leopold (nee Princess of 
Hesse), 1898, by Georg Otto. 

/. Oldenburg: 

Natalie, Duchess of Oldenburg (nee Freiin Vogel von 
Friesenhof); designed by her daughter, Friederike of 
Oldenburg, Countess von Welsburg, 1 898 ; view of Castle 

^ Von Heinemann, pi. 117. 

456 German Book-plates 

m. SchUs%vig'Holstein : 

Duke Ferdinand Leopold, Dean of Breslau, circa 1690. 
Duke Friedrich Karl Ludwig of Holstein-Beck, circa i 
two exlihris. 

//. N^assau : 

Princely Library of Nassau-Dillenburg, 17 . . ; typograp] 

o. Austria : 

Kmpress Maria Anna {nee Duchess of Bavaria), 16 . . ; ni 

gram and crown. ^ 
Archduchess Elisabeth, circa 1770; rococo.* 
Archduke Max Franz, Elector-Archbishop of Cologne, 

1785, by Charles Dupuis (Cologne). 
Archduke Ferdinand, (irand Duke of Tuscany, Elect 

Salzburg ; three exlibris, circa 1803 (see above, p. 35 
Archduke Anton, circa 1834 ; monogram. 
Archduke Friedrich, circa 1840; typographical. 
Archduke Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, circa 1866. 
Archduke Rudolf, Crown Prince, 188 .; "R" with croi 
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Este, circa 1896. 
Archduke Leopold, 1 89 . . 
Archduke Eugen, 1899, by E. Krahl. 
We may mention also Sofie Albertine, Princess of Sw< 

circa 1825, as Abbess of Quedlinburg; armorial. 

Of the non-sovereign houses of the higher 
bility, oricrinally *' immediate" Princes and Coi 
of the Empire, exlibris exist of the following : 

Auersperg, Castell, Erbach, 1^'ugger, Harrach, Hohen! 
Isenburg, Khevenhiiller, Konigsegg, Leiningen, I^inir 
Westerburg,Oettingen, Rosenberg, Salm, Sayn-Wittgens 
Schlitz called V^onCort/, Schonborn, Schwarzenberg, S< 
Stolberg, Thurn und Taxis, Torring. 

(7) Exlibris of Famous or Wi:ll-kno\vn Peo] 

Many exlibris of well-known or historic 

' E. L. Z. iii. 76. 

- **Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde," iii. i. 24. 


458 Gerfnan Book-plates 

important people have already been mentioiK 
and without including the princes given in t 
preceding section, or attempting to give a compl< 
list of celebrities, the following may be named : 

Konrad Peutinger^ Doctor Juris, Imperial Councillor, s 
scholar (Augsburg), 1516; here reproduced (p. 457).* 

Sebastian von Rotenhan^ humanist (Wiirzburg), 15 . . ( 
above, p. 113). 

Hieronymus Baumgariner, jurist (Nuremberg), 153 . ( 
p. 116). 

Statesmen : Willibald Pirckheimer (Nuremberg), circa 151 
three exlibris (see pp. 104, 133); Christian £mst On 
zu Stolherg, 1721 ; Wilhelm von Humboidt^ savi 
(Berlin), 18 . . ; Otto Prince Bismarck^ German Impei 
Chancellor, three exlibris, of which one, by Frau U 
Burger, 1895 (see above, p. 429), is here reproduced; t 
oak and trefoil of the Bismarck arms are made use 
in the design ; Bismarck\s second exlibris, placed 
volumes presented by Paul Parey, publisher (Berli 
displays the coat of arms upon a prince's mantle, 188 
the third (not used) is by Dr. R. Forrer (see p. 437), 
fist with sword, shield, ink-stand and sun ; Philipp Prii 
(Count) zu Eulenburg^ (ierman Ambassador at Vieni 
1896, by J. Sattler. 

Historians : Wiguleus Htindt von Lauterpach^ Bavarian Clu 
cellor (Munich), 1556;'' Dr. W. Lazius (Vienna), i5< 
1560 ; Thomas Heinrich Gadebusch (Greifswald), 1770 (s 
p. 232); Heinrich Kohlrausch (Hanover), 18 . . ; Joha 
Daniel Sc/io/>flin (Strassburg), two exlibris, 1 7 . . (s 
p. 229) ; Dr. Johann Oustav Droysen (Berlin), 18 . . ; I 
Anton Schlossar (Graz), 1899. 

Ecclesiastics and Church Historians : Dr. Johann Afa 
called ^^/^ (Ingolstadt), 1518, 1522 (see pp. 123, 124); I 
Johann Marbach (Strassburg) ; ^ Karl Freiherr von D 
berg, Archbishop and last Elector of Mainz, Prince-Prims 
of the Confederation of the Rhine, Grand Duke of Frai 

^ E. L. Z. iv. 79, 80. - Ibid., ii. No. 3, pp. 8, 18 

^ Ibid., viii. 32. 

Rxlibris of IFeli-k/iown People 459 

t, area 1810-13 ; Karl August voti Hasc (Jena), 1873 ; 
Johann Josef Igna^ von Dollinger (Munich), 1866. 
' ■ ID Spiessfuiimr V Ciisfiiihin") (Vienna), cir^a 

■; OF ono I'HiN 
By Lina Burger (1S95). 

iO;' Johann Alexander Knf/ ('■'Br-assicanus") (Tiibin- 
and Vienna), cirra 1530; ' Ur. Th. Sebastian Linei 
;olstadl and freising), eirca 1540;' Sigtsmund von 

E. L. Z. ix. 74. 
■ Ibid., vii. 83. 

- //>id., iv. III. 
■/W.. iv. 113. 


German Book-plates 

Birken {" Floridan") (Nuremberg), circa 1670 (see p. 170); 
Nikolaus Count Zrinyi, Hungarian General and port. 
(Hungary), 1646; Johann VVilhelm i.udwig G/eim (Berlin), 
17 . .; August jfo« A'o/s^Auif (Mannheim), i8r .; Eduard 
Grisebach (Berlin), 1881; Rainer Maria Rilkf (Berlint, 
1897 (see p. 433) ; Otto Julius /(wriaifw (Munich), 1896; 
Wilhelm von Scholz (Munich), 1897 ; Eduard StueAtn 
(Berlin), 1899;' Oskar Wiener (Prague), 1900; Dr. 
Friedrich Ad/er (Prague), igoo; Dr. Hugo ^u/mj (Prague), 
1898; Jaroslav KTrMViir (Prague), 1900. 

Authors : Johann Fisehart, called MenHer (Strassbui^ and 
Forbach), 15 . .;" Johann Heinrich Formey (Berlin), 
17 . .; Johann Christof Goltsched and Luise Adelgunde 
Viktoria Goltsched (Leipzig) {see p. 253) ; Christof 
Friedrich Nieolai (Berlin), 17 . . ; David FriediitHder 
(Berlin), 17..; Paul lindau (Beriin), 1877: Dr. Mw 
ffalde (Munich), 1900 ; Otto Erich Hanlebeti (Berlin]) 
1898: Hermann Siidcrmann (Berlin), 1894; Dr. Oa» 
Braun (t) (Munich), 1895; Josef Lauff, Major (retired 
and dramatist (Wiesbaden), 1899; Heinz Tovott (Berlin 
1895 : LMCtmg Jaco/iowsky (t) (Berlin). 1897 ; Karl Bitai 
(Berlin), 1897; Hans MtiUer-Braae/ IZeven), area 1897J 
Peter Hubert Becker (Munich), 1899; Frau Dr. Anna 
S/iier (Frankfurt-on-Main), 1895 ; Dr. Hans Ewerv 
( Diisseldorf), 1900; Felix Zowie (Berlin), 1900; Hilde- 
gard Wtgscheider-Ziegler (Berlin), 1900 ; Arthur Hitlitaschtr 
(Munich), 1897; Alfred Heymel (Munich), 1899; Wolf 
Count Baudissin (Freiherr von Schlicht) (Dresden), 1900^ 
Felix Poppettberg (Chariottenburg). 1895; Dr. Hcrmana 
Oeser (Karlsruhe), 1900 ; Peter Hamecher (Lechenichji 
1 900 ; Oltomar Enkin^ (Wismar), 1 900 ; Richard Zeoamami 
(Beriin).i9oo; Dr. Rudolf ZoMrtr (Vienna), 1896; Gustv 
Baron Siiltmr (t) (Vienna), circa 1865 ; \VoIfgang vat, 
Wursbach (Vienna), 1900 ; Paul Leppin (Prague), 1900. 

Goethe-Scholars : Prof. Michael Bernays (t) (Karlsruhe] 
circa 189a \ Prof. Erich Schmidt (Berlin), 1896. 

Art-Historians : Gustav Friedrich Konstantin J^rlA 
(Beriin), 18 . . ; Jakob Heinrich von Hefner-Altem 

' Reproduced in E, L. Z. ; 

Exlibris of Public Libraries 46 1 

(Munich), 1891 (see p. 378) ; Ralf iw« Retbtrg-Wetlbergen 
(Munich), 18 . . ; Rudolf Count von SlWfriecl- Alcantara 
(Berlin), 1 8 . . ; Dr. Heinrich KcJtdebo von Kapti (Vienna), 
tirta 1880; Friedrich WarmckH,^vfi\n\ 187 .-188.; Pro- 
fessor Dr. Henry Tkodi (Heidelberg), 1895. 
vAittcts : Karl von Hcuieloff (Nuremberg and Hassfun), 
18..; Gabriel SeidI (Munich), 1880; Bemhard Sehring 
(Berlin), i8(j4; Heinrich Kronenberger (Munich), 1895, 

1899, 1900; Thcodor Fiuher (Munich), 1899; Max 
Osttnriedfr (Munich), 1900 ; Bodo Ebhardt (Clrunewald), 

1900, 1901; VtxiL Schumather(\/a^z\^, 1901. 

*tists: Sfbald^r^flM (Nuremberg and Frankfurl-on-Main), 
J544 (see p. 117); Joachim von Sandrart (Nuremberg), 
15 . . ; Georg Christian Kilian (Augsburg), 17 . . ; Daniel 
Chrdawieski (Berlin), 17 . . (see p. 255); Professor Max 
A'A'/(gif''(l.eipzig), 1896 (seep. 427); Professor Hans Tkoma 
(Karlsruhe), 1896; Ferdinand Count Harrack (Berlin). 
1S93; Stefan CnuCA, sculptor (Rome), 1897. 

following may also be mentioned: 

: philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (Frankfurl-on-Muin), 
8 . ■ ; ' Susanne Katharina von Kktlenlxrg (Goethe's 
"schone Seele," Fran kfurt-on- Main), 17 . .;' Kalhchen'fiie/'/ (Leipzig), {-/><-i7 1767 (see p. 250); the German isi 
Ind literary historian, Friedrich Zamcke (Leipzig), drta 
1875: the Orientalist. Dr. Wilhelm Geifnius (Halle), 
r8 . . ; the mineralogist, L. Riltingtr (Vienna), 18 . . ; 
Rudolf Eittlbtrger Ritttr von Edelberg, Professor and 
Director of the Austrian Museum of Art and Industry-, 
nt-critic and author (Vienna), 187 . ; and the composer, 
Hugo Wc^(Vienna), 1897, 

(8) Exlibris of Public Librariks. 

s a rule, public libraries in Germany and 

.ustria do not use a pictorial exlibris, but merely 

stamp with the name of the institution. A 

:rtain number of book-plates, however, belong- 



1S40: Kgl. ISil.lio 
18S6; Vcreiii Uerline 
189 . ; Reichsversiche 
1S93; Rdchspostamt, 
189,; Verein Herold, 
scher Graveur- Verein, 
1895 ; National-Galler 
1895; Jahn- Verein, i 
mersdorf, 1897 ; Gesd 
1900; BerlinerBau-und 

Munich: Hof- und Staats-! 
seventeenth to nineteen 
schaften, 1750, 1772 ; 
Kurpfalz-Bayrisches Gel 
Archiv, 188 . ; Stadtis. 
Sammlung, 188 . ; Kui 
Kabinet, 186 . ; Maximi 
189 . ; Malschule der Si 

Dresden: Kurfiirstliche ofi 
schule, 18 . . 

Frankfurt-on-Main : Mitti 
188 .; Stadtbibliothek, 
Bibliothek, 1897. 

Exlibris of Public Libraries 463 

Cassel'. Evangelischlutherisches Waisenhaus, 17 . . 

Halle \ VVaisenhausbibliothek, 17 . .; Studenten-Konvikt 
Tholuk, 1899; Kunstgewerbe-Verein, 1900. 

Frafikfurt'On-Oder \ Akademie, 16 . . 

Marburg'. University, 1768. 

Wernigerode \ Harzverein, 18 . . 

Hanover-. English Book-Society, r/nra 1820; Heraldischer 
Verein zum Kleeblatt, 1897. 

Liineburg'. Rathsbibliothek, circa 1570 and t6 . . 

Diisseldorf'. Kiinstler- Verein Malkasten, 1899. . 

Grei/sivald : Gemeinniitzige I^sebibliothek, 17..; Univer- 
sity, 188 . . 

Meldorf'. Museum Dithmarsischer Alterthiimer, 1901. 

Kiel: Deutscher Volksbund, 1896. 

Stralsund: Stadtbibliothek. 18 . . 

Danzig: Raths- und Senatsbibliothek, 16 . . and 17 . . 

Kimigsberg {Prussia) : Admiralitat und Licentkollegium, circa 
1726 (see p. 263). 

Augsburg: Stadtbibliothek, 1544, etc.; Akademie, 17 . . 

Nuremberg: Stadtbibliothek, 16 . .; Germanisches National- 
museum, 1898; Kiinstlerklause, 1897; Bibliothek der 
Albrecht-Diirer-Hausstiftung, 189 .. 

Neuburg'On-Donau : Stadtbibliothek, 188.. 

Kemp fen: Stadtbibliothek, 1880. 

Kaufbeuern : Stadtbibliothek, circa 1 740 ; Lesegesellschaft, 

Li?tdau: Stadtbibliothek, <7>m 1600. 

Eichstdtt : Kgl. Bibliothek, 1900. 

Nordlingen: Stadt- und Rathsbibliothek, 1602. 

Ansbach: Karl- Alexander-Gymnasium, 17 . . 

Erlangen : Bamberger Baderschule, 187 . ; University, 188 . . 

Spires : Historischer Verein der Pfalz, 1 893, here reproduced 
(p. 465) ; the shields of the German Empire, Bavaria, and 
the Palatinate, with Romanesque architectural design (in 
reference to the Romanesque remains in the Palatinate) ; 
designed by Prof. Ad. M. Hildebrandt. 

Frankenthal: Alterthums- Verein, 1896. 

Kolmar: Litterarische Gesellschaft, circa 1780; Schongauer- 
Gesellschaft, 1894. 

St rass burg {Alsace) : Stadtbibliothek, 18 . . ; Stadtische Kunst- 
sammlung, 1895. 


Fr,-il;>r}i-hn-Br(hgau : Un 

and Konvikt Hapienz, al 

ti-'omis : Paul us- Museum, 

Leipzig: Stadtbibltothek, i 

1 7 • • ; Typographische < 

Verein, 1900. 

Eldffta: Staats- und land 

Freiburg-on-Vmtrut : Jahn 
(fi'/fe«(*frf (afterwards at_, 

p. 129). 
Weimar -. Hofbibliothek 

Folk-lore), \Zq^. 

Eisenach : Regierungsbibiii 

Wartdurg: Lutherbibllotht 

Magdeburg: Museum, i9o< 

Brunswick : Waisenhausbu 

Hamburg: Stadtarchiv, 18 

von Schiilern der Staatlii 

Verein Treffass, 1898 ; C 

Sckwerin: Grossherzogliche 

Rostock : Landschaftliche B 

Gross- Liistwitz: Dorfbiblio 

Vienna : Orientalische Akai 

bibliothek, 18 . .; Verein 

technisches Institute, rSS 

Museum der Stadt, 189 , ; 

AngesleJlter, 189 .; Mini^ 

Milifary Exlibris 465 

isbibliothek des Minisleriiims des Innem, i86 . ; 
Kaiser- Franz -Josef I. Jubiliiums-Stiftung fiir Volkswohn- 
ungen und Wohlfahrtseinrichtungen, 1899 : Niederfister- 
reichische Ijindesbibliothek, i8g .. 

Prst : University, 17 ..' 

Prague: University, circa 1850 and 1875: Kunstgewerb- 


ByAA M. Hildebmndt(i893). 

liches Museum (six designs, not carried out), 1900 : Lese- 
und Redehalle der deutschen Studenten, 189 . , 

Cracow. Jagellonenbibliolhek, 18.. 

Vtnke: (while under Austrian occupation) : Library of San 


ous : 



§Most of the German regiments, in their numer- 
ous libraries, use no book-plate but a simple stamp. 

' Reproduced in " Zeilschrift fiir Biicherfreundf," iv. 1. 

466 German Book-plates 

There are, however, a certain number of exlibris 
of military libraries which may be mentioned here: 
book-plates of individuals, officers, etc., are, of 
course, omitted, as they are far too numerous to 
be included in the space at our disposal. 

German Empire: 

Prussia: Royal War Offue (Berlin), 1894, by E. Docpler, 

Regiment of the Guards du Corps (Potsdam), 1894, also by 

IVestphalian Uhlan Regiment^ No. 5 (Diisseldorf), 1899, by 

Rittmeister Otto von La Valette (Dusseldorf). 
School of Artillery and Engineers (Charlottenbuig), 189^ 

by V. C. 
Association of former members of the Royal Fire Brigalf 

(Berlin), 1894, by E. Doepler, junior, used as an exlibris 

since 1897. 
Bavaria: Infantry Regiment of General Field- Marshal Co*i^ 

Hal stein (Duke Clement), now the Seventh Infantr)' Regi- 
ment of Prince I^opold of Bavaria (Bayreuth), circa 1775. 
Royal Third Li fie Regiment of Duke Carl (Augsburg), rm'J 

The same Regiment^ with inscription of Prince CarL dm 

First Cuirassier Regiment of Prince Carl (Munich), (vVi'fl 

1840 ; now the First Heavy Cavalry Regiment. 
/ 1 'ar Archives ( Munich ), 1892. 
Hksse : Grand Ducal Hessian Field-Artillery Regiment, So. 

25 (Hessisches Artillerie-Corps) (Darmstadt), 1886, by 

August von Heyden (Berlin). 
Also the following : 

Officers^ Library of the Seventh Dragoons (Nienburg, Han- 
over), 1792. 
Artillery School (Hanover), circa 1825, by Johann Philipp 

Ganz (Hanover). 
Library of the Officers of the Infantry Battalion of Frankjuri- 

on-Main^ circa 1850. 

^ E. L. Z. iv. 67. 

Portrait Exlibris Ajbrj 

Library of the German Officers' Society (Berlin), 1900J 
Imperial Navy: Warrant Officers' 6ir^^/ (Kiel), 1894, by 

Georg Otto. 
See also the two exlibris of Kiautschou mentioned on p. 447. 

Austria : 

Engineer^ Academy (Vienna), 17..; Officer^ Library at 
Verona (under Austrian occupation), circa 1850, typo- 
graphical ; Theresian Military Academy (Wiener Neustadt)^ 

(10) Portrait Exlibris. 

We have already seen (see pp. 441, 442) that 
double exlibris, showing the portrait of the owner 
and his coat of arms, were used as early as the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. Later on it 
became more usual to have single portrait-plates. 
Portraits, however, such as are often found fastened 
in the cover of a volume, not as signs of owner- 
ship, but to serve as reminders of some character 
in the book, or of some ancestor, do not come 
under the heading of ** Portrait-exlibris," of which 
the distinguishing characteristic is that they dis- 
play the portrait of the owner. 

Although vanity — or a wish to hand their like- 
ness down to posterity — must often be suspected 
as a motive with those who elect to reproduce 
their own portraits on their exlibris, yet the in- 
scription on the exlibris of Johann Spiessheimer, 
called Cuspinianus,* of Schweinfurt {circa 1520), 
shows that the portrait was sometimes introduced 

^ Sketches for military exlibris also exist by Prof. Hilde- 
brandt, Richard Bohland, Georg Otto, and Prof. Doepler (1894). 
" E. L. Z. ii. No. 3, p. 20, and iv. 112, 113. 

468 German Book-plates \ 

for other reasons. Spiessheimer evidently thougl'^ 
that his portrait would remind borrowers of the^^ 
obligations, and be a warning to book-thieved ' 
'* Cuspinianus ut fures» si posset, arceat, hie suaf^ 
imaginem posuit." Whatever the motive, portndC:"' 
exlibris cannot fail to be of interest to the owner' ^ 
descendants, direct or indirect, into whose hand 
his library may eventually fall. In England an 
America portrait-plates are common, and they ar 
also found, though less frequently, in France. 

Some care is necessary in determining whaL'C 
plates come under this category, as, in niodem 
times especially, imaginary- busts or heads ar^e 
frequently found on exlibris merely ^ part, of the 
general design. A special division inigfat be 
made of such plates as have portraits of .-Historica/ 
personages, e.g.^ Charlemagne^ John Frederid: 
the Magnanimous, Elector of Saxony, die Great 
Elector, the Emperors William I. and II., Ulricb 
von Hutten, Dante, Goethe, Schiller, Bismarck, 
Gutenberg, Pestalozzi, Beethoven, Bach, Wagner, 
Andersen, Gabelsberger, Nietzsche, Heine, Na- 
poleon I., Homer, Socrates, Newton, etc. 

The following portrait-exlibris may be men- 
tioned : 

Dr. Johann Spiessheimer (jCuspiman\ humanist and poc 

circa 1520.' 
Dr. Georg Hohsinger (Regensburg), 1539 ;' here reproduce 
Dr. Christof 5kheurl and his sons Georg and Chris 

(Nuremberg), circa 1540.' 
Dr. Sixtus Kapsser (Munich), 1560 (see pp. 50, 51). 

' E. L. Z. iv. 112, 113. ^ Ibid,^ iii. 34. 

' Ibid,^ ii. No. 3, p. 4, and iv. 24. 


!>• GEORGIVi-.,— 

Dr. Fran/ /yet/. Town Syndic (Hamburg and Magdeburg) 

>r. 'Ih. Hieroiiymus It'o//, Magister (Augsburg), 1574.' 


' E. L. Z, iv. 46, 47, 


German Book-plafes 

Johann Schwanhrrg, pastor {Frankfurt-on-Main), 15S0.' 
Balthasar ZJ"/-wcr, pastor (Munderkingen), 1583.' 
Konrad von Oftiibach, jurist (Frankfurt-on-Main and Worn 


Ulrich Duke of Mtcklenburg (Schwerin), woodcuts, 15 

1586, copperplate, circa 1590.' 
A. V. Hering, 1596. 
Nikolaus Oehsfiiback, Clovernor of the Castle (Tubingi 

Johann Dietrich Freiherr von Muggenlhal^ Frebendaij 

Salzburg, 15 . . 
Sebastian von Rolenhan, humanist (Wijrzburg), 15 . , (1 

P- "13)- 
Janus von Hollz (Breslau), 15 . . 
Johann Christalnik, an ecclesiastic of Carinibia, 15 . . 
Dr. J. Oswald von Zimmern, Professor (Ingolstadl), i6oa 
Peter Vok, Prince l/rsini. Count von Rosenheim, i6og. 
Johann Veniiitzer, cutler (Nuremberg), exlibris of the clei 

house of St. I^urence, 1618' and 1730; the latter 1) 

reproduced. Vennitjier lived from 1565 to >529, and, b[ 

from the engraver's name, this plate is shown to be pi 

humous by the rose which he holds in his hand, a s 

that he is "selig." 
Johann Hiifelius U/enkeim, jurist (Schweinfurt), 1635. 
Nikolaus Count Zrinvi, Hungarian poet and conqueror 

the Turks, area 1646. 
]o\\^nr\ Kissiing van WeissenstadI, 1664. 
Bernhard Middendorp, jurist and mathematician (Liibe 

Cicorg Friedrich Seuferheld, Burgomaster of Hchwiibisch \ 

Georg Sseltpchtny, Archbishop of Gran, Primate of Hunga 

Polycarp Count Kuenburg, Bishop of Gurk, circa 1674. 

Johann Baptist Jienz, pastor (Augsbui^), 1697." 

' Burger, pi. 35. 

Ibid., Vi. 12, 13. 
' Ibid, vi. 74, 75. 
' Ibid., ii. No. 3, p. 

' E. L. Z. vi. 8, 9. 
' Ibid., X. 88, 89. 
° Ibid., i.No, I, p. I). 



By G. D. Heumann (1730). 


German Book-plates 

Johann Burchard Mtnken, Polish Councillor and histoiin- 
grapher, after 1 708. 

C. G. 0(, 1741. 

Dr. Johann Karl Wilhelm Mohstn, court physiciai', wii 
numismatist (Berlin), 1757.' 

Johann Bemhard Nack, merchant (Frankfurt-on-Miinl, 

fJr. Johann deorg Kryms, 1769. 

Friedrich Roth-Scholli, publisher (Nuremberg), 17 , . 

Quirin Josef Chylik, 17.. 

Marlin Reinhardt, pastor (Augsburg), 17 . . 

Ferdinand vun Hosson, Electoral Herald (Munich), ti 
libris, 17 . - (see p. 171, ? if portraits). 

Sigismund Count run .S^trf// (Munich), 17 . . (also doubriul)- 

Chrislof Heinrich von Watzdorf, Cabinet Minister in Saiun 
and Poland, 17 - - (also doubtful).^ 

Dr. Anton Rulaiid, Director of the Universit)- IJbrtiy 
(Wurzbur«), 1874. 

Friedrich Warneckt, Privy Councillor (Beriin) (t). i8j8.' 

Ludwig Cltn'cus, herald (Magdeburg) (+), nrca 1885.' 

Also in more recent times : Therese Countess Ha/in-Basiit 
(Basedow), 1890 ; Karl Leonhard Becker, engraver (Bonn 
1893; Albertine Bachofen van Eeht, the elder (Vienni 
1893;* Clemens A'««/, designer (Mainz), 1893 : FrwJcrii 
Francis III. Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-SchmA 
(Schwerin), 1894; Georg.^«/««^(Hameln), 1894;' H« 
mann Miinnich (Langensee), 1895 ; August von Eistnim 
Councillor of Slate (retired) (Munich), 1895; ■^"'*' 
Hirth, publisher (Leipzig), 1896; Hans Afuller-Brm 
author (Zeven), cirea 1S96 ; Dr. Hans Brendicke (Bcrii 
1896; Dr. Rudolf ZoMar, author (Vienna), 1891" 
Benndorf (Vtaia Reiche) (Vienna), 1897 ; Markus SeAusi 
(Nuremberg), 1897 ; Hedwig Lange, actress (Munid 
1897; Rosa Adamus (Vienna), 1898; Isabella Mat 
(Friedenau), 1898; Frau Caecilie lloldrandt {VkltXtli 
1898 (seep, 481); Georg £?//■(>, painter and engraver (Betli 

' Von Heinemann, pi. 1 39. ° Ihd., pi. 130. 

' VVarnecke, pi. xxvi. ' E. L. Z. iii, 41 

' Von Heinemann, pi. 159, and E. L, Z. iii. 6;, 68, 

■' E. L. Z. iv. 121, iji. 

Monogram Rxlibris 473 

1S98; (iertrud (9//<^ (Berlin), 1898 ; Ludwig August i^<f////>7^^, 
Inspector (Munich), 1898 and 1901 ; Ferdinand and Anna 
Hirsch ( Fran kfurt-on- Main), 1898; Alois Gebhort^ painter 
(Munich), 1 899 ; Frau Helene 6V^/w/(fr (Nuremberg), 1 899 ; ^ 
Adolf Porsche^ painter (Vienna), 1899; Eduard F. Elkan 
(Hamburg), 1899; Dr. Hermann K/uge, Professor (Alten- 
burg), 1900; F ^f>*///<r/rfr, sculptor and wood-carver (Dres- 
den), 1900; AUred /^t//engy Notary (Strassburg, Alsace), 
three exlibris, 18 . ., 1900, 1901; Hans Lucas 7'on Cranack, 
(iovernor of the Wartburg, 1900; Eduard Lorenz Afeyer^ 
wholesale merchant (Hamburg), 1895, 1900; Richard 
Zoozmann^ author (Berlin), 1900. 

(11) Monogram Exlibris. 

This form of book-plate, which does not fulfil 
the main purpose of an exlibris — to protect the 
Volume by giving the 7ia7ne of the owner — is not 
On any account to be recommended. Monograms 
are suitable enough for fans, note-paper, cigarette 
cases, and the like, but are eminently out of place 
on book-plates. Examples of this class are, how- 
ever, found from the sixteenth to the nineteenth 
century, of which the following may be named. 

Dr. Johann Mater, called Eck (Ingolstadt), with the mono- 
gram J. M. E. T., 1 5 18, 1522 (see above, pp. 123, 124, and 
cf. the exlibris of Tengler and Tannstetter, pp. 125, 126). 
The Empress Maria Anna, M. A., circa 1610.'^ 
Magdalene SyhWX^ Electress of Saxonv, M. S. 1)., circa 1630.^ 
Johann Ernst VIII. Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld, and his Consort 

Sophie Hedwig, J. E. 1). S. and I). S. H., circa 1682. 
Ernst Friedrich Karl Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, E. F. C, 

circa 1714. 
Ludwig YixxAoM Duke of Bmnsivick, L. R., circa 1730, etc. 

* Reproduced in E. L. Z. ix. 108, 109. 
' Ibid,^ iii. 76. ' Ibid,, vi. 15. 

3 I' 

474 Gennan Book-plates 

(12) Universal Exlibris. 

These plates are not designed specially for any 
one individual, but are intended to be used by any- 
one who has no plate of his own, a blank being 
left for the name to be inscribed. It is curious 
that of the twelve oldest fifteenth*century plates, 
two are universal exlibris, showing that the need 
of them was felt in very early times. Of the 
twenty-five known plates of this class, the oldest 
and most interesting is here reproduced, 1489(566 
also pp. 97, 98) ; the words " das puch und der 
schilt ist " (the book and shield belong to) are cut 
on the wood-block, the arms and name, '' Midid 
Lorber," having been inserted with ink.* The next 
in point of date (late fifteenth century) is a plate 
on which a woman supports an empty shield 
Another interesting universal book-plate is one 
with a border containing twenty different musical 
instruments ; on one example the arms of the 
Bavarian Councillor, Erasmus Vend (Munich), 
1567, are found ; on another those of Franz Mandl 
von Deutenhofen (Gunzburg), 15 . .. Another 
design, which has been proved to have been used 
for three different libraries in Nordlingen — Wolf- 
gang Vogelmann, 1533, Johann Christof Scherb» 
1598, and the Councillors Library, 1602 — has 
an architectural border with imitation tarsia-work. 
A Frankfurt plate, circa 1886, has been used 
several times in that city, e.g., by the Kunst- 
gevverbe-Verein, by the Municipal Library, and by 

^ Others are reproduced in E. L. Z. iv. 116, 117 ; vii. iio» 
III ; X. 6-1 1 ; Seyler, p. 54; Burger, pi. 14. 


German Book-plates 

August Osterrieth-Laurin, 1891. In recent times 
some of the large publishing houses (P. Parey,and 
S. Fischer, Berlin; Spemann, and the "Union," 
Stuttgart; Velhagen und Klasing, Leipzig) have 
adopted the custom of printing universal eidibris 
in the front end-papers of their books. The 
'* Gesellschaft der Bibliophilen *' has also two 
universal exlibris, 1889 and 19CX), and the Berlin 
Press Association also printed one in their gift to 
ladies (a book entitled " Jungbrunnen") at their 
ball on January 26th> 1901, in Berlin. 

(13) Exlibris of Actors, Actresses, and Mu- 

These are only known in modern times. In 
the designs masks are most frequently represented, 
and also lyres, part-books, books of all sorts, and 
the coveted laurel. The majority of actors are 
continually changing their place of residence, and 
consequently they do not as a rule possess libraries. 
The exlibris of this class are therefore not numer- 
ous. A few may be named here : 

Anton (operatic singer) and Hedwig Wmvorsky (Berlin), 

1898, by Josef Sattler. 

Emil Gerhdusery singer (Munich), 1896, by Fritz Erler. 
Matthieu Liitzenkirchen^ actor (Munich), 1897, by Emil 

Paul Hilden^ actor (f), at Augsburg in 1894, by Clemens 

Herman Knispel^ actor of the Court Theatre, Darmstadt, 

1899, by Kurt Kempin. 

]Q%(t{ Ij^wittsky^ the well-known tragedian of the Burg Theatre, 
Vienna, 1892, by Hans Macht. 

Cliildrofs Exlibris \*~j^i 

Hugo Thimig^ actor of the same theatre, circa 1890, by 
^ Wilhelm linger. 
A'eiiy Brodmann, opera singer (Wiesbaden), 1898, by 
Hermann Hirzel. 

Hedwig Lange^ actress (Munich) ; three exlibris, two of them 
by W. Schulte vom Briihl, 1897. 

Rudi Steh/e^ actress (Wiesbaden), 1900, by W. Schulte vom 

We may also mention here the exlibris of: 

Wolf Christof von Enzestorf^ Austrian musician, 1575, by 
Martin Rota (see p. 137) ; Hermann Levi (f). Director of 
the Royal Orchestra (Munich and Partenkirchen), 1898, 
by Hans Thoma ; Marcella Sembrich^ concert singer 
(Dresden), 1892, by Ad. M. Hildebrandt ; Frau 
Klementine Mayr-Schdnfield^ concert singer (Munich), 
1896J by Fritz Erler; Elsa Rau^ pianist (Berlin), 1900, 
by E. Walther, an American artist in Paris. 

(14) Children's Exlibris. 

In Germany, as well as in England and America, 
the custom has recently arisen of providing child- 
ren with special exlibris for their books, and there- 
by waking in them the love of works of arts. Of 
the few children's exlibris we may mention : 

Isabella Maess (Friedenau), 1890, by her father, Julius 

Hedwig Warnecke (^^x\\vi\ 1893, by Josef Sattler. 

Waltrud Schulte vom Briihl (Wiesbaden), 1895, signed 
" Papa." ' 

Walter, Hildegard, and Gotz Buderus von Carhhausen (Stutt- 
gart), 1897, by Paul Voigt, here reproduced (p. 478). 

Karl Egon von Heinz (Berlin), 1898. 

Heinrich and Peter Wolbrandt (Krefeld), 1899 and 1900, 
and Luise Wolbrandt ^ two of 1900, by their father, Karl 

* Labouchere, p. 229. 

Ladies Exlibris 


Wolf and Hans Frdhtrren von Daehenhausen (Radymno), 
1900, by their cousin Alexander. 

(15) Ladies' Exlirris. 
A special monograph might easily be written on 


rioas-rr.ATt; ok , 
By Eduard Lorenz Meyer (1895). 

this theme, as there are some five hundred Ger- 
man and Austrian ladies' book-plates. It is im- 
possible here to do more than mention a few of 
ie more notable examples, 
rhe earlkst lady's plate is that displaying the arms of Willielni 

480 Gentian Book-^plates 

von Zell and his wife, whose name is unknown, circa 1479' ^^^ 
in order comes that of the widow Radigunda Gossenbrot nic^ 
genberger zu Fiissen, circa 1500-2, bearing the arms of husband 
and wife quarterly ; * and that of Frau Barbara Schndder, «« 
Sch6ner (Augsburg), circa 1514-20, coloured armorial' The 
oldest dated plates are those of Martin Pfinzing the elder, and 
his wife Anna, nSe Loffelholz von Colberg (Nuremberg), 1543*. 
and Frau Christiana Afchet^brennery nie Musculus (Berlin), 
1 588.* Five ladies* plates are^nown belonging to the seventee[\th 
century, about forty to the eighteenth, and from 1800 to 1S70 
about fifteen ; the remainder — about four hundred and forty- 
date from 1 87 1 to 1900. Most of the eighteenth-cenlur>* ex- 
amples belonged to ladies of princely or noble rank. 

In this volume many ladies' plates have already been illus- 
trated,' and here we reproduce that of Frau Alice Meyer (Ham- 
burg), 1895, designed by her husband, Eduard lx)renz Meyer 

(p. 479). 

^ Warnecke, p. 9. 

'^ E. L. Z. ii. No. 2, pp. 2, 3, 10; X. 23 ; and see I^bou- 
chere's ** Ladies* Book-plates," pp. 206, 207. 

^ Burger, pi. 5,/^. * Lempertz, "Bilderhcfic. ' 

* E,g.^ Klara Kress von Kressenstein, 1645 (p. 167) ; Frau\nn 
Jeetze, 17 . . (p. 199) ; Countess Fugger, 17 . . (p. 2iy) : Luise 
(iottsched, circa 1 750-60 (p. 253) ; Margarethe Strauss, 1899 (P- 
393) \ Philippine Kuhn, 1899 (p. 391) ; and Magda ( \)unrcs> 
zu Leiningen-Westerburg, 1896 and 1899 (pp. 366 and 437). 

Miss Labouchere's excellent volume on " Indies' Book- 
])lates " in this series contains also illustrations of numerous 
German ladies' exlibris : Elise Freiin Konig (p. 221): Olga 
Queen of Wiirttemberg, 18 . . (p. 224) ; Maria Anna Countess 
Przehorsowsky, 17 . . (p. 225); Duchess of Kurland, iS . . 
(p. 226) ; H.I.M. the German Empress, 1893 (p. 227) : Count- 
ess Seinsheim, 18 . . (p. 228); Use Warnecke, 1S93 (P- -'^)'' 
Waltrud Schultc vom Briihl, 1895 (p. 229) ; Convent of Notre 
Dame, Offenburg, 1895 (p. 230); Camilla Freifrau von Mirbach. 
1891 (p. 233); Albertine Bachofen von Echt, junior, 1891, 
and senior, 1893 (pp. 333, 334); Magda Countess zu Lein- 
ingen-Westerburg, 1892 (p. 341). Of the 2,114 ladies' exlibris 
mentioned by Miss Labouchere, 1,912 are English and 110 
German and Austrian. . 

Musical and Landscape Exlibris 
li6) Musical and Landscape Exlibris 

These are also too numerous to be dealt 

iny detail. Musical Plates are such as con- 




By Karl Wolbrandt (iSgHt. 

^ustc or musical instruments : pianos, harps, 
J flutes, violins, drums, trumpets, zithers, bells. 

482 German Book-plates 

etc. Of these there are some two hundred and 
twenty German and Austrian examples : sixteenth 
century, about six; seventeenth century, about 
six ; eighteenth century, about twenty-seven ; and 
the remainder, about one hundred and eighty, of 
modern date. These numbers do not, of course, 
include such plates as show musical instruments as 
charges on their shields.^ 

The most remarkable and in all probability the oldest musical 
plate known is the universal exlibris already mentioned on p. 
474, circa 1567, with twenty different instruments in the b(»:der, 
of the highest interest from the historical point of view.' The 
exlibris of Johann Friedrich von Ujftnbachy Councillor and 
Sheriff (Frankfurt-on-Main), by himself, 1 7 23, is also noteworthy; 
it contains a spinet, violin, double bass, cello, mandoline, song 
and books.' A charming modem example is that of Fnui 
Valerie Brettauer (Trieste), by W. Behrens (Nuremberg), i89&» 
with piano/ As an example of a musical plate we reproduce on 
p. 481 the exlibris of Caecilie Wolbrandt (Krefeld), by her 
husband, Karl Wolbrandt, 1898; l)Te and lily as symbol of 
St. Cecilia, the patroness of music 

Special mention may be made of the fine musical exlibris of 
Frau Margarethe Strauss (Magdeburg), 1900, etched by Fram 
Stassen, with figure of Polyhymnia, etc. 

Of Landscape Exlibris, in Germany and Aus- 
tria, there are about two hundred which represent 
real landscapes ; the number of those with fancy 
scenes is much larger. 

^ Musical exlibris have also formed the subject of a special 
monograph by J. F. Verster (Amsterdam, 1897), \^nth forty 
illustrations. His special collection of musical exlibris — among 
which are included those which have instniments as part of the 
armorial bearings — numbers 1,150, of which 186 are German 
and 658 English. 

'' E. L. Z. X. 8, 9. ' " Exlibris Journal," 1896, vi. 8. 

* Ibid,^ 1900, X. 86. 

Miscellaneous 483 

The oldest exlibris with a real landscape is that of Pastor 
Balthasar Domer (Munderkingen), 1583 (also a portrait-plate),* 
with view of Munderkingen and the Abbey of Marchthal. 
Another noteworthy plate is that of the " Conventus Societatis 
Literariae'' (C. S. L.) = Literary Society of Heidelberg, circa 
1 760-4, with Heidelberg, the Neckar and the Castle burnt by 
Melac in 1690 ; by Egidius Verelst (Mannheim and Munich).' 

Of foreign exlibris, that of Louis Blumfeld (London), 1897, 
by Edgar Barclay, with view of the towers of Nuremberg, may 
be mentioned. 

(17) Miscellaneous. 

Book-plates may be divided for the purpose of 
collection into numerous other classes, besides 
those mentioned in the foregoing sections. Special 
collections, for example, have been formed, and 
lists made, of exlibris of medical men, with urns, 
trophies, skulls, skeletons, etc. (book-plates orna- 
mented with such emblems of mortality are very 

The following subdivisions might also be made : 

a. According to professions : exlibris of officers, architects, 
jurists, painters, sculptors, and scientists. Several exlibris 
of social democrats are also already in existence. 

d. According to the special studies or hobby of the owner : 
numismatics, heraldry, etc. 

c, Exlibris with ships, or of a maritime character.' 

^ E. L. Z. vi. 8, 9. 

^ Some landscape plates are described in E. L. Z. iv. 24-33 
and 63 (with six illustrations). 

' Two examples of exlibris ^A ships^ libraries are the "Oceanic," 
1899, and the American yacht "Sovereign," 1896. Railway 
exlibris are also not unknown, e.g., that of the Chicago and 
Alton Railroad, on the " Alton Limited " expresses between 
Chicago and St. Louis, 1 900. 


Gennan Book-plates 

d. Humorous exMris. Designs of a jocular or humoious 
character are an invention of recent times: ^.j?.,ej;libmot 
Rudolf ^n«iitt«/ (Paris), 1895, representing a handreachinK 
afterabook-thief while a voice shouts "Halt 1 My book I": 
Otto Dorn, music director (Wiesbaden), 1895, in»ll 
figures dancing and jumpini;; on the keys of a piano; Kelii 



Pofipenbtrg, author (Chariottenburg), 1895, naked cupid 
with eyeglass and white and black quill pens, represenung 
good and bad criticism ; Dr. VeX&\ Janssen (Diisseldoff)i 
1900, Hygeia proud and triumphant, looking down upon 
Death; Otto AfliWr/- (Berlin), 1899, a bull-dog guarding " 
book, etc. 
v Punning exlibrii. Just as we find punning or earning 

Miscellaneous 485 

arms, in which the charge is connected with the name of 
the bearer, so also exlibris in which the design is a play 
upon the owner's name are not uncommon. We give six 
examples : 

Bibliotheca Wannholtziana^ circa 1790, a pretty engraving ; 
warmes Holz = warm (and so " burning") wood ; here re- 

Josef Ignatz Quirin Scheikopf, pastor of Reichkirchen, 1728 ; 
a head (Kopf) which schel sieht = schielt (squints). 

Bemhard Sehring, architect (Berlin), 1894, byEmil Doepler 
junior ; book with St. Luke and shield, inclosing an " S " 
held by a hand with a wedding-ring (S-Ehering). 

Otto ^w^x/ww (Berlin), 1897, byPaul Voigt; besides "A.O." 
and apple-tree, an eye (Auge) in a rock (Ciestein). 

Agnes Engekausen (Hamburg), 1898, by Karl Wolbrandt ; 
narrow houses (enge Hauser) between books. 

Emil Vecsenmeyery clergyman (Wiesbaden), 1899, by Hans 
Beat Wieland; a Black Forest peasant (Meyer) with ears 
of corn (Veesen), etc. 

f. There are even Acrostic exlibris : e.g.^ Frau Valerie Brettauer 
(Trieste), 1899, by Dr. Vitale I^udi; letters and numbers 
correspond, and by beginning to read at the i you obtain 
the name. 

g. The so-called Abbreviated exlibris of Professor Adolf M. 
Hildebrandt (Berlin) may also be mentioned here ; instead 
of the elaborate armorial bearings he uses one or two 
characteristic portions of the arms, with inscription, etc., 
bringing the whole into a small compass. ' 

(18) Notaries' Signets and Visiting Cards. 

As both notaries' signets and visiting cards were 
used in the place of an exlibris proper in the seven- 
teenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries, 
a brief mention must be made of them here. 

Notaries' Signets ^ have been proved to have 

* E. L. Z. vii. 118, 119. 

'' Dr. Fr. Leist " Notariatssignete," 1896, and E. L. Z. vii. 

German Book-plates 


existed as early as the thirteenth century ; in 
course of time it was laid down by law that aA 
notaries must deposit their signatures and signets 
in the Supreme Court, and a further ordinance of 
the Emperor Maximilian in 1512 forbade them 
to alter their signets at pleasure. The signet had 

the signi6cance of a notary's seal, and was drawn, 
printed, or fastened on deeds. Up to the end of 
the sixteenth century it was drawn by hand ; later, 
stencil-plates were used, and in the eighteenth 
century copper-engravings were used, which were 
fastened at the foot of the deeds. These prints 
were often used as book-plates ; they are very 
similar in appearance to the allegorical exlibris of 
the eighteenth century, and, as might be expected, 


Visiting Cards 487 

uris Utriusque 
lat the law and 

the designs usually display some symbol of the 
legal profession. As an example of a notary's 
signet, used as a book-plate, we reproduce that of 
W.M. (Bavarian), 16.., I. V. D. =. 
Doctor ; motto and design signify t 
the sword rule the world. 

Visiting Cards were also used in the place of 
book-plates in the eighteenth century.^ This was 
natural, since the visiting cards of that time were 
frequently ornamented with borders, sprays, 
flowers, cupids, figures, landscapes, ruins, trophies, 
sphinxes, griffins, columns, vases, etc. — in short, 
they were works of art, and were often carefully 
engraved on copper. Many people indeed in the 
eighteenth century did not expressly order a 
"book-plate" or a ** signet" or a ** visiting card," 
but a ** copper" (** Kupfer" as it was then called), 
which they used for all purposes. 

The plain typographical visiting card of the 
present day is also occasionally used as a book- 
plate. Even a label engraved for wine bottles, 
" Freiherrlich von Borsch und Borscholdsche 
Weingebirge," circa 1830 (arms with inscription 
and vine border), is in the author*s collection, and 
is shown to have been used as a mark of posses- 
sion by the words " Kupferstich-Sammlung " 
(print collection), which are written over the word 
" Weingebirge." 

* Collections of these have also been formed. See also 
E. L. Z. viii. 109-112. 

^^r ^^S^ Ol.LI-XTORS of exlibris are influenced in iK- 

^^1 tfjWjQJE pursuit of their hobby by various motives. Some 

^^r lul^W ^'^^' '^'^'^^'^'^ simply by the beauty and variety o'. 

jkXHP ii these little prints ; others collect from a spotting 
H^*n^3fl instinct, in order not to be outdone by their friends. 
witilt a third class collect book-plates for thu same reasons 
which induce some people to collect postage-stamps or post- 
cards. Many collectors, however, have otcyW/- aims ; they lool 
upon their collections as aids to the study of art and the histut) 
of art, knowing that even a mode rate-si i«;d collection of cxlibrii 
is as valuable from this point of view as a general print collirc 
tion of the same size. 

A vifell arranged collection of bookplates, will provide a fund 
of interest and instruction not only to the specialist, but to 
anyone who is interested in art, history, genealogy, heraldr), 
engraving or decorative design — subjects of which few educated 
people nowadays can afford to be wholly ignorant. Tlie 
student of ornament especially will find a chronological cotlct- 
tion of eJilibris of enormous value, as in no other way can he 
obtain so clear a view of the different styles in design anii 
variations of taste which have prevailed during the last fou' 
hundred years. The student of heraldry will be attracted by 
the many superb armorial designs, and the probability that he 




Exlibris Collections 489 

wOl discover on book-plates arms he has not previously met 
with ; while the writer on art, the historian and the genealogist, 
will not infrequently obtain information as to dates, individuals, 
and historical events, as well as knowledge of the tastes, studies, 
and true character of the owner of a book-plate such as he could 
not easily find elsewhere. In many other ways an exlibris col- 
lection will prove of value, and it is little matter for surprise that 
so many collections should now exist in Germany, Austria, 
Switzerland, England, France, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Por- 
tugal, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, North America, Chile, and 

The oldest exlibris collection, probably, is one which was 
formed in Ireland about 1750 (now in London); the next 
British collections were those of Miss Jenkins at Bath, 1820, 
and the Rev. Daniel Parsons, begun before 1833, and now at 
Downside Abbey. A number of collections were started in 
England and France in the sixties and seventies — in 1874 there 
were twenty in Paris alone. 

The oldest German collection was formed at Augsburg at 
the end of the eighteenth century ; it contained 191 exlibris 
and armorial prints, 112 of them being book-plates, mostly of 
Augsburg origin. They are now in the possession of Frau 
Margarethe Strauss (Magdeburg).^ 

Next in order comes the collection of Gottlob Giinther 
August Heinrich Karl Freiherr von Bcrlepsch of Gross-Stock- 
heim, near Wolfenbiittel, begun in 1826. It consists of 2,443 
plates from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, and now 
belongs to the Ducal Library of Wolfenbiittel.* About 1850 
Heinrich Lempertz the elder formed a collection at Cologne, 
which was afterwards amalgamated with those of Dr. Albrecht 
^/>rAA^ (Leipzig), 1875, ^"^ ^- F. ^w/j^/i (Augsburg), 1887. 
These collections are now in the possession of the Borsen- 
Verein deutscher Buchhandler (Leipzig).' They contain in 
all about 3,000 plates, including a large number of rare old 

* See E. L. Z. x. 92. 

^ Dr. O. von Heinemann, " Die Exlibris-Sammlung der 
herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Wolfenbiittel" (Berlin, 1895). 

' Konrad Burger, "Exlibris-Sammlung des Borsen-Vereins 
der deutschen Buchhandler" (Leipzig, 1897). 


490 German Book-plates 

In the seventies were formed the collections of (iottfried 
von Bohm (Munich) (about 250 plates), August von Eisenhari, 
(Munich) (now numbering about 10,000), and Friedrich War- 
necke (Berlin) (about 2,000). 

In 1895 there were in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland 
about 45 exlibris collections; in 1898, 92; in 1899, more 
than 100; and in 1900, about 300 known to the author. 
There are probably several small collections besides which 
have not yet come to light. Many of these 300 collections, 
of course, are still in early stages, and contain only a few 
hundred plates ; others are limited in their scope. One 
will collect only old examples, another only modem plates, and 
a third only modern plates of high artistic merit; others confine 
themselves to ladies' plates, doctors' plates, armorials, musical 
plates, and so on. 

The largest and at the same time the most important collec- 
tion on the Continent is that of Karl Emich Count zu Leiningen- 
IVesterburg (Neupasing, Munich), begun in 1888. It con- 
tained in February, 1901, 20,200 exlibris from 1470 to i9oi)0f 
all countries ; of these 10,065 are German, Austrian and Swiss, 
9,153 of other lands, 48 original drawings, and 895 reproduc- 
tions. There exist, of course, many more exlibris than this, 
especially English plates, but it is not probable that there are 
many more German exlibris extant. We may, perhaps, com- 
pute the total number of German book-plates at from 11,000 
to 12,000. An analysis of this collection is interesting, as 
it shows the number of plates of different styles, periods, 
etc. : 

Germany^ Austria^ and German Switzerland : drca 1470- 
1600, 202 ; seventeenth century, 410 ; eighteenth centur), 
1,140; ecclesiastics, 419; monasteries, 508; rococo, 481; 
library interiors (old), 141 ; allegorical with books (old), 155; 
other allegorical plates (old), 738 ; nineteenth century (1800- 
1871), not allegorical, 539; present day (1871-1900), 4,769; 
modern typographical, 306 ; Bavarian (court and state), 81 ; 
miscellaneous, 215. 

//a/v, 507 ; France^ 1,906; England^ 4,256; Sweden^ 215; 
Defimarky 82 ; Spain and Portugal, 42 ; Greece, 4 ; Holland, 
267; Belgium, 343; Russia, 192; Egypt, i; United Stata^ 
1,270 ; Canada, 35 ; Australia, 22 ; Brazil, 2 ; Japan, 9, etc. 

The Ladies' Book-plates in this collection number 1,094 (496 

Exlibris Collections 491 

German, Austrian and Swiss, 389 English, 155 American, 

It contains also 294 plates by C. W. Sherborn^ of which 268 
are different plates, and the others varieties; 210 by E. D. 
French (173 different) ; 83 by R. A. Bell (52 different) ; 29 by 
H. S. Marks \ 40 by G. W. Eve^ etc. 

The German exlibris designers of the present day are almost 
all represented by complete series of their plates. 

The collection which ranks next to this in importance is that 
of August von EisenAarl, Councillor of State (retired) (Munich). 
It contains about 10,000 exlibris, including many old and 
monastic plates ; German, before 1800, about 3,500 ; after 
1800, about 3,700; foreign, about 2,600, etc. 

Somewhat larger than this (about 14,000) is the collection 
of H. E. Stiebel (Frankfurt-on-Main), of which the author has 
no detailed knowledge. Another very interesting collection 
is that of Rudolf Benkard of Frankfurt-on-Main (now in 
Paris); it contains 9,500 exlibris, of which some 1,500 are 
modem, and the rest old, viz., 3,500 German, 4,000 French, 
1,000 English, 500 Italian, etc. Other large collections are 
owned by the publisher Karl G. F. Langenscheidt (Berlin), a 
very well catalogued collection containing 8,000 plates (1,600 
German, 800 English, 2,000 French, etc.); YjasXKoch^ liquidator 
(Vienna), about 6,000, including 3,230 old examples and 520 
volumes with superexlibris ; and the Benedictine Monastery of 
Kremsmiinster in Upper Austria, about 4,900, many of them old. 

In addition the following collections may be mentioned : 

Dr. Rudolf Neumann (Reichenberg, Bohemia), about 3,000 ; 
Frau Margarethe Strauss (Magdeburg), about 2,800, with good 
old plates; Frau Use Warnecke (Berlin), about 2,500, mostly 
old; Dr. ^\c\i2ixd Beringuier (Berlin), about 2,500, old and 
new ; Ernestine Countess Coudenhove (Stockerau, Vienna), 
about 2,500, mostly old; Professor Adolf M. Hildebrandt^ and 
his son Johann Joachim (Berlin), about 2,200, German and 
foreign, chiefly of artistic merit ; Captain Lothar Buderus von 
Carlshausen (Stuttgart), about 2,200(450 old); Frau Valerie 
^r^/Zai^r (Trieste), about 1,800 (500 old); Dr. Hans Ewers 
(Diisseldorf), about 1,800; Markus »S!£:^//\fj/?r (Nuremberg), about 
1,500 (300 old); QtU'iX'!ii\ Drobner (Leipzig), about 1500, mostly 
modem; Ernst A>fl^/ (Vienna), about 1,500 (500 old); Fritz 
Mouths (Riittenscheidt, Essen), 1,500, mostly modern; Lieu- 

492 German Book-plates 

tenant-Colonel von IVailmenich (Munich, at present in China), J 
about 1,400(700 old) ; Eduard Dilltnann (Korneuburg), about \ 
1,400 ; Captain von Heinz (Altona) (t), ii3oo, mostly modem; 
Franz Fleischmann (Munich), about 1,300, mostly modem ; Kad 
Wolbrandt (Krefeld), about 1,100, mostly modem; Dr. Enut 
Freys (Munich), 1,100 (700 old); Walther von Zur WesttM 
(Berlin), about 1,100, all good modem plates; Alfred Schroitr 
(Berlin), 1,000 ; Johann Count Wilczek (Sebam), about 600(360 
old, rich in scarce old plates). Most of the remaining coUec- 
tions contain about 1,000 plates or less. 

Of Government institutions^ the Print Rooms at Beilin, 
Munich, Dresden, Vienna, etc., have exlibris in their 

The following Public Libraries and Museums have ^)ecial 
collections of exlibris : 

Kunstgewerbe-Museum^ Berlin ; the collection originally 
formed by Dr. Heinrich Pallmann, and afterwards in the 
possession of . Rudolf Springer. It has been considenUy 
increased, and comprises about 5,000 exlibris, of which the 
majority are old, though some good modem plates aie 

Hof' undStaats-Bibiiothek^ Munich; about 1,500 plates, mostly 
old and interesting exlibris of men of learning and monasteries; 
Herzogliche Bibliothek^ Wolfenbiittei^ about 2,500, mostly oW; 
Bibliothek des Borsen-Vereins deutscher Buchhandler^ Leipv^^ 
about 3,000, mostly German plates of the fifteenth-eighteenth 
centuries, including many interesting old examples; Stadt- 
bibliothek^ Frankfurt-on-Main^ 2,800, many good old exlibris 
(including the collection of 2,103 plates presented by Alfred 
von Neufville, t) ; Universitdis-Bibliothek, JVi/rzburg, about 
700, mostly old ; and many with smaller collections. 

Many collectors in foreign countries also own German and 
Austrian exlibris : cg.^ J. F. Verster (Amsterdam), whose 8,100 
plates include 962 German examples (of his 1,151 musical 
plates 186 are German) ; L. Gerster^ pastor (Kappelen), 3,640 
exlibris, including 576 old and 700 modem German, and 1,850 
Swiss plates ; Miss Emma Chamber lay ne (London), whose fine 
collection includes 1,450 ladies' plates, of which about 350 are 
German : John W. Singer (Frome), 13,000 exlibris, including 
about 2,000 German plates (of his 1,200 ladies* plates 320 are 
German) ; Adolf Geering (Basel), 2,300 plates, of which 1,200 

Arrangement of a Collection 493 

are German and 600 Swiss ; Emilio Conte Btidan (Mestre), 
I995O9 including about 1,300 German plates. 

German book-plates are to be found in fifty or sixty other 
foreign collections, e.g,^ in those of the English and French Ex- 
libris Societies ; Armin Freilurr von Fblkersam (St. Petersburg 
about 1,600); Alexei Petrowitch Bachrouschine (Moscow); C. 
M. Carlander (Stockholm); Frederik Heymann (f) and Numa 
7w«>fe/ (Copenhagen) ; August Sassen (Helmond) ; Dr. Achille 
Bertarelli (Milan) ; Dr. L. Bouland (Paris) ; E. Engelmann 
(Paris) ; Edmond des Robert (Nancy) : Pierre Dor and Charles 
de Sartorio (Marseilles) ; Benjamin Linnig, Professor Pol de 
Monty Frau Van de Vin (Antwerp) ; Ad. Loureiro (Lisbon) ; 
C. W. Sherborn, G. R. Dennis, F. J. Thairlwall, J. R. Broivn 
(London) ; E. B. Ricketts (Hollingbourne) ; Miss E. A. Greene 
(Clifton) ; W. H. K. Wnght (Plymouth) ; S. A. Grundy- 
Newman (Walsall); G. M. Elwood (Rochester, New York, 
about 4,800, including about 500 German); E. D. French 
(Saranak Lake, about 1,600, of which 300 are German) ; Miss 
M. Van Zandt (New York, about 1,100, including about 600 
ladies' plates) ; Miss M. G. Messenger (New York, about 9,000, 
including 950 ladies' plates) ; W. C. Prescott (Newton High- 
lands) ; Dr. A. W. Clark (Lawrence, Kansas); Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., etc. 

The collections of the late Sir Augustus Franks (now in the 
British Museum) and I-rOrd de Tabley also contained numerous 
German book-plates. 


Collections of exlibris may be arranged either alphabetically 
or chronologically. The alphabetical method is only suitable 
for small collections ; while facilitating the finding of any par- 
ticular plate, it has the fatal disadvantage of presenting exlibris 
of all styles and periods jumbled together, thus depriving the 
collection of its chief interest. 

On the other hand, the intelligent enjoyment of a collection 
can only be obtained by a chronological arrangement, which 
allows plates of the same style and period to be placed in 
juxtaposition. The analysis given above (p. 490) of the author's 
collection shows how a chronological arrangement may be 

494 German Book-plates \ 

carried out. Although periods of style do not always corre- 
spond precisely with the different centuries, yet the subdivi- 
sions shown will be found sufficiently exact for all practical 

Foreign plates should always be kept apart, and it is also ad- 
visable to separate old from modern examples. 

Hitherto little attention has been given to a branch of col- 
lecting which has, nevertheless, much to recommend it: namely, 
the collection of reproductions^ especially of old plates. Unique 
exlibris exist in almost every large collection, and very many 
other plates are so scarce as to be altogether beyond the reach 
of the ordinary collector. Such exlibris may well be represented 
by modern facsimiles, though care must, of course, be taken to 
distinguish such reproductions from original plates, either by 
placing them in a separate division, or by any other convenient 

In the same way, modem impressions from old wood-blocks 
or copperplates are not to be despised, so long as the blocks or 
plates remain in good condition. 

Book-plates may be preserved in various ways, according lo 
individual taste. 

a. On white cards, about 1 2 in. x 9 in. ; scarce and specially 
fine plates may be placed by themselves for better effect, but 
four, six, or nine smaller or Itjss valuable plates may be placed 
on one card. These cards may be kept loose in boxes, or may 
be fastened together periodically with a thick piece of cardboard 
at top and bottom, and pierced with a couple of tapes, each 
volume being then preserved in a cardboard box. 

if. Each exlibris may be placed on a separate thin card, of 
octavo size, about 8 in. x 6 in., which may be preser\'ed in 
boxes containing about 100 or 200 plates each. 

c. As in ^, but kept in cardboard boxes open at the top. 

The best method of fastening plates on to the cards is by 
means of stamp-mounts, or strips of stamp-paper, which should 
be hinged, so that any plate may be taken out without injury. 

Book-plates should never be fastened down all over, nor 
should they be placed in bound albums. Opportunity must 
always be left to rearrange or to make additions. 

Underneath may be written all the available information as 
to the names of owner and engraver, date, price, etc., with re- 
ferences to any mention of the plate in exlibris literature; for the 

German Exlibvis Society 495 

^trious collector will soon acquire a special library of volumes 
dealing with the subject of his hobby. 

It will be found advisable to keep an alphabetical catalogue, 
Vrhich will show at a glance whether any particular exlibris is in 
the collection or not. References may be added, if necessary, 
to the subdivision, box-number, etc. 



The " Exlibris- Verein " and "Exlibris-Zeitschrift" were both 
founded by the late P^riedrich Warnecke, in Berlin, in May, 
1 89 1. In two years the Society had sixty-one members, and 
now, after ten years of existence, its membership has increased 
to 283. 

The President of the Society, since 1895, ^^ Professor Emil 
Doepler, junior (Berlin, W.) ; the editor is Dr. Hans Brendicke 
(Berlin, W. Frobenstrasse 31); and the treasurer and publisher 
C. A. Starke (Gorlitz, Salomonstrasse 39). The yearly sub- 
scription is twelve marks. 

The richly-illustrated "Zeitschrift" appears quarterly, and 
is sent free to all members of the Society ; the price to non- 
members is fifteen shillings a year. The high artistic value of 
the Journal has been recognized on all sides, and the magni- 
ficent facsimiles of old plates, prints from old as well as from 
modem copperplates, and innumerable other illustrations in 
black and white and in colours, of German and also English 
and other exlibris, have served to attract to the Society several 
members who are not acquainted with the German language. 
In May, 1900, of the 278 members (some of whom have since 
died), 170 were German, 31 Austrian, i Italian, 10 Swiss, 
4 Dutch, 5 Belgian, 2 Swedish, 4 Danish, 8 Russian, 6 French, 
25 English, and 14 American. The list includes in all 30 
ladies, and Her Majesty the German Empress has honoured 
the Society by subscribing to the Journal. 

The early volumes of the " Zeitschrift '' are already out of 
print, and the complete series will always be a valuable work 
of reference for the collector, as well as for bibliophiles, print- 
collectors, and others. 

496 German Book^-plates 


(a) Exlibris exhibitions, 

. There are permanent exhibitions of book-plates in the Royil 
Library, Munich, and the University Library, Wiirzburg ; aiod 
frequent exhibitions are held in the library of the Industrial 
Art Museum, Berlin. Gennan book-plates have also been 
shown, either singly or in specially selected collections in dte 
exhibitions of art work, etc., held during the last few years at 
Munich, Berlin, Krefeld, Magdebutg, Hamburg, Diisseldorf^ 
Nuremberg, Hanover, Halle, Breslau, Vienna, Briinn, and 
Troppau, as well as in London, 1892- 1900; Antwerp, 1900; 
Paris, 1900 ; Chicago, 1898 ; Boston, 1899. 

{b) Lechires, 

Lectures on exlibris have also been held, from 1893 onwards, 
under the auspices of many German and Austrian societies, 
examples being always shown. 

{c) Competitions. 

Prizes have been offered for book-plate designs in competi- 
tion, by the Industrial Art Societies at Munich, Halle, and 
Breslau, the Industrial Art Museum, Prague, and the magazine 
" Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration," Darmstadt. 

(d) The price of exlibris. 

Several auction sales of book-plates have taken place in the 
large towns, at which early plates have realized high prices: 
other plates, however, have varied so much that no idea could 
be formed of their true monetary value. The same variation 
in price has been noticeable at the sales held in London. 

The prices asked by dealers in the eighties were extremely 
low, but during the last ten years they have risen enormously. 
Indeed such absurd prices used to be asked that collectors 
refused to buy at all, and the result is that recently-formed 
collections consist chiefly of modern plates which can be 
obtained by exchange. A reaction has now set in and lower 
prices are again asked ; but it must not be forgotten that old 
plates are becoming more and more scarce, and collectors more 
and more numerous. Plates by a few modern artists — Klinger, 

Bibliography 497 

Cirdner, Hirzcl, Orlik, and Erier — occasionally find their way 
into dealers' hands, and high prices are asked, at least for the 
Work of the first three named. 


a, Exlibris volumes. 

Heinrich Ij:mpertz^ " Bilderhefte zur (ieschichte des Buch- 
handels; Bibliothekzeichen " (Cologne, 1853-65), now very 

August Stoeber^ "Petite Revue d'Exlibris alsaciens" (Miil- 
hausen, 1881). 

Arthur Benoit^ " I^es Exlibris de Schopflin'' (Paris, 1883). 

Friedrich M'arnecke^ " Diedeutschen Biicherzeichen" (Berlin, 
1 890). 

Adolf M, Hildebrandt, " 25 Exlibris," three jxirts (Berlin, 
1892, 1894, 1898). 

Kiirl Teske, "Das Mecklenburgische Wappen und die Ex- 
libris des Herzogs Ulrich von Mecklenburg" (Berlin, 

Georg OltOy " 20 Exlibris " (Berlin, 1893). 

Friedrich U'arnecke^ " Exlibris des 15. unci 16. Jahrhunderts '* 
fiw^ parts (Berlin, 1894). 

CUmepis Kissely "25 Exlibris " (Berlin, 1894). 

Josef Saltier^ "Deutsche Kleinkunst: 42 Exlibris "(Berlin, 

Gustav A. Sevier^ " Exlibris, illustriertes Taschenbuch " 
(Berlin, 1895). 

Dr, O, von Heinemann^ " 1 )ie Exlibris-Sammlung der herzog- 
lichen Bibliothek zu Wolfenbiittel " (Berlin, 1895). 

/['. Schulte vom Briihl, " 20 Exlibris, I., II. Folge" (Wies- 
baden, 1895, 1899). 

(Konrad Burger) " ICxlibris-Sammlung des Borsen-Vereins 
der deutschen Buchhandler (Leipzig, 1897). 

b. Other works cofitaifiing book-plates. 

F, U'arnechey ** Heraldische Kunstblatter " (Gorlitz, 1876, 

Berlin, 1898), four portfolios. 
A. Demmirty " Studien iiber die stofflich bildenden Kiinstc 

und Kunsthandwerke," and " Papier und andere Be- 


498 German Book-plates 

schreibstoffe, Schreibgerath, Buchdrucker- und Biic 

zeichen, Initialen, etc." (Wiesbaden, 1890). 
O. Muhlbrecht^ " Biicherliebhaberei," first edition iJfe 

second edition 1898 (Bielefeld and Leipzig). 
J, Sattler^ " Durcheinander " (Berlin, 1897). 
E, A, Seemanrty "Deutsche Kunstgewerbezeichner " (Lcipz;^, 

fourth series). 
Ad. M. Ifi7d^brand/,**HcTa\disches Musterbuch," third edition 

(Berlin, 1898). 
If. G. Strohl, " Heraldischer Atlas " (Stuttgart, 1899). 
K. Rosner, " Am Ende des Jahrhunderts," in " Dekorative 

Kunst im 19. Jahrhundert," vol vi., 1899. 
" Berlin vor 100 Jahren, 1800 " (Berlin), 1900. 
" Biicher und Wege zu Biichern " (Berthold : Jessen, p. 487* 


c. Articles and illustrations in magazines. 

Zeitschrift fiir Biicherfreunde (Leipzig): i. i, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9; 

ii. I, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12; iii. 1-4, 7, 1 1 ; iv. i, 4, 5, 6, 7,8, 

10, II. 
Zeitschrift des Munch ner Alterthums-VereinSy 1887, 2-4; 

1 89 1, p. 48. 
Kunstgewerbeblatt (Seemann, I-,eipzig), vi. 2 (1894); vii. n 

Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst (Seemann, Leipzig), vii. 2, 4, 5, 

II ; viii. 7, 8, 16 ; ix. 4, 12 ; x. 4, 8, 10 ; xi. 2. 
Kunst fiir Alle (Bruckmann, Munich), xii. 14 (1897). 
Dekorative Kunst (Bruckmann, Munich), i. 2 ; ii. 1 2 : iii. 9 

(translated in L'Art decoratif Paris, ii. 21). 
Kunst (Bruckmann, Munich), i. 8, 9. 
Kunst unserer Zeit (Hanfstangl, Munich), vi. i ; vii. 2 ; x. 

6, 7 ; xi. 6. 
Kunst und Handwerk (Munich), xxxxvi. 5, 7 ; xxxxvii. 7: 

xlix. 8, II ; 1. I, 4, 7 (1897- 1 900). 
Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration (Koch, Darmstadt), i. 4» 6: 

ii. 5, 7, 8 ; iii. 2, 3, 7. 
Liebhaber Kunste (Oldenbourg, Munich), 1895, 10, 13, 15; 

1896, 4, 5. 
Pan (Berlin), prospectus volume, 1895 ; and i. 4; ii. i. 
y«^(f////(Hirth, Munich), iii. 6 ; iv. 13, 19 ; v. 3. 
Kunsthalle (Berlin), iv. 4, 10. 

Bibliography 499 

^^^^Uschaft Hambur^scher Kunstfreunde^ Jahrbuch, 1895-7. 

kunst Chronik (Leipzig) 189 1-2, iii. 12. 

^^mUr {^x, Brendicke, Berlin), 1890, 16; vii. 21, 22 ; xii. 

'^\ J xiii. 10, II ; XX. 17 ; xxi. i. 
^^iiquitdten-Zeitschrift (\^x. Forrer, Strassburg), 1890,33, 34; 

^*^^^aserfiir Sammler (Leipzig), ix. 14, 16, 18 ; x. i, 3, 5- 

^"fiquitdten-Zeitung {Dx, Jaeckh, Stuttgart), iii. 22 ; v. 2, 6 ; 
J^>* 28; vii. 52 ; viii. 3, 12, 46. 
r^sckau (Frankfurt-on-Main), 1898, ii. 20. 
.y^heilungen fiir Autografen- Sammler^ 1890, No. 12. 
^^itnlaube^ 1896, Supplement to No. 3 ; 1900, No. 41, p. 

y^^im, xxviii. 23 ; xxx. 30 ; xxxiii. 48 (Supplement). 

^^^^Feis zum Meer^ 1895, xiv. 17. 

^enzboten^ 1890, xxxxix. 45. 

j^4genwari^ xxxxi. 9 ; Iv. 22. 

j^^u/sches Wochenblatt^ 1899, x"- ^8. 

-^^^end'Garten (Stuttgart), 1899, xxiv. ; 1900, xxv. 

^^tr K^r/flf^ (Leipzig), 1896, 18. 

'^ftzeiger des Gemiamschcn National-Museum (Nuremberg), 
1892, i. 

-^fonatsschrift des historischen Vereins vofi Oberbayern (Mun- 
ich), 1892 ; 1898, vii. 5-8. 

^dlzisches Museum (Spires), 1895, xii. 4 ; 1898, xv. 10. 

Afonatsschrift des Frankenthaler Alterthums- Vereins^ vi. i o. 

Centra/blatt fiir Bibliothekiveseu^ i. 8 ; ii. 8 ; xii. 5, 6. 

ZJtterarisches Centralblatt^ 1891, No. 53. 

Quartalbldtter des historischen Vereins fiirs Grossherzogthum 
Hessen^ i. 14. 

Illustrirte elsdssische Rundschau^ 1900, ii. 4. 

Hildebrandtsche Geschichtsblcitter^ 1897, 8. 

Wiesbadener litterarisches Feuilleton (Schulte vom Briihl), 
i. 8. 

Gnverbtbiatt aus Wilrttembergy xxxxix. No. 50, 1897. 

Deutscher Jfero/d (BexVm), 1895, 7 ♦ 1896, 1 1 ; 1897, 2, 3, 11; 
1898, 12; 1899, 12; 1900, 6, II, 12. 

Heraldischt Mittheilungen des Vereins zum Kleeblatt (Han- 
over), 1890, No. 283 ; vi. 10 ; viii. 6, 8, 9. 

Der Wappensammler (Kahla), 1900, i. 1-5, 7. 

500 German Book-plates 

Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wisscnschaft des Jude^ 

thumSy xxxxii. ii. 
Buch^ewerbeblatt iX^Y^zx^^ 1895, 7, 8. 
Borsenblatt fiir den deutschen Buchhandely 1896, 225 ; 189' 

100; 1901, 41. 
Archiv fUr Buchgewerbe^ 1899, xxxvi. 6 ; 1900, xxxvii. 1 1, i 
Buchhdndlerwarte {J^^xXxtl)^ 1899, 1900, No. 25. 
Journal fiir Buchdruckerkunst (Hamburg), 1896; 1898, 

27» 30- 
Archiv fiir Buchdruckkunst^ 1899, xxxvi. 

Nachrichien aus dem Buchhandely 1895, No. 74, 181, i £lg j 

Deutscher Buck- und Steindrucker (Berlin), 1898, v. i. 
Rathgeber fiir die gesammte Drue kindus trie (I^ipzig), I9''^do, 

V. 2, 9, 10, 13. 
Illustrirte Zeitungfiir Buchbinderei (Berlin), xxxi. Iv. 21-^ ^. 
Graphische Post (Frankfurt-on-Main), xii. 285 ; xiii. 303, ^ 21, 
Meyer's and Broekhaus^ Konversationslexica, 1900 and 190/. 
Allgemeine Kunstchronik (Vienna), 1891, No. 2. 
Graphische Kiinste (Vienne), 1899 ; xxii. 3. 
Blatter fiir Kunstgeiverbe (Vienna), 1899, ix. 
Ver Sacrum (Vienna), ii. 
Kunst und Kunsthandtverk (Vienna), i. 7. 
Freie Kiinste (Vienna), xvii. 6, 7 ; xx. 5 ; xxii. 16. 
Allegorien (Gerlach und Schenk, Vienna), 19-20, plate 89. 
Mittheilungen des Mdhrischen Geiverbe- Museums (Briinn), 

1898, 5, 7. 
Jahrbuch des Adler (Vienna), 1883. 
Monatsblatt des Adler (Vienna), 1898, iv. 25-27 ; 1890, No. 

Svetozor (yxz%M€)y 1898, xxxii. 49, 51. 
Novy Kult (Prague), 1899, ii. 8. 
Volne Smery (Prague), 1900, iv. 
Moderni Revue (Prague), vii. 3. 

(d) Articles in newspapers. 

Staatsbiirger-2^itung{BQx\\n\ 1895, xxxi. No. 536. 
Allgemeine Z?//;/«^ (Munich), 1890, No. 301 ; 1895, ^^' ^^^ 

Miinchener Neuste Nachrichten^ 1897, No. 47. 
Frankfurter Zeitung^ 1899, No. 338. 

Bibliography 501 

^^'^^urger Nachrichten^ 1894, No. 9 (Supplement) ; 1897, 

^N'o. 30. 
^atc Hamburger Zeitung^ 1898, No. 84. 
^^P^i'ger Tageblatt und Anzeiger, 1891, No. 21 ; 1895, No. 

?^4 (Supplement). 
**'^99iarsche Zeitungy 1896, No. 10, 12, 16. 
^^^y^lder Ztttung, 1899, No. 42 ; 1900, No. 26. 
"^^/e'sche Zeitung, 17, xi. 1900. 
^^^deburgische Zeitung^ 29, xi. 1900, No. 607. 
^^'csbadener Tageblatt^ 1892, No. 365; 1895, No. 130. 
^^^tocker Anzeiger^ 1899, No. 293. 
^^s rocker Zeitung, 1899, No. 584. 
^9fnuirer Journaly 1892, No. 74. 
^L^^ner Zeitung, 1899, No. 277. 
^wT^M/ (Graz), 1898, No. 58. 
^^ 9ia z^iYung (Riga), 13; iii. 1899 (Supplement). 

{e) Catalogues. 

^^nich, Exhibition in the Glass Palace, 1899. 

^^efeld^ Book Exhibition in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Museum, 

^>Tir««, Book Exhibition, 1898, and Orlik Exhibition, 1900. 
^^esiau and Anhverpy Exlibris Exhibitions, 1900; Troppau, 

-^ondon^ Exhibitions of the English Exlibris Society, 1892- 

Boston (Mass.), Exhibition of the Museum of Fine Arts, 

Auction Catalogues : Amsler und Ruthard (Berlin), 1899; 
Noiriel (Strassburg, Alsace), Alsatica, J. Degermann, 1899, 
etc. ; also catalogues of Dorman, and Puttick and Simpson, 
London (the latter always containing many mistakes in the 
spelling of German names, etc.), and many others. 

(/) German exlibris in foreign publications, 

^ahrbuch 1895 fiir Genealogie^ Heraldik und Sphragistik der 
Kurldndischen Gesellschaft fiir Litteratur und Kunst 
(Mitau), 1896. 

\ckweizer graphische Mittheilungen (St. Gallen), 1899, 1900, 
xviii. 12-15. 

502 German Book-^plates 

English Exiibris Journal {hoT\don\ 1891-1901. 
Archives de la Societe fran^aise des collectionneurs d\ 

(Paris), 1 894- 1 90 1. 
JLeicesler Warren, "A Guide to the Study of Book-plates 

(London, 1880, and Manchester, 1900). 
A, Vicars, " Library-interior Book-plates " and " Litera -^ 

Book-plates " (Plymouth, 1893). 
W. J. Hardy, ** Book-plates " (London, 1893). 
Noma Lahouchere, "Ladies' Book-plates" (London, 1895). 
The Daily Chronicle, May i8th, 1896. 
The Ludgate (London), iv. No. 20, June, 1897. 
E, Bengough Ricketts, "Composite Book-plates" (l-rondon, 

The Studio (London), winter number, 1898. 
The Book of Book-plates (Edinburgh), 1900. 
Repertoire des Ventes (Paris), 1895, ii. i. No. 26. 
IJEstampeet rAffiche (Paris), 1898, ii. 7, 8. 
IJArt decoratif {Vdius), 1900, ii. 21, "Les exlibris allemands." 
/, F, Verster, " Musikale Boekmerken " (Amsterdam), 1S97. 
Vlaamse School, Pol de Mont, "Over Boekmerken" (Antweip), 

Neer lands Druckkunst en Boekhandel {Htngelo), 1898, No. 4. 
Emporium (Bergamo), 1897, v. 28. 
Varia (Stockholm), 1899, ii. 5. 
The Sunday Jferald {Boston, Mass.), 23, iv. 1890. 
Charles Dexter Allen, "American Book-plates (London 


nciples which should 
;ovtrti the choice of a book-plate may be briefly 
Ill the first place, the full name of the owner 
l be clearly shown ; his address and rank may 
he added, if desired. The signature of the artist and the date 
Khotitd abo appear. 

'ITie design and style must depend entirely on the wishes 
■ it" the owner, or of the artist, if it be left to him ; good taste 
. \'<ne will set a limit to the variety of ideas which may be 
•, pressed. 
The plate may be heraldic or pictorial, or may combine 
heraldry with allegory. The chief considerations are that the 
design should contain some allusion to the individual tastes or 
studies of the owner, and that it should not be overcrowded. 
In these days of complicated allegory and obscure symbolism, 
it cannot be too often repeated that simplicity is the first thing 
to be aimed ai. 

Anyone who has the right to bear arms may be recommended 
to adopt a purely heraldic exlibris, as being more satisfactory 
and less ephemeral than any other class of design. 

Book-plates which are not purely armorial may display an 

endless variety of motives, as has beeti shown on pp. 387, 388. 

As a general rule one plate, in one size, will be sufficient for 

books of all sorts ; but plates arc often used in two or three 



German Book-^plates 

sizes, and many book-collectors have special plates made for 
the different divisions of their library. 

The original drawing, should not be too much reduced, or 
it will suffer in clearness. On the other hand, if the plate 
is too large, it w^ill not look well inside a small volume. It 
is essential to use good paper, and for this purpose a thin 
handmade paper is the best, being not only easy to paste into 
books, but durable and capable of taking the best impression 
possible. It is well to get the printer to send pulls on different 
coloured papers and in various inks, as, though black on white 
is generally the most suitable, it will be found that another 
colour may often give a softer effect. 

Of the various methods of reproduction we have already 
spoken (see pp. 9-15), and here it is only necessary to add that 
as a book-plate is to last a life-time, it is worth while spending 
a little money and having it well executed to start with. 
Though the cheap photographic processes give an accurate 
result, and if properly printed are not unsatisfactory for certain 
classes of design, they cannot produce the quality of a finely 
engraved copperplate, or even of a first-rate lithograph. 


^^PThis index contains names of owners of book-plates, but not 
those of engravers and designers, which will be found in tbe 
-second index. 

Abbreviations : Exl. = exlibris ; v. = von ; Frh. = Freiherr, 
Baron; Frfr. = Freifrau, Baroness; Ct. = Count, Graf; Cts. = 
Counti^ss.Grafin; Vet. = Viscount; Pr. = Prince; Prs. = Princess. 

■JiiiiiJACHEN, 318. 

Andechs, 77, 151, 283, 292 

W^M AbhreviatedExl.,485. 


PI^Q^ ■\'''^''^^''"'''ns,62,292. 

Angrer, G., 138, 139, 336. 

Anonymous arm. plates, cjS 

A.ior, IM., 476. 

Actresses' Exl., 476. 

Ansbach, K. A. Gymnasium 

Adler, 376. 


Admont, 396. 

Anthony V. Siegcnfeld, 377, 

Agricola, 149, 151. 

Apian, K., 150. 

Albrecht. j. C, 87- 

Architects, 461. 

K. v., 279. 

Arndt, W., 403. 

Aldersbach, 299. 

Arrangement of a collection 

Algraphy, 14- 


Allegorical, 236. 

Art- Historians, 460. 

Altenbei^, 299. 

Artillery Regt., Hessian, 398. 

Altenkirchen. A. Ct., 373. 

Artists, 461. 

Althaus, C. Frh., 376. 

Asenijeff, E., 426. 

Altmann, F., 87, 406, 

Attl, 295- 

Altomiinster, 295. 

Au, 283, 305. 

Amiishagen, 320. 

Auer, K. v., 364. 

Amorbach, 296. 

.\uerspcrg, Pr., 384. 


German Book-plates 

AuerspergE. Prs., 438. 
Aufkirchen, 312. 
Aufsess, O. Frh., S7, 364. 
Augsburg, Cathedr. Chapter, 
318, 322. 

Carmelites, 311." 

Congregatio Marise, 319. 

Dominicans, 310. 

Battenberg, Prs. B., 435. 
Prs. v., 435. 

Baud, £., 408. 
Baumbui^, 77, 151, 172,292, 

Baumgarten, M. J. v., 91. 

Baumgartner, H., 116, 122. 

Baumgartner, 158. 

— Evang. College, 239, 240, 1 Baur, M., 436. 
283, 318. ! Becher, K., 431. 
— Holy Cross, 168, 282, 292, j Becker, K. L., 374. 
308, 321. j Becker, P. H., 396. 

— Munic. Libr., 142. ' Behaim, M., 105, 106, n4» 

— St. George, 308. 116. 
St. Ulrichand Afra, 296, Beham, A., 162. 

Behem, E., 118. 

322, 323- 
Augstein, O., 88. 

Auguste Victoria, Empress, 7 2, 


Augustin, Bishop, 338-. 

Augustinian Hermits, 311. 

Augustinians, 304. 

Aulendorf, 394. 

Austria, Archd. Eugene, 317. 

Archd. Ferdinand, 354. 

Authors, 460. 

Autograph inscriptions, 6. 

Bachofen von Echt, 364, 374. 

Badeker, \V., 87. 

Baggc, B., 414. 

Bajzath v. Peszak, G. A. P>h., 

Balaus, W. A., 70, 271. 

l^albach v. (iastel, F. W'., 208. 

Baldinger, J., 144, 337. 

Bancroft, G., 400. 

Banz, 296. 

Barkcn-Hoff, 418. 

Baroque Style, 154. 

Barth, F., 66. 

Behr, J. L. v., 208, 209. 
Behrens, T., 436. 
Beidaels de Zittaert, 355. 
Benedictines, 292. 
Benediktbeuem, 132, 293, 

Benkard, R., 416, 418, 491- 

Benndorf, E., 408. 

Benoit, A., 360, 434. 

Beringuier, R., 491. 

Berlin, French Church, 31?. 

Nat. (iallery, 439. 

Bethmann, S. M. Frh., 91, 373? 

Beuther, K., 240. 

Bezzel, E. C, 284, 286. 

Bibliography, 360-363, 497' 

Biedermeier Period, 344- 

Biechner, M., 142, 144. 

Bildhausen, 299. 

Binswanger, 422. 

Birken, S. v., 170. 

Birkner, A., 63, 64. 

Bismarck, O. Pr., 429, 437i 


Subject Index 


^^^Smarck, W. Ct., 364 
:^iankstetten, 295. 
:^lessig, J. L., 85, 260, 278. 
-^lock, D., 127. 
filiithgen, V., 408. 
^oas, O., 368. 
fiock. A., 380. 
Bockenheimer, K. G., 422. 
Bode, VV., 425. 
Bodenhausen, E. Frh., 402. 
Boecking, K, 352. 
Bohm, G. v., 360, 490. 
Bohm, K., 406. 
Bohn, M. v., 434. 
Bongart, L. Frh., 231, 384. 
Book-Curse, 48. 
^ouvier, F. L., 258. 
Bovet, A., 366. 
Hozen, Dominicans, 310. 

Franciscans, 310, 322. 

Brandenburg, H., front., 94, 

96, 281. 
Brassicanus, J. A., 142. 
Braun, H., 270, 272. 

O., 408. 

Breitbach, 403. 

Brendel von Hohenburg, 1)., 

314, 315- 
Brentano, F. J. P"., 240, 241. 

Mezzegra, J., 266. 

Tremezzo, O. v., 422. 

Breslau, Capuchins, 311. 

Dominicans, 310. 

Franciscans, 310. 

Mary Magdalene, 317. 

Matthias-Stift, 317. 

Nunneries, 308. ' 

Bretfeld, A. v., 266. 

Brettauer, V. and L., 420, 434, 


Breu, J. S., 264. 

Breuner, M. L. Ct ,65,66, 229. 
Brittan, M. B., 416. 
Brixen, 320. 
Brockhaus, M., 426. 
Brockmann, A., 436. 
Brodmann, N., 408. 
Briickenau, 310. 
Brunegg, 422. 
Bruno, C, 132. 
Brunswick, F. A. Duke, 78. 

Orphanage, 279. 

Buchau, 289, 290, 319, 320. 
Bulow, L. F. V. H. Ct., 352. 
Bunsen, C. K. Frh., 352. 
Burckhard, J. H., 278. 
Burckhaus, Frh. v., 167. 
Burger, K., 429. 

L., .395. 

Burggrave, J. P., 276. 
Burghaus, Ct., 374. 
Busse, K., 402. 
Buxheim, 312. 
Byrgl, ])., 145. 

Camaldolites, 296. 
Cajetans, 313. 
Capuchins, 310. 
Carlander, 360. 
Carlandi, 0.> 430. 
Carlshausen, L, B.v., 406, 491. 

W. and H. and (i. v., 478. 

Carmelites, 311. 
Carthusians, 312. 
Cassel, Evang. Luth. Orphan- 
age, 254. 
Cauer, S., 407. 
Cavalli, L., 354. 
Cerroni, J. P., 264, 266. 
Chiemsee, 77, 167, 168, 282, 

292, 305- 
Children's ExL, 477, 478. 


German Book-plates 

Choice of a book-plate, 503. 
Choteck, Ct., 254. 
Chronogram, 58. 
Chylik, 278. 
Cistercians, 296. 
Claretie, J. and G., 390. 
Clauser, 254. 

Cobenzl, J. C. Ct., 200, 201. 
Cobres, J. P. v., 264, 265. 
Coler, G. S., 158. 
Collections of Exlibris in Ger- 
many, 488. 
Colloredo, K. B. Ct., 317. 
Cologne, J. K. Archbp., 334, 

K. A. Archbp., 286, 334, 


M. F. Elector, 226, 255. 

M. H. Archbp., 338. 

Coloured ExL, 10, 359. 
Competitions, 496. 
Complimentary ExL, 444. 
Constance, Hugo, Bp., 336. 

Otto, Bp., 334. 

Copper-engraving, 11, 12, 359. 
Cothenius, 258. 
Coudenhove, E. Cts., 491. 
Cracow, Jagellonian Libr. 355. 

Piarists, 313. 

Cramatzky, J. v., 413. 
Cramer-Klett, Frh., 394. 
Cranach, H. L. v., 406. 
Culm-Pelplin, 317. 
Curschmann, F. and H., 402. 
Curtius, K. W., 230, 233. 
Cushing, 392. 
Cuspinian, J., 138. 
Cyrillus and Methodius, 314. 

Dachenhausen, A. Frh., 376, 
380, 381. 

Dalberg, K. Frh., 342. 
Danckelmann, E. L. v., 27 
Danko, J., 340. 
Dated plates, 8, 58. 
Deizisau, v., 94. 
Demler, 118. 
Denecke, H., 406. 
Denich, S. 331, 334. 
Demschwam, J., 73-75, i :r^, 

Diessen, 78, 284, 304, 305. 

Die stamps, 15. 

Dietramszell, 305. 

Dillherr, 160. 

Dillingen, 320, 

Directions about the return of 

books, 44. 

Discalceati, 311. 

Dollinger, J. J. I. v., 286, 340. 

Dohme, R., 414. 

Dominicans, 308. 

Donau worth, 296. 

Donnersperg, J. v., 166. 

Donop, H. v., 383. 

Doren, A., 407. 

Dorner, B., 151, 337. 

Dornsperg, J. C. v., 192. 

Dorst, L., 349, 352. 

Double ExI., 8, 441. 

Douglas, H. S. Frh., 383. 

Douglass of Tilquhillie, 377- 

Drobner, G., 428, 429. 

Dumba, N., 431. 

Du Moulin, S. Cts., 420. 

Diirer-Hausstiftung, 372. 

Earliest dated ExL, 103. 

German ExL, 94. 

Eberbach, 297, 299. 
Eberius, G., 393. 
Ebersheimmiinster, 296, 322. 

Subject Index 


., 108. 

ical £xl., 280. 

ics, 324. 

ics and Church His- 

8, 123, 124, 336. 

H. v., 367. 


, O., 399. 

tablet, 92. 

N., 378. 

3io» 319- 

•> 439- 

n, M., 145. 

, A. v., 389, 490, 

I, 296. 

134, 286. 


\ 320. 

X 373- 
tyle, 344. 


fen, J. C. v., 177, 

; on copper, 11, 12, 

\ 13- 

. W. C. v., 134, 137. 

^V., 426, 428. 

r., 87, 420. 

I> 295- 

r., 83, 84. 
., 258( 

. H., 430. 

ns, 496. 

ournal, German, 495. 

ein, 364, 365, 495. 

Fabritz-Ehen, 118. 
Faber, J., 144. 
Falk, F., 286. 
Falkenhayn, J. Ct., 384. 
Falkiner-Nuttall, G. H., 380. 
Famous people^s ExL, 456. 
Felsing, W., 401. 
Fischart-Mentzer, J., 121. 
Fischer, E., 396. 

P., 402. 

Flesch, 408. 
Flick, J. H., 279. 
Floridan, 170, 172. 
Folkersam, A. Frh., 365. 
Forest-Smith, H. de, 368. 
Formey, J. H. S., 258, 259. 
Forrer, R., 402. 
Franke, W., 406, 407. 
Frankenberg, A. and V., 411. 
Franz, A., 340. 
Franciscans, 310. 
P'rauenberg, 310. 
Frederick, Empress, 72, 449. 

the Great, 262. 

Freemasons' Lodges, Berlin^ 

Karlsruhe, 354. 

F'rankfurt, 354. 

Frege, 279. 

P'reiburg-im-Breisgau, 320. 

P>einberg, 314. 

Freising, 320, 322. 

French Seminar)', Berlin, 84, 


Fridliinder, I)., 256. 

Friedlander, B. E. and J., 347. 

Fritzlar, 296, 317, 318. 

Frohlich, 64. 

Fiirer, 118, 158. 

Fiirer, C, 179, 184. 

Fiirstenberg, T. v., 162, 286. 


German Book-plates 

Fiirstenstein, A. Ct, 376. 
Fugger, 168. 

A. I. Ct., 338. 

M. A. Cts., 219, 220. 

Fugger-Glott, Ct., 383. 

Fuld, S., 439. 

Fulda, Benedictines, 296. 

Franciscans, 310. 

Jesuits, 314. 

Gadebusch, T. H., 232, 234. 

Gadner, J. B., 67. 

Gallisch, F. A., 266. 

Gangenrieder, B., 322, 323. 

Gars, 308. 

Garsten, 296. 

Gattel, F., 408. 

Gebhardt, B. v., 411, 412. 

Geizkofler, Z., 166. 

Geras, 284, 304. 

Geret, C. H. A., 58. 

(lerhard, E., 353. 

German Exlibris Journal, 495. 

Society, 495. 

(icsenius, (i., 354. 
(xeuder, A., 87. 

J., 82, 122. 

Ghent University, 67. 
(iiannini, F. (i. Ct., 338. 
Giesecke, H. F., 364. 
Gift Exl., 443. 
(iillmor, E., 431. 
(ileim, J. W. L., 276. 
Gliicksbrunn, Bergbibl., 223, 

Gobel, C, 166. 
Godefroy, P., 350. 
Goethe, J. A. W. v., 350, 351. 
- - J. W. v., 250, 350. 

Scholars, 460. 

W. M. v., 351. 

Goldberg, 310. 
Goldschmidt, F., 91. 
Gossenbrot-Eggenberger, R, ' 

Gottesheim, v., 144. 
Gottheiner, F., 406. 
Gottlob, 277. 
Gottsched, J. C, 86. 
Gottsched, L. A. V., 86, 253. 
Government Post Office, 402. 

Printing Office, 402,406. 

Graefe, K. A. v^ 352. 
Graumann, O., 408. 
Graveur-Verein, Beriin, 367. 
Graz, 308. 

(jreiffenclau, J. P. v., 286. 
Gremper, J., 140, 141. 
Grenser, A., 355. 
Grisebach, E., 377. 
Gritzner, M., 363. 
(irossheim, K. v., 401. 
Crrossliisewitz, 406. 
Grote, E. Frh., 364 
Grote, H., 362. 
Gudenus, H. Frh., 90, 37^'- 
(iugel, Ch. A., 54, 55, 122. 
Guichard, K. (i. v., 262. 
Gumpolzkirchcn, 317. 
(iumppenberg, H. Frh., 364- 
(Uinderode, H. M. v., 228. 
Gundlach, 1 1 7. 
Gurlitt, M., 425. 
(lUtmann, O. Ci. v., 328, 330. 
(juttenburg, H. v., 118. 
Guttmann, C, 376. 
Gwandschneider, G., 66. 
Gymnich, K. O. Frh., 22;. 


H., M. (;. B., 98. 
Haak, O., 367. 

Subject Index 


. F., 86. 
J. D., 85, 254. 
., 402. 
, Y, v., 162, 285. 

, 415- 
Cts., 374. 

nann, J., 11. 

t., 398- 
»ter, 153. 


>hanage, 70, 279. 
)luck, 317. 

;, Johanneum, 436. 

)urg, 310. 

:t., 67. 

R. Ct., 376. 
'. v., 383. 
A. Ct., 205. 
-t., 399. 
\ Ct., 317. 
. C, 273, 274. 

M., 404. 
n, O. E., 433. 
H., 272. 
n, J., 286. 
P., 426. 

A. v., 3, 88, 411. 
i^., 88, 89, 41 1. 
>. G., 130. 
, 410. 
. K.., 4^'* 

F. v., 355. 
eit, J., 55, 56. 

A., 145. 

Iteneck, J. H., 378. 
3. T. v., 362. 
VV., 431. 

Heidelberg, .Hist. Lit. Soc, 

Heideloff, K. v., 352. 

Heine, K., 413. 

Heinrichau, 299. 

Held, S., 122. 

Helfrich, 142. 

Helwich, G., 152, 153. 

Hensel, P., 410. 

Henzler, P. v., 420. 

Heraldic Exl., 193, 361. 

Heraldry, (xerman and Eng- 
lish, 16. 

Hering, W., 144. 

Hermann, H., 408. 

Herold, 72, 364. 

Hertzberg, v., 87. 

Herwarth, J. G., 162. 

Herwig, M., 417. 

Herzogenburg, 284, 308. 

Hesse, Victoria Melita of, 389. 

Heugel, 82, 162. 

Heumair, M., 151. 

Heuser, E., 398. 

Heyberger, 10 1. 

Heyl, C. v., 369, 372, 418. 

Heymel, A., 418, 419. 

Hieber, G., 286. 

Hildebrandt, A. M., 491. 

Himly, M., 422. 

Hinrichsen, S., 413, 415. 

Hinterlach, 402, 403. 

Hirsch, F. and A., 414. 

Hirth, A., 412. 

O., 389* 390, 392. 

Hirzel, 67. 

H., 408. 

Historians, 458. 

Historical Exl, 444. 

Hobsinger, G., 144, 469. 

Hochreuter, J. and G., 337. 


German Book-^plates 

H6gelw6rth, 305, 
Holscher, R., 390. 
Hormann, L., 153. 

W. L. v., 274. 

Hohenfurt, 299. 
Hohenlandenberg, H. v., 133, 

138, 336. 
Hohenlohe, J. K. Pr., 363. 

Holy Cross (Augsburg), 168, 

282, 292, 308, 331. 
Holy Cross in Wienerwald, 

Holzschuher, 186. 
V. A., 80, 83, 120, 160, 

Hollander, H. v., 258. 
Hommel, K. R, 278. 
Hopffgarten, C. J. v., 86. 
Hos, C., 76, 138. 
Hoser, 166. 

Hosson, F. v., 270, 271. 
Hoyos, G. Ct., 384. 
Hiibner, 118. 

E., 348. 

F., 348. 

H., 348, 349. 

M., 348. 

Hiilss, v., 162. 
Hiitter, E., 437. 
Hiitterott, G. M. and H., 376. 
Hugshofcn, 295. 
Humorous Exl., 484. 
Hybsmann, J. H., 168. 
Hyde, O'Kerrins, 67. 
Hyrsen, H., 151, 337. 

Icilius, Quintus, 262. 

Igler, called Knabensberg, H., 

96, 281. 
Imhoff, A., 117. 
H., 118. 

Imhoff, M. Frh., 376. 
Imhoof-Blumer, F^ 408. 
Jngolstadt, Franciscans, 310. 

Jesuits, 313. 

Library, 94. 

Innsbruck, Capuchins, 311. 
Stift und Regulhaus, 320, 

Inscriptions, 40. 

Innaos da Verdade, 367. 

Irrsee, 295. 

acquet, Ct., 67. 

aim, O., 347. 

amerai du Val, 260, 261. 

ankowich, N. M., 355. 

apanese Art, 358. 
Jeetze, S. M. C. v., 199, 300. 
Jeger, I., 144, 145. 
Jeronymites, 312 
Jesuits, 291, 313. 
Jocher, C. G., 86. 
Joerger, H., 146, 151. 
Johannes, Pastor, Augsburg, 

Johanneum, Hamburg, 436. 
Jordan, C. S, 85. 
Josefsberg, 296, 322. 
Jouvin, B., 431. 

Kabdebo, H., 91, 384. 
Kannengiesser, E., 436. 
Kapsser, S., 52-54, 145. 
Karajan, T. v., 355. 
Kaschnitz, J., 438. 
Kaufbeuern City Libr., 221, 

Keim, J , 322. 
Kellner, G., 352. 

L., 59. 

Kelner, 64. 

Subject Index 

iCcnnedy, A., 242, 243. 
K.ern-Humser, F., 247, 248. 
Kessler, 408. 
Kirch bach, F., 416. 
Kirchbirlingen, 301. 
Ivirchheim-on-Mindel, 310. 
Kirchmayer, A , 79, 81. 
"Kirmis, M., 369. 
Ivissling, H. v., 402. 
Klesel, M., 337. 
Kletke, H., 414. 
Xlettenberg, S. K. v., 86, 249. 

Klinger, H., 424, 425. 

— - , M., 425, 427. 

Klinkervogel, B., 66. 

Klosterbruck, 304. 

Knighthood-Exl., 448. 

Knoringen, J. Ae. v., 118, 
328, 329. 

Knoll, T., 153. 

Knoop, J. Frh., 418. 

Koch, (j. H. A., 231, 234. 

G. v.. 352. 

K., 403, 491. 

Kohler, J. D., 243, 244. 

R., 420. 

Kohne, B., 353. 

B. H. W., 86, 353. 

K. B. W., 87, 353. 

Konig, 79. 

Konigsberg Admiralty and 
Lie. Coll., 262, 263. 

Konigsegg, Ct., 394. 

Kollonitz, S. v., 332, 334. 

Kolocza, 320. 

Korff, Frh., 368. 

Korneuburg, 312. 

Kornfeld, A., 439. 

Kotzebue, A. v., 352. 

Krafft, v., 211. 

Krahl, E., 491. 

Krahl, K., 376. 
Kreidolf, E., 395. 
Kremsmiinster, 282, 284, 296, 

324, 491- 
Kress, 115, 120. 

Ch., 66, 68. 

Ch. F., 55. 

Ch. H., 35, 36. 

J- W., 55,«6o, 158, 159. 

VV. and C, 166, 167. 

Kreuzschule, Dresden, 353. 

Krieg von Hochfelden, G. H., 

Kronenberger, R. and H., 369. 

Kruse, A., 406. 
Kiihles, J. v., 286. 
Kuffner, M. v., 415. 
Kuhn, F., 390, 391. 

H., 286. 

Kunstgewerbe-Museum, Ber- 
lin, 364. 
Kursky, J. B., 287. 
Kurz, H., 142. 

Ladies' Exl., 479. 
Lambach, 70, 296. 
Landgreen, A., 88. 
Landscape Exl., 481, 482. 
Landsee, Frh., 173. 
Landshut, Franciscans, 310. 
Lange, C. H. O., 403. 

C. J., 192. 

Herm., 413. 

Hedwig, 416. 

Langenscheidt, K. G. F., 77, 

404, 406, 408, 491. 
I^ngwerth v. Simmern, G., 

m^ 334- 
Largest Exl., 66. 

Lask^, A., 414. 

Latour, J. v., 412. 



German Book-plates 

T^udon, Frh., 355. 
Lauff, J., 416. 
Lauhn, B. F. R., 212, 213. 
Lazius, W., 145. 
Lectures, 496. 
Ledebur, L. Frh., 362. 
Lehnemann, H. W., 83, 274. 
Lehrs, M., 434. 
I^ichtle, J., 393. 
Leidinger, J., 376. 
Leiningen, Prince, 364. 
Leiningen-Westerburg, K. E. 

Ct., 77, 88-90, 366, 378, 379, 

406, 435, 438, 490. 
M. Cts., 77, 366, 408, 

420, 436, 437. 
R. Ct., 141, 142. 

Leipzig, Buchgewerbe-Verein, 


Jesuits, 414. 

Sheriffs, 279. 

I'yp- Soc, 428. 

Lempertz, H., 346. 
Lengnich, K. B., 252. 
I^epsius, K. P., 352. 
Lerch, A., 166, 337. 
Lerchcnfeld, K. L. A. Frh., 

Lersncr, A. A., 212. 
Lessing, O., 367. 
Leszczynski, S. v., 384. 
Leubus, 299. 
Lewinsky, J., 431. 
Library-Interiors, 267. 
Lichtenfelt, H., 421. 
Liliencron, R. Frh., 412. 
Linck, S., 144. 
Lindstedt, A., 88. 
Linked Letters, 62. 
Linz, 314, 316, 317. 
Lipeho, J. Z., 144. 

Lipperheide, F. Frh., 67, 372. 
Lippmannssohn, L., 424. 
Liskirchen, J. v., 162, 164. 
Lithography, 13, 359. 
Literature, 497. 
Lobkowitz, P. Pr., 206, 207. 
Lockum, 299. 
Loffelholz, G. W. F., 235. 

H. M., 182, 186. 

Loen, J. M. v., 85, 273, 275. 
Ldschnigg, H., 431, 432. 
LOwenfeld, B. v., 187, 188. 
Luca, 304. 
Liineburg, 150. 

St. Michael, 317. 

Liistner, O., 404. 

Liitzel, 299. 

Liitzerode, L. F. A. Frh., 245, 

Lulin, A., 85. 

Lycosthenes, 144. 

Maas, M., 397. 
Martz, J. J., 82, 121, 1:2. 
Matzler, B., 134, 286. 
Magdeburg, Museum, 400. 

St. Moritz, 317. 

Magis, L. de, 279. 
Magnus-Levy, A., 439. 
Maier-Eck, J., 58, 123, 1-4* 

Mainz, Jesuits, 314. 

St. Jakob, 296, 322. 

Mallersdorf, 284, 294, 295. 

Mandl, P., 172. 

Mannheim, Jesuits, 314. 

Manzoni, J., 67. 

Maralt, F., 167. 

Marbach, J., 144, 336. 

Mariaberg, 318. 

Maria brunn, 284, 300. 

Subject Index 


iferl, 320. 
:ll, 296. 

^•, i38» 336. 
11, E. Ct., 376. 

ir, I). L., 130. 

E. Frh., 352. 

.on Mayerfels, 352, 

^^ » 55- 

burg, F. F. III., Gd. 

A., Duke, 184, 374. 

Duke, 130. 
en, 310. 

', 132. 

il Exl., 443. 
S., 397- 
^•, 413- 
i, 436. 
uis, 421. 

, 436. 

I, J. P., 144. 

t, M. Ct., 355. 

xl., 5. 


^., 435^ 479- 
^xander, 256, 257. 

L., 413- 
, 400. 

v., 261. 

C. Ct., 339. 

Exl., 465. 

r. S., 166. 

S., 66, 148, 151. 

h 311- 
rs, 310. 

, E. Ct., 383, 420. 

Exl., 356. 

photogr. methods, 13. 

Mohsen, K. W., 277. 

Monchsroth, 282, 283, 284, 
292, 298, 301. 

Monasteries, 287. 

Monks Hospitallers, 312. 

Monogram Exl., 473. 

Monse, J. W. v., 279. 

Montfort, M. T. Cts., 319, 
I Moore, T. E., 430. 
I Morawitzky, T. Ct., 242, 271. 
i Morgan, J., 422. 

Morpeth, C. H. Vet, 364. 

Moser, F. K. v., 86, 249, 250. 

Mottoes, 50. 

Mouths, F., 422, 491. 

Metz, Carmelites, 311. 

Muckenthal, E. v., 178, 184. 

Muller, G. P., 248. 

Miillenheim, H. Frh., 383. 

Miilln, 312. 

Munich, Aug. Hermits, 312. 

Calendar, 369. 

Carmelites, 311. 

Consist. Court, 318. 

Elect. Eibr., 161, 162, 175, 

176, 184, 196, 198. 

- — Franciscans, 310. 

Gregorianum, 318. 

Hof- undStaats-BibL, 76. 

Jeronymites, 312. 

Jesuits, 279, 313. 

Minimes, 311. 

St. Boniface, 284, 295. 

Theatines, 313. 

Miinster - Schwarzach, 282, 

Mumm, v., 384. 

Munt/inger, R., 98. 

Musical Exl., 481. 

Musicians' Exl., 476. 


German Book-^plates 

Myller, S., i68, 285. 

Nack, J. B., 274. 

National Gallery, Berlin, 439. 

Neresheim, 296. 

Nesselrode, M. T. and H. 

Cts., 420. 
Neubeck, J. K., 337. 
Neuberg, 300. 
Neudorf, 284, 310. 
Neuendorf, A., 416. 
Neumann, D., 402. 

R., 417, 491. 

Neurath, J. F. A. C, 83. 
Neuss, J., 216. 
Neustadt-on-Main, 296. 
Neustift, 300, 308. 
Neuzell, 300. 
New English Style, 357. 
Nicolai, C. F., 264. 
Nicolassen, J., 286. 
Niederaltaich, 38, 39, 295. 
Nikolsburg, 136, 284, 313. 
Nonnenwerth, 284, 310. 
Notaries' Signets, 485, 486. 
Nuremberg, St. Lawrence, 166, 

470, 471. 
Nunning, J. H., 338. 
Nussbaum, L., 340. 

Oberaltaich, 295. 
Oberstain, P. v., 138, 336. 
Oberwarth, E., 404. 
Oberzell, 83, 284, 301, 303. 
Ochs, S., 415. 
Ochsenhausen, 153, 296. 
Ochsenstein, H. C. v., 197, 

Oe, G. C, 277. 
Oehringen, Mun. Libr., 127, 


Oehringen, Pradikatur, 127^ 
Oelhafen, v., 156, 158. 
Oelrichs, J. G. H., 277. 
Oelze, W., 418. 
Oesterreich. See Austria. 
Oettingen, M. Ct., 132. 

Pr., 394. 

Offenburg, 284, 416. 
Ohlendorff, E. v., 436. 
Oldenbourg, R., 397. 
Oldenburg, Duchess, ^y, 

; Old German Style, 357. 

I Olenschlager, J. D. v., 276. 

; Olmiitz, 284, 308. 

Ompteda, D. H. L. v., 352. 
; Opdenhoff, H. E., 408. 

Opfermann, R., 422 

Oppenheimer, Sir C, 4'^- 

Order of St. John, 314. 

Orders, 292, 314. 
' Orlik, E., 433. 

Orngau, 127, 128. 

Osterhofen, 301. 

Osterroth, A. v., 369, 370. 

O'Swald, A., 436. 

Oswald, W., 285. 

Ovington, G. M., 430. 

Palatina Bibliotheca, 162,. 

Palatinate Hist. Soc, 72, 

Palatine, Wolfgg. Ct., 90 

1 19. 

Pannwitz, A. v., 372. 

Parey, P., 396. 

Parthey, G., 348. 

Paulani, 311. 

Pauli, C F. J. v., 209, 

Paulus- Museum, Worr 

Subject Index 


I^ernat, J. N v., 339. 
i^erusa, Ct., 79. 
I*est, Minimes, 311. 

University, 260. 

IPetersheidau, K. F. N. v., 

Peters, Mus. Libr., 425. 
Peundtner, N., 118. 
Peutinger, K., 457. 
Pfaudt, 82. 
Pfeilstiicker, F., 405. 
Pfinzing, M., 122. 

S., 55, 57, 118. 

Pfinzing-Grundlach, 66, 168, 

Pfliimer, G., 434. 
Photogravures, 359. 
Phrases of book possession, 

Piarists, 313. 
Pirckheimer, W., 104, 106, 

io9» 132, i33» 372- 
Plass, 300. 

Plessen, B. Frh., 384. 

Pollau, 308. 

Pomer, 173, 174, 181, 186. 

Pomer, H., 109-112, 116, 

Ponsgen, K., 412. 
Poets, 459. 

Pogwisch, H. Frfr., 351. 
Polling, 7 7, 284, 292, 306, 307. 
Poppelreuter, J., 400. 
Portrait-Exl., 467. 
Poschinger, L. v., 395. 
Posen, Kaiser-Wilhelni-Bibl. 

364, 406. 
Post Office, Imp., 368. 
Poulet-Malassis, A., 360. 
Prag, St. Bernhard, 320. 
Preaching Friars, 308. 

Premonstratensians, 300. 
Pre-Raphaelite movement, 

Pressburg, 308, 314. 

Preyss, A., 420. 

W. and K., 412. 

Price of ExL, 496. 

Princes' ExL, 449. 

Prittwitz, E. v., 398. 

Prussia, Prcs. Henry, 435. 

Public Libraries, 461. 

Punning ExL, 484. 

Puttkamer, A. v., 416. 

Putze, U., 393. 

Quandt, J. G. v., 352. 
Quincke, G. H., 412. 

Raess, A., 286. 
Raich, J. M., 286. 
Raigern, 59, 70, 278, 296. 
Raitenhaslach, 299. 
Ranpeck, B., 166. 
Ras of Koester, 94. 
Rasor, A., 409, 410. 
Rastatt, 310. 

Ratajczak, P. N., 77, 365, 408. 
Rau, E., 434. 

O., 408. 

Rauch, A., 339. 
Rauchschnabel, E., 117. 
Raumer, G. W. v., 352. 
Ravoth, M., 365. 
Rebdorf, 307. 
Regular Canons, 304. 
Regensburg, Carmelites, 311. 
Dominicans, 283, 309, 

Emmeram, 284, 295. 

Franciscans, 310. 

Rehlinger, W., 54. 


German Book-plates 

Rehin, G., 157, 158. 
Reibelt, K. F., 190, 192. 
Reiber, F. and P., 437. 
Reichart, M., 100. 
Reinhardt, M., 279, 339. 
Reis, J., 217, 219. 
Rem, A., 147, 153. 
Renz, J. B., 172, 285. 
Resen, K., 158. 
Retberg, R. v., 90, 362. 
Rether, P. H., 166. 
Reuling, L. A., 439. 
Reun, 300. 
Reusch, 64. 
Reuss, I. C. G., 86. 

I. F., 86. 

J. J., 246, 248. 

Prince H., 380. 

Princess A., 380. 

Reyger, A. v., 162, 163. 
Rheinbaben, G. Frh., 412. 
Richter, R., 426. 
Rieder, A., 422. 

J. and K., 414. 

Ricdlin, E., 218, 219. 

Riesser, E., 414. 

Rieter, H., 122. 

Rilke, R. M., 433. 

Ring, L., 421. 

Rink, E. G., 191, 192. 

Rittershaus, 185, 186. 

Rococo, 214. 

Rosch, (t., 168. 

Rosier, K., 402. 

Roggenbach, v., 134. 

Roggenburg, 283, 301, 323. 

Rohr, 307. 

Rohrbach-Holzhausen, B. v., 

Roscher, T., 374. 

Rose, E., 436. 

Rose, F. 390. 
Rosenthal, M. and L, 414. 
Rosinus, S., iii, 284. 
Rotenhan, S. v., 113, 114. 
Roth, 301. 

J. W., 94. 

Rothenbuch, 307. 
Rott-on-Inn, 295. 
Royach, C. R. v., 287. 
Rumel, J., 151. 
Ruprecht, G., 58, 61. 

Sang, L., 411. 
Sausenstein, 300, 322. 
Saganta, J., 132. 
Sagstetter, U., 151. 
Salem, 289, 299. 
Salem, J. F. M. Ct., 220, 221. 
Salm, F. Pr., 350. 
Salus, H., 433. 
Salzburg, Elector, 354. 
St. Peter, 2qi, 296, 3:2, 


Theatins, 313. 

Salzmann, F. R., 85, 260, 27S. 
Sand, G. L., 416. 
Sartorio, G. A., 430. 
Sauber, W., 286. 
Saur, F. M., 167. 
Savigny, C. C. L. v., 83. 
Saxe-Eisenach, J. W. Duke, 

202, 203. 
Saxe-Gotha, L. 1). Duchess, 


Pr. Dom Pedro, 15. 

Saxony, K. W. Duke, 338, 33g. 

Sofia, (id. Duchess, 374- 

Sayn, 284, 302, 304. 
Schaeftlam, 284, 295, 301,321. 
Schaffgotsch, Ct., 262. 
J. A. Ct., 279. 

Subject Index 


Suharft', (t. B., 340. 
Scharno, P. J., 86. 
Schaumburg, M. v., 145. 
Scheben, Y. A. X. v., 286. 
^chedel, M., 118. 
Scheller, I. J. G., 257. 
Scheurl, 183, 186. 

A., 114. 

C, 114, 115, 122, 127. 

^cheyern, 295. 
Schiel, A., 87. 
SSchiff, 413. 
Schiffauer, J. E., 279. 

Schinz, C. S., 256. 

Schlieffen, V. Ct., 406. 

Schlogl, 303, 304. 

Schliisselberger, G., 158. 

Schmalzer, J. G., 354. 

Schmid, P. H., 286, 340, 420, 

Schmidt, E., 368. 

J., 166. 

Schmidt- Pecht, H., 390. 

Schmitzdorff, K., 402. 

Schmucker, J. L., 267. 

Schneegans, E., 439. 

Schnauss, C. F., 254. 

Schneider, F., 77, 286, 340. 

Schneltgen, P., 231. 

Schnock, M., 297. 

Schoenberg, Frh., 380. 

Schonborn, Ct., 338. 

Schoneich, K. v., 144. 

Schonfield, C, 393. 

Schonkopf, K., 250. 

Schopflin, 229, 232, 360. 

Scholtz, H., 224, 225. 

Scholz, W. v., 392. 

Schongauer Soc. Kolmar, 91. 

Schortz, 122. 

Schotteck, 417. 

Schroder, G., 184, 186. 
Schubart, M., 396. 
Schiissler, H., 418. 

M., 78, 396, 418, 491. 

Schiitz von Pfeilstadt, 228, 

Schulte vom Briihl, W., 416. 
Schulz, H., %%. 
Schwabhausen, 320. 
Schwartz, C., 402. 
Schwarzschild, M., 439. 
Schwagerl, J., 153. 
Schweigger, S., 122. 
Schweighauser, J. G., 354. 
Schwingsharlein, J. G., 122. 
Schwerin, U. Ct., 399. 
Seals, 14, 15. 
Seefried, G., 29, 30, 168. 
Seeon, 172, 284, 285, 295, 

322, 338. 
Seidel, C. I., 236. 
Seidl, G., 369. 
~ W., 143, 144. 
Seitenstetten, 284, 296, 322. 
Seitz, 151, 153. 
Seligenstadt, 296. 
Selzer, K., 420. 
Servites, 312. 
Seyler, G. A., 363, 364. 
Seyringer, J. K., 78. 
Sicherer, H. v., 420. 
Signature of engravers, 59. 
Signed plates, 7. 
Singer, H. W., 434. 
Sizes, 65. 
Smallest ExL, 68.' 
Smitmer, F. P. v., 287. 
Sobernheim, C. and L., 434. 
Souchay, P. and H., 403. 
Sovereigns* Exl., 449. 
Spemann, A., 396. 


German Book-plate. 

Spemann, W., 412. 

Spengler, L., 107, 108. 

Speyer, J., 421. 

Spiegel, J., 142. 

Spires, 320. 

Spital-on-Pyrrhn, 320. 

Spizhofer, J. A., 168. 

Spreti, S. Ct., 220. 

St. Andrew-on-Traisen, 308. 

St. Blaise, 289, 290, 295, 296. 

St. Florian, 308, 324. 

St. Lambrecht, 296. 

St. Nicholas, 284, 308. 

St. Odilia, 310, 437. 

St. Paul, 284, 296. 

St. Salvator, 301. 

St. Urban, 292. 

St. Veit, 289, 296. 

Stab, J., 106. 

Stabenau, B., 340. 

Stadtamhof, 308. 

Stamps, 15. 

Starckmann, J. G., 188. 

Statesmen, 458. 

Stauffenberg, F. Sch. Frh., 

Steiger, A. v., 422. 

Steinfeld, 304. 

Steingaden, 301. 

Steinhiiuser, R., 396. 

Stein thai, M., 400. 

Stencils, 13, 14. 

Sterneck, L. Frfr., 376, 377. 

Stiebel, H. E., 491. 

Stiger, J., 162. 

Stillfried, R. Ct., 351. 

Stockholm, 320. 

Stoeber, A., 360. 

Stol/er, C. A., 85, 86. 

Stolberg, Pr., 364. 

Stralsund, St. Nicholas, 317. 

Strassburg, Jesuits, 314. 

Mun. Art Gallery, 422. 

Straub, 117. 

Strauss, M., 391, 393,400,491. 
Strobel, A. W., 354. 
Strohl, H. G., 363. 
Stromer, 131, 132, 264. 
Strong, A. M., 431. 
Strousberg, H. B., 352. 
Stucken, £., 400^ 
Stiimcke, H., 420. 
Sulzer-Steiner, 408. 
Superexlibris, 4, 5. 
Szelepcheny, G., 1 7 2, 286, 338. 

Tannstetter, G., 124, 125, 127. 
Tauentzien, F. B. E. Ct, 349- 
Teck, Duke and Duchess, 434' 
Tegemsee, 94, 145, 172,283, 

288, 295, 322. 
Tengler, C. G., 124, 125, 127. 
Tesdorpf, O. L., 413. 
Teutonic Order, 314, 316, 317' 
Theatins, 313. 
Theuritz, S., 144. 
Thierhaupten, 151, 292,295, 

321, Z'^Z' 
Thimig, H., 430. 

Thomas, A., 350. 

Toebing, H., 66, 93, 94. 

Tovote, H., 401. 

Transehe, v., 368. 

Trapp, Ct., 134, 135. 

Trautson, J. L. Ct., 210. 

M. T. Cts., 211. 

Treblin, A., 286. 

Treu, C. J., 76, 262. 

M. v., 404. 

Trient, 320. 

Trier, K. W., Archbp., 338, 


Subject Index 


ins, 308. I 

). A. L. v.. 262. I 

rier, H. O. T. Frh., 

, J., 108. 
hauser, V., 144. 
1, University, 51, 54. 
E., 413. 

H., iz^, 

jhical Exl., 340, 439. i 

h, Z. K. v., 70, 269. 
•I 400. I 

1 Exl., 97, 98, 404, ! 

75- I 

)uke, 380. ! 

299» 302, 303. I 

V. P., 256, 354. j 

m, J. C. v., 145. I 

Church, 172, 320. I 

of colour and paper, 1 


design, 72. j 

engraving, 78. ! 

lames, coats of arms, ' 

iize, 69. 

y 336. 
li, N., 384. 
ayr, E., 286. 
J. M. F. v., 287. 
[mp. Libr. St. Mark, 

r, J., 166, 195, 471. 


Empress, 72, 449. 

"lerical Seminary, 320. 

spitallers, 313. ' 

ental Academy, 233, 

Vienna, Scotch Cloister, 296. 

St. Anthony, 308. 

St. Sebastian and Roche, 

Trinitarians, 308. 

Vienna in the Rossau, 312. 
Virmont, A. Ct., 202, 204. 
Visiting Cards, 485. 
Vogtherr, H., 136. 
Vok von Rosenberg, P., 4, 5, 

Volckamer, G. C, 171, 172. 
Volders, 312. 
Volkmann, L., 429. 

O. and A., 412. 

Vorau, 308. 

Wagenseil, J. C, 189. 
Wahl, C. v., 404. 
VValdsassen, 299. 
Warmholtz, 236, 484, 485. 
Warmont, A., 67. 
Warnings, 45, 46. 
Warnecke, F., 87, 361, 362, 
417, 490,491. 

K., 368. 

Warren, J. Leicester, 360. 
Wartburg, Luther Libr., 364. 
Watter, F. Frh., 87. 
Wedderkopp, M. v., 87. 
Wedel, M. v., 368. 

R., 306. 

Wegener, 436. 
Weigand, W., 426. 
Weihenstephan, 284,291, 295. 
Weingarten, 296. 
Weinland, E. F., 254. 

G. E., 86, 253. 

Weisenau, 300, 303. 
Welfinger, A., 234, 235. 
Weller, 251. 



German Book-plates 

Weltenburg-on-Danube, 295. 

Welser, v., 122. 

Wengen, 284, 307, 308. 

Wenig, B., 420. 

Wentzel, H. H. A., 402. 

Werden, 296. 

Werdenstein, J. G. v., 55, 70, 

165, 166, 284, 337. 
Werthern, Ct., 384. 

J. F. Ct., 226, 230. 

Wessobrunn, 289, 290, 291, 

Wettenhausen, 284, 308. 

Wex, A. L., 413. 

Weyarn, 308. 

Wiblingen, 282, 296. 

Wiener-Neustadt, Ther. Mil. 

Acad., 431. 

Wiesand, S., 402. 

Wilczek, J. Ct, 492. 

Wildenroder, J., 168. 

Wilder, (i. C, 340. 

William 11., Emperor, 72, 364, 

449» 451- 
\\'ilmersdorffer, M. v., 369. 

Wimpfen, 310. 

Wimpheling, 118. 

Winterthur, Mun. Libr., 84, 


Wintzingerode, CJ. K. L. Ct., 

Wittenberg, University, 72, 

129, 130. 

Wittlinger, A., 416. 

Wittouck, K., 390. 

Witzmann, K., 153. 

Wolflcr, A., 433. 

Wormann, M., 436. 

Wohlau, 311. 

Wolbrandt, Caecilie, 48k. 
Wolckenstein, C. Frii., \l\ 
Wolde, A. and L. and G., 41& 
Wolf, F., 440. 

H., 393. 

Wolff, J., 402. 

Wolfhardt, Lycosthenes, K., 

Wolfskeel, J. C, 180, 186. 
Wolphius, Th., 98. 
Wood-engraving, 10, 359. 
Woog, M. K. C, 254. 
Woworsky, A. and H., 402- 
Wiirzburg, Carmelites, 311. 

Clerical Seminary, 320, 

Dominicans, 310. 

Franciscans, 310* 

Jesuits, 313, 341. 

Scotch cloister, 296. 

St. Stephen, 77, \\\, 29^* 


Zambaur, E. v., 438. 
Zarnckc, F., 384. 
/aufal, E., 433. 
Zell, W. v., 95, 96. 
Zettler, F. X., 395, 396, 397- 
Zeyll, J. B., 70, 71. 
Zimmermann, Jod., 320. 
Zimmern, J. O. v., 286. 
Zinzendorf, Ct., 262. 
Zinc process, 359. 
Zittaert, Beidaels dc, 355. 
Zorn, H., 438. 
Ziim Jungen, J. H., 150, 153- 

J. M., 70, 153. 

Zuologa, M., 404. 
Zur Westen, W. v., 404, 405» 
408, 492. 





i,iii:.Kb, A., 417. 

Heham, a,, 11, iib. 

Adam, 0., 397. 

— H.S., n, .14, 

t6, 117, 

Albrecht, J. I)., 


373. 374. 384- 
Behrena, K., 286, 37 

™*** rtiii i:,nue, n., 401. 

Amman, J., 11, 8j, 83, i 


W., 340, 418. 

\ngerer u. (loschl, 377. 

Behrisch, C. G. W., 


Anselm, Father, 17. 

Beil,J. L., .73. 

Anton, K., 319. 

B., J., r32. 

\rndt, W., 251. 

Belling, J, K., 195, 2 
Bel?, K., 372. 

30, 282. 

Back. J. C, 200. 

Bendemann, E., 347 


Bagge, B., 4.4. 

Bendix, 258. 

Bahre, J. G., 173. 

Benoit, A., 286. 

Balker, M., 350. 

Berger, 1)., 258. 

Balraer, A., 392, 394. 

B-, 13, 39^- 

Baluscheck. H., 401. 

Berka, J., 20a. 260, 

366, 284, 

lammes, R., 398. 


Jarlusius, G., 385, 406. 

Berndt, J. C, 220, 2 

23, 248. 

larth, F., 372, 3114. 

Berner, F., 398. 

lattenberg, Pr. 1... 435, 

Bernhard, S., 404. 

Baumgarten, M. v.. 372. 

Bernigeroth, J. M., 

12, 250, 

B., C, 134. 

251. ^76- 

iiideker, W., 435. 

Bezzd, E. C, 286. 

Beck, A., 254. 

Bieberkraut, J., 396 

Becker, A., 411. 

Biese, K., 410. 

.— K. L., 12, .84. 373 

Binder, P„ 260. 

Beer, J 

F., 247. '48. 

Birckhardl. A., 202, 

229, 284 


German Baok-^plates 

Blodau, K. K. v., 383. 
Bodenehr, G. K., 200, 282. 
Bocklin, A., 439. 
Bohland, R., 405. 
Bohm, J. G., 254, 260. 
Boss, K., 376, 384. 
Boetius, C. F., 254. 
Bouvenne, A., 434. 
Boyer, O., 413. 
Brager, A., 374. 
Breu, J., 122, 336. 
Brichet, F. R. F., 241. 
Brockes, B. H. de, 286. 
Bronsart, F. v., 383. 
Bnichholz, J. G., 277. 
Briihl, J. B., 252. 
Bruyker, H. de, 413. 
B,, T. H. v., 134, 135, 286. 
Buchholzer, F., 284. 
Billow, E. v., 437. 
Biirck, P., 385, 410. 
Biirkner, H., 347, 348, 411. 
Bukker, F. de, 259. 
Burger, Lina, 428, 430. 

Ludwig, 398. 

Burgkmair, H., 132. 
Busch, W., 417. 
Busse, R. v., 350. 

Capieux, J. S., 252. 
Carpano., R., 350. 
Caspar, J., 348. 
Caspar!, W., 385, 391. 
(]hodowiecki, D., 12, 83, 255. 
Chovin, 200. 
Christ, v., 438. 
Cissarz, J. V., 412. 
Clason, L., 404. 
Clericus, L., 349, 374. 
Closs, G. A., 372. 
Contgen, H., 12, 249. 

Contgen, H. O. and B.A., 

Cossmann, A., 431. 
Coudenhove, E. Cts., 438. 
Cranach, L., 127-129. 
Crusius, K. L., 252. 

P> 173- 

Gustos, D., II, 165, 166,284, 

J., II, 166. 

R., 166, 167. 

Cuvilli^s, F. de, 220. 

Dachau, colony, 385. 
Dachenhausen, A. Frh^ 380. 
Dardenne, 246, 254. 
Darmstadt, colony, 385. 
Dasio, M., 392. 
David, A., 377. 
Deiters, H., 374. 
Delsenbach, J. A., 245. 
Dietell, C, 202, 287. 
Diez, J., 385, 390, 392. 
Dirr, H., 173. 
Doepler, E., jr., 32, 362, 364. 

366, 399. 
Dorst, L., 349, 352. 
Drost, A., 202, 284. 
Du Bois-Reymond, L., 409. 
Dunker, B. A., 260. 
Dupuis, C, 226, 255. 
Diirer, A., 10, 11, 103, 134. 

284, 385. 
Diirer's designs, 108. 
studio or school, 109, 

115, 284. 

Eben, J. M., 224. 
Eberle, L., 173, 286. 
Ebersbcrger, J. (j., 198, 220. 
Eckmann, C, 385, 399, 400. 

ludcx of Ii)igravcrs and Designers 525 

£hmann. A., 173, 282. 
K-ichel, E., 240. 
Bisenhoit, A., 162, 286. 
Eith, K., 372. 
Engel, A., 436. 
-— E. O., 385, 398. 
firdmann, A., 373. 
firler, F, 385, 393. 
firnst, K., 286. 
Ertinger, F, 285, 
^ssvrein, J., 372. 
*;Sterle, M., 390, 391. 
^'Ve, G. W., II, 17. 

^^hr, P., 200, 275. 
J^^ldmann, H., 428, 429. 
^^ller, 200. 
^^uerbach, F. A., 258. 
^ickwirth, H., 173. 
*^idus (Hoppener, H.), 402. 
I^iedler, M., 14. 
l^'incke, H. N., 350. 
Vischer, A., 410. 

T., 398. 

Rscher-Corlin, E., 402. 
Folkersam, A. Frh., 378, 

Forster, E., 372. 

Fokke, S., 261. 

Forberg, E., 412. 

Forrer, R. (Rerroff), 437. 

Forsmann, G. A., 350. 

F^os, J. D., 258. 

F'rancis (Oppenheimer), 416. 

Franck, H., 200, 287. 

Franck, J. U., 168, 282. 

Frankenberg, A. v., 435. 

French, E. D., 491. 

Fridrich, B. G., 199, 284. 

J. A., 12, 198, 218, 219, 

240, 283. 

Fridrich, J. G., 12, 199, 221, 

246, 273, 274, 279. 
Funck, J. P., 245, 272. 

Gabler, N., 246. 

Ganz, J. P., 254. 

Gebhardt, E. v., 385,411,412. 

Gehrts, J., 412. 

Geiler, 347. 

Geisbe, I.., 377. 

Genelly, F., 349. 

Genzsch, E. F., 398. 

Gericke, S. T., 199, 200. 

J. E., 258, 259, 277. 

Geyser, C. G., 252. 
Giere, J., 349. 
Gl^ssbach, C. B., 277. 
Gleich, J., 260. 
Godecke, F., 374. 
Godsche, O. E., 348. 
Goethe, J. W. v., 250, 350. 
Gradl, M. J., 397. 
Graf, C, 258. 
Graff, K. L. T., 348, 412. 
Grassanter, F., 173, 284. 
Greiner, O., 12, 385, 426, 428, 

(irimm, R., 430. 

Grothoff, H., 374. 

(iriin, H. B., 124. 

Griiner, O., 377. 

Gube, M., 12, 372. 

Guggenheimer, M., 434. 

Gutwein, J. B., 200, 284. 

Hachenburg, A. Ct., 436. 
Hahn, E. and F. v., 258. 
Hailler, M., 172. 
Halle, S., 200, 349. 
Halm, F*., 243. 
— : — P., 15, 286, 389. 


German Book-plates 

Hammer, O., 350. 
Harnier, E. v., 372. 
Harrach, F. Ct., 398. 
Hauer, H., 158, 159. 
Haupt, G., 277. 
Hausen, E. Frh., 383. 
Haye, De la, 198. 
Hayek, H. v., 396. 
Hefner- Alteneck, J. H. v., 

Hefner, O. T. v., 346, 362, 

Heil, G., 430. 

Heinleth, J., 198. 

Heisig, F. K., 241. 

Heling, H., 369. 

Hempels, K., 259. 

Hengeler, A., 393. 

Hennig, Th., 67, 378. 

Henry- Andr^, 378. 

Herr, J. L., 228. 

Herwegen, P., 284. 

Hess, A., 286, 340. 

Heumann, G. I)., 11, 195, 220, 

244, 272, 471. 

Heyden, A. v., 398. 

Hildebrandt, A. M., 32, 362, 

2,^2,^ 365* 465- 

J. J., 435. 

Hille, K. G. v., 258. 
Hirsch, 377. 

— — E., 399- 
Hirschvogel, A., 138. 

Hirzel, H., 385, 407. 

Hittinger, M. U., 284. 

Hlavdcek, K., 434. 

Hoeger, A., 259, 277. 

Hoppener, H. (Fidus), 402. 

Hermann, C. F. v., 221, 222, 

246, 274. 

Hogetop, G., 374. 

Hohlwein, L., 398. 
Holbein, H., 130. 
Holdenrieder, J. G., 200, 286. 
Holtzmann, K. F., 254, 347. 
Homann, J- B., 173, 272. 
Honegger, M., 428. 
Horst, E., 413. 

Hubner, J., 347-349- 
Huffner, P. H., 286. 
Hiipschmann, G., 122. 
Hiitter, E., 437. 
Hupp, O., 286, 369, 370, 

Hyrtl, J., 350. 

Ichey, J., 377. 

Jacoby, M., 408. 
Jantzen, H., 372. 
Jauner, H., 376. 
Jezl, J., 173. 
Jugend, Munich, 385. 
Jungwirth, F. X., 198, 284, 

Junker, 260. 

I Kaiser, A., 431. 
Kandel, D., 134. 
Kannengiesser, A. H., 436. 
Katzler, V., 376. 
Kauffer, M., 241. 
Kaupertz, J. V., 229. 
Kellner, G., 420. 

H., 396. 

Khnopff, F., 434. 

Khol, A., II, 168, 169, 182. 

Kilian, G. C., 198, 240. 

L., II, 167, 282. 

P. A., 195. 

W., II, 168, 282, 285. 

VV. P., 262, 263. 

Index of Engravers and Designers 527 

Kimsch, E., 373. 
Kinnc, E., 258. 
Kirchner, E. V. K., 380. 
J^issel, C, 286, 422, 424. 
Klauber, J. S. or J. B., 195, 

270, 282. 
^leemann, O., 380. 
^linger, M., 12, 385, 422, 424- 

^^ipphahn, J., 379. 
^Horr und Hirth, 398. 
*fohler, O., 14. 
^oler, G., 173. 
^onig, H., 417. 
^Oppel, J. (;, 248. 
*^orner, B., 378. 
"■^^ — C, 228. 
Kohl, K., 350. 
Koller, J. J., 248. 
Kopp, H.', 414. 
Krahl, E., 32, 374, 375. 
Kraszewska, O. Cts., 395. 
Kraus, J. U., 269. 
-Kreidolf, E., 395. 
Kronenberger, H., 398. 
Kriiger, I)., 171, 172. 

E. G., 254. 

J. K., 258. 

Kiiffner, P., 173, 200. 
Kiihn, L., 372, 418. 
Kiisel, M., 173, 284. 
KiitncT, S. G., 261. 

I^mbotte, C, 377. 
Laniinit, 241. 
I^mm, A., 369. 
Landnitz, J., 286. 
I^ng, M., 172, 286. 
I^j)orteric, F. X., 200. 
I^ Rosee, A. Ct., 242, 243, 

I^utensack, H. S., 138. 
Lechter, M., 385, 401. 
Le Clerc, S., 173, 261. 
Lemmen, G., 434. 
Lespier, J. de, 173. 
Lichtensteger, G., 198, 220. 
Liebe, C. (i. A., 252. 
Liebmann, A., 401. 
Liesen, E., 403. 
Lilien, E. M., 404. 
Lindheimer, O., 373. 
Lindnitz, J., 173. 
Lippert, A., 413. 
Lodeman, H., 396. 
Ix)ffelholz, E. Frh., 347, 369. 
Lowe, M. S., 258. 
Lowenfeld, J. v., 380. 
Lohrenz, J. E., 350. 
Lohrmann, F. A., 200. 
Luthmer, F., 415. 

Maag, J. N., 198, 220, 221, 

242, 284. 
Maassen, P., 200. 
Machi, H., 431. 
Maess, J. C, 408. 
Mair, Alexander, 168. 
Malbeste, (}. or M., 350. 
Manasser, 173. 
Mandhoff, G. F., 200. 
Mannfeld, B., 414. 
Mansfelt, A., 202. 
Marianus, J., 259, 350. 
Maur, A., 284. 
May, A., 395. 
Meil, J. H., 223, 224. 
J. W., 12, 256, 257, 

Mettelj, 255. 

Mettenleitner, J. M., 242. 
Meyer, A., 202. 


Gertnan Book-plates 

Meyer, E. L., 380, 381, 385, 

435» 479- 
F., 284. 

H., 400. 

Mielke, R., 369. 

Moglich, A. L., 198^ 245. 

Mori, J., 195, 284, 285. 

Mohrbutter, A., 413. 

Montalegre, J. v., 248, 273. 

Miiller, J. G. v., 12, 248. 

J. Jm 277. 

M. S. S., 283. 

Munich, Kunst im Hand- 

werk, 385. 
Myrbach, F. Frh., 431. 

Nahde, H., 369, 383. 
Nathe, C, 259, 350. 
Necker, L. G., 248. 
Nestler, K. G., 224, 254, 

Neubauer, F. L., 248. 

— N-, 350- 
Nicolai, A., 202, 287. 

Niedermeyer, F. A., 347. 

Nilson, J. E., 12, 215-217. 

Noder, O. G., 258. 

Ochs, K., 414. 
Oehring, R., 372. 
Oertzcn, A. v., 378. 
Oldenburg, F. v., 438. 
Opel, P., 70. 
Oppenheimer, F., 416. 
Orlik, E., 385, 432, 433. 
Osenbriigg, B., 383. 
Osterlander, 274. 
O'Swald, T., 436. 
Otto, G, 284, 366. 

J- S., 349. 

R., 366. 

Pacher, A., 395, 396. 
Panitz, B., 422. 
Pankok, B., 385, 391, 393. 
Passe, C. V. d., 162, 164. 
Pauluzzi, D., 431, 432. 
Petrarca, J., 229. 
Pfann, J., 166, 182. 
Pfautz, C. A., 240. 
Philippin, J. D., 253, 276. 
Picart, B., 202. 
Pilsen, F., 202. 
Pingelin, G. F., 200. 
Pintz, J. G., 198, 220. 
Pocci, F. Ct., 347. 
Pock, M., 258. 
Polak, M. T., 202. 
Ponheimer, K., 260, 
Porsche, C, 396. 
Praun, S. F. v., 380. 
Prechler, J. A., 202, 287. 
Protzen, O., 404. 
Przibram, H., 438. 

Riinicke, M., 405. 
Rausch, 259. 

L., 350. 

Rauscher, L., 340. 
Rauschmeyer, J. P. P., 8 

Reiber, P., 437. 
Reichlin, I. v., 379, 435, 
Reinitz, M., 397. 
Reinhardt, A., 200, 223. 
Rentz, M., 243. 
Rerroff (Forrer, R.), 437. 
Resch, 284, 

Rettberg, R. v., 362, 379. 
Reusch, G. S., 220. 
Reusmann, 228. 
R., n., 138, 139. 
Rheude, L. M., 372. 

Index of Engravers and Des/gz/ers 529 

Richter, A. L., 347. 
Rickelt, K., 371, 372. 
Rickers, H., 286, 
Ricketts, E. B., 438. 
Ridinger, J. E., 11, 241. 
Rieth, P., 385, 396. 
Rietschel, G., 402. 
Ringel, J., 354. 
Rocque, B. de la, 228. 
Rbderstein, O., 414. 
Rohlinger, K., 417. 
Rossler, M., 197, 198. 
Roger, B., 202. 
Roick, O., 368. 
Rommel, T. v., 380. 
Rosmasler, F., 200, 350 
•Rosner, K., 435. 
Rota, M., 134, 137. 

Saal, J., 258. 

Sadeler, E., 11, 162, 163. 

J., II, 162, 285. 

R., II, 161, 162. 

Saldorfer, K., 122. 
Salver, J. A., 286. 
Sandrart, J. v., 168, 170. 
Sartorio, G. A., 430. 
Sattler, J., 385, 401. 
Sauber, J., 369. 
Save, G., 434. 
Schafer, E., 410. 
Schaufelin, H., 132, 138. 
Schaur, F., 284. 
Schellenberg, J. R., 256. 
Schennis, F. v., 400. 
Schindler, A. J., 200, 284. 
Schleich, J. K., 243. 
Schleuen, J. F. and J. D., 276. 
Schmidt-Pecht, H., 372. 
Schmischeck, J. C, 172, 284, 

Schmitmer, F. L., 287. 
Schmoll von Eisenwerth, K., 

Schmuzer, J. A., 200, 260, 284. 

Schnapper, J. J., 249. 
I Schneeweiss, K., 260. 

Schneider, G. J., 199. 
' Schnitzer, L., 173. 
, Schnulner, F. L., 202. 

Schon, A., 200, 284, 304. 

[ B., 97. 

' Schonbeck, A., 378. 

I Schonberger, K., 404, 405. 

Schonhaupt, L., 373. 

Scholcke, C., 259. 

Schramm, O., 436. 

Schreder, M., 431. 

Schulte vom Briihl, W., 284, 

Schumacher, F., 428. 

Schweickhart, J. A., 272. 

Schwerdtner, J., 376. 

Schwindrazheim, O., 14, 413. 

Scopp, J. G., 200. 

Scotin, G., 278. 

Secessions, Munich and Vi- 
enna, 385. 

Seiller, J. G., 202. 

Senarclens-Grancy, H. Frh., 

Seitz, A. and R., 389. 

Sey fried, L., 394. 

Sherborn, C. W., 11, 17, 434, 

Sibmacher, H., 1 1, 82, 83, 160. 
Silvester, R., 350. 
Simon, E., 286. 
Simpson, J. VV., 435. 
Soeckler, J. M., 196, 198, 242, 

270, 272, 279. 
Soest, Albert v., 150. 



German Book-plates 

Solis, v., II, 117, ii8. 
Sommer, M. v., 173. 
Spindler, K., 385, 422. 
Sprengel, 228. 
Springinklee, H., 114, 124, 

127, 336. 
Spyk, J. V. d., 202. 
Stahl, J. L., 245, 347. 
Standke, W., 372. 
Starcjce, C. A., 13, 414. 

G., 286, 414. 

Stassen, F., 385, 400. 

Steinberg, 259. 

Steinberger, L. M., 219, 239, 

240, 283. 
Steiner, H., 434. 
Stenglin, C. J., 172, 240, 283. 
St. Hilaire, 259, 274. 
Stern, 377, 384. 
Slimmer, C, 131, 132. 
Stock, J. M., 200, 224, 253. 
Stoer, J. W., 173, 198. 
Storcklin, J. H., 195, 283, 298. 
Stiiler-Walde, M., 404. 
Strahowsky, J. B., 200, 224, 

Strganowsky, 278. 
Striedbeck, J., 12, 172, 195, 

226, 285. 
Strohl, H. G., 32, 284, 317, 

363* 376, 377- 
Sturmband, S., 372. 

Sturn, J. C, 173. 

Sturtzkopf, W. W., 421, 423. 

Suscmihl, C, 249. 

Sunko, M., 376. 

Sysang, J. C, 225, 254. 

Tanje, P., 261. 
Taubert, M., 383. 
Teske, K.., 374. 

Tezel, J. B., 173. 
Theissinger, G., 373. 
Thelot, E. K. G., 242. 

J. G., 240, 241. 

Theyer and Hardtmuth, 377. 
Thiele, R., 434. 
Thierry, C. E., 378, 434- 
Thiersch, F. v., 412. 
Thoma, H., 14, 385, 40!K 

Tischbein, J. H., 254. 
Toche-Mittler, 378, 384. 
Torggler, H., 397. 
Tragy, O., 398. 
Traiteur, G. v., 224. 
Troschel, H., 11, 158, 182. 
Twickel, M. Freiin, 380. 
Tyroff, H. J., 271. 

J. D., 198, 284. 

M., 12, 198, 220, 235, 

243, 244, 271. 

Ubbelohde, O., 385, 389. 
Ulrich, H., 11, 156-158,182. 
Unger, W., 12, 430. 
Urlaub, G. v., 372. 

Varges, H., 399. 
Velden, v. d., A,, 373. 
Verelst, E., 242. 
Vcrsel, A., 414. 
Vinkeles, R., 202. 
V^inycomb, J., 17. 
' Vogcler, H., 12, 385, 417, 4i^S 

' 419- 

I Vogtherr, H., 134, 136. 

: Voigt, M., 347. 

1 P., 368, 385, 402, 403. 

I Volckart, J. F., 245. 

' Volkmann, R. v., 410. 

' Volz, W., 390. 

Index of Eiigy avers and Designers 531 

Vrieslander, J. J., 430. 

AVachsmann, A., 258. 
AV^achsmuth, F., 260, 278. 
VVahl, A^ v., 13, 403. 
Walter, F. X., 229. 
Walther, E., 434. 
Wanderer, F., 372. 
Weber, 259. 
Wegener, R., 436. 
Wegner, K., 414. 
Wehrbrunn, E. v., 338. 
Weinrauch, J. K., 260. 
Weis, J., 228, 232. 
Weise, G. W., 254. 

R., 396. 

Weisgerber, A., 385, 396. 
Weiss, G. F., 200. 
Weissenhahn, G. M., 243. 
Weittenhiller, M. v., 383, 438. 
Welsberg, Y, Cts., 438. 
Welte, G., 248. 
Welti, A., 390. 
Wenig, B., 286, 340, 385,420, 

Wening, J. B., 259. 
Werner, 228. 
Westphalen, H., 258. 
Weyss, B. J., 270, 271. 
Wicker, A. R., 200, 248. 
J. H., 200, 223, 248, 


VVidemann, E., 173. 
Widmann, J., 372. 
Wieland, H. B., 286, 392. 
Wierix, A., 136, 284. 
Wilder, J. C, 340, 347. 
Wille, E., 418. 

J. G., 261. 

Winckler, J. C, 200, 260. 
Wirsing, A. L., 220, 245. 
Woensam, A., 337. 
Wolbrandt, K., 416, 481. 
Wolf und Sohn, 13, 347, 398. 
Wolf, F., 440. 
Wolf, K., 372. 
Wolff, 258. 

Wolfgang, G. A., 282. 
Worpswede, colony, 385. 
Wyon, M. E., 255. 

] Zahn, A. v., 411. 
I 2^mbaur, E. v., 438. 
I Zambony, M., 404. 
\ Zell, J. M., 198, 223. 
I Zellner, E., 369, 406. 

Zick, A., 404. 
-—J. C, 245. 

Ziehme, A., 380. 

Zimmermann, J. A., 198, 242, 

Zix, B., 347. 

Ziindt, M., 11, 118. 

Zwerschina, K. J., 372. 



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